Literature and the Australian Curriculum

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ASLA XXIII Biennial Conference - Jenni Connor - Jenni discusses shifts in the Australian Curriculum: English learning area and the implications for teacher and student knowledge. Jenni will use quality literature to investigate the Literature strand of the curriculum for students at primary level and invite librarians to consider their role in enhancing student learning outcomes.

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Literature and the Australian Curriculum

  1. 1. ASLA XX111 Biennial Conference 2013 Literature and the Australian Curriculum: English Jenni Connor
  2. 2. Theory bases behind the curriculum Cultural heritage tradition – ‘aesthetic and cultural value’;‘enduring artistic merit’ Reader response tradition – ‘expanding the scope of experience’; insights into own thoughts & feelings & those of others Structuralist tradition – ‘close and detailed analysis of literary works’ Critical literacy perspectives – Literature and its context of creation & reception; evaluating the merit of the work & the ideology of its creator/s. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 2
  3. 3. English: Rationale Study of English ‘helps to create confident communicators, imaginative thinkers and informed citizens’ English ‘also helps students to engage imaginatively and creatively with literature to expand the scope of their experience’ The English curriculum ‘respects and explores the contribution of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander peoples to contemporary literature and literary heritage’ It explores and emphasises Australia’s links to Asia. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 3
  4. 4. English curriculum Aims to help students to: Engage with an increasingly complex and sophisticated range of texts Appreciate, enjoy and use the English language and develop a sense of its power to evoke feelings, convey information, form ideas and facilitate interaction Understand how SAE works in its spoken and written forms Develop skills in inquiring into the aesthetic aspects of texts and develop an informed appreciation of literature. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 4
  5. 5. The English Curriculum Strands: Language – knowing about the English language Literature – understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literature Literacy – developing an expanding repertoire of English usage Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 5
  6. 6. The three strands interconnect Language – knowledge of how the English language works contributes to capacity to engage with Literature and Literacy Literature – appreciating, responding, analysing and creating builds students’ understanding about how language can be crafted Literacy – interpreting and creating texts applies knowledge from the above strands to school and everyday purposes. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 6
  7. 7. ‘Literature’ in the English curriculum encompasses ‘Past and present texts across a range of cultural contexts that are valued for their form and style’ Narrative texts with ‘personal, social, cultural and aesthetic value and potential for enriching students’ scope of experience’ High quality Information or ‘cross-genre’ books Texts that ‘engage students in examining, evaluating and discussing in increasingly sophisticated and informed “literary” ways’. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 7
  8. 8. Literature sub-strands: Literature and context Responding to literature Examining literature Creating literature Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 8
  9. 9. Tracking expectations through the primary years : The literature strand of the curriculum expects: Students to move from simple/complex; familiar/unfamiliar; recognise & understand some/most/many; describe/explain/analyse/provide evidence From literal, to non-literal interpretation, including implied meanings Increasingly sophisticated response from ‘personal preferences’/listen to the opinions of others/reflect on own opinions/challenge opinions of others From ‘identify & describe’ how an author achieves their effects’ to ‘critique & compare’& justify interpretations from the text. (All Year Level descriptions in this talk relate to the Literature Strand.) Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 9
  10. 10. Foundation Content Description Literature & context – Recognise that texts are created by authors who share experiences that may be similar to students’ own experiences Responding – Respond to texts, identifying favourite stories, authors and illustrators; share feelings & thoughts about characters and events Examining – Identify some features and retell events - Identify some characteristic features e.g. beginnings & endings and patterns of traditional tales and rhyme in poetry - - Replicate the rhythms and sound patterns in stories, rhymes, songs and poems Creating - Retell familiar stories through performance, illustration and images (e.g. using ICT). Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 10
  11. 11. Foundation -Year level emphases Engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment Listen, read and view texts in which the primary purpose is to entertain...& some designed to inform Texts encompass traditional oral texts, picture books, rhyming verse, non-fiction, film and multimodal texts Literary texts ‘support and extend Foundation students as beginner readers’ with high levels of predictability Texts selected use a small range of language features, familiar vocabulary and illustrations that strongly support the word text. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 11
  12. 12. FoundationYear Achievement Standard - By the end of the year: Students use predicting and questioning strategies to make meaning of texts Recall one or two events from texts with familiar topics Understand that there are different types of texts and that these have related characteristics Identify connections between texts and their own experience. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 12
  13. 13. Year 1 Content description Context – discuss how authors create characters using language and images Responding – discuss characters & events, make personal connections, express opinions & listen to opinions of others Examining – discuss features of plot, character and setting, explore those in different texts Creating – recreate texts imaginatively. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 13
  14. 14. Year 1 –Year level emphases Engage in a variety of texts for enjoyment Listen, read, view and interpret spoken, written & multimodal texts designed to entertain & inform Encompass traditional oral texts including Aboriginal stories, picture books, verse, non- fiction, film, drama Literary texts are chosen – with straightforward sequences & recognisable realistic or imaginary characters Texts selected use a small range of language features, some unfamiliar vocab & high frequency words that may need to be decoded phonically Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 14
  15. 15. Year 1 Achievement standard – By the end of Year 1: Students listen to, read and view texts, recognising different purposes; use knowledge of text structure, letters, words, sentences & directionality to read short texts Retell the main ideas in logical sequence Understand literal & some inferred meanings Accurately recall some key ideas Display sustained interest in longer texts listened to and viewed. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 15
  16. 16. Year 2 Content description Context – Discuss how depictions of characters reflect the contexts in which they were created Responding - Compare opinions about characters, events and settings within and between texts - Identify aspects of texts that entertain & give reasons for personal preferences - Examining – Discuss characters & settings & explore how language is used to present them in different ways - Experiment with sound and word patterns in poems, chants, rhymes & songs’ Creating – events & characters using different media that develop on key events and characters. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 16
  17. 17. Year 2 –Year level emphases Engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment Listen to, read, view & interpret spoken, written & multimodal texts designed to entertain, inform or persuade Encompass traditional oral texts, picture books, print & digital stories, simple chapter books, verse, drama & texts used as models for constructing their own work Texts selected support & extend students as independent readers & involve a sequence of events that span several pages & present unusual happenings within a framework of familiar experiences Texts use language features such as varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocab, a number of words that need to be decoded phonetically, a range of punctuation conventions & illustrations & diagrams that support & extend the printed text. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 17
  18. 18. Year 2 Achievement standard – By the end of Year 2: Students understand how similar texts share characteristics & (begin to)identify text structures & language features used to describe characters, events & settings Identify literal & implied meaning Explain their preferences for texts & aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons Create texts showing how images support the meaning of a text. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 18
  19. 19. Year 3 Content description Context – discuss texts in which characters, events & settings are portrayed in different ways & speculate on authors’ reasons Responding – draw connections between personal experiences & the worlds of texts & share responses Examining – discuss how language is used to describe settings & explore how settings shape events & influence the mood of the narrative; discuss some language devices that shape reader reaction Creating – create imaginative texts using visual features, e.g. perspective, distance & angle. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 19
  20. 20. Year 3 -Year level emphases Engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment Listen to, read, view & interpret texts whose primary purpose is to entertain, as well as texts designed to inform and persuade Encompass traditional oral texts, picture books, print & digital texts, simple chapter books, poetry, non-fiction film Literary texts – which describe complex sequences of events & involve unusual happenings within a framework of familiar experiences Informative texts present new topics being studied in other areas of the curriculum These texts use complex language features, including varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocab, a significant number of high frequency sight words and words that need to be decoded phonically & a range of punctuation conventions, illustrations & diagrams (a big move fromYear 2 into info texts). Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 20
  21. 21. Year 3 Achievement standard – By the end of Year 3: Students listen to, read & view texts, identifying their different purposes; use self-correcting strategies to clarify meaning...with an increasing range of text types Retrieve literal information & can make appropriate inferences Explain ideas, events & actions, referring closely to selected detail Recognise the representation of characters, settings & events & start to evaluate point of view Make relevant connections between visual & written elements in multimodal texts. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 21
  22. 22. Year 4 Content description Context - make connections between the ways different authors present similar storylines, ideas & relationships (inter- text comparisons) Responding – discuss literary experiences with others, sharing responses & expressing a point of view - use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures & language features of literary texts Examining – Discuss how authors & illustrators make stories exciting, moving & absorbing & hold readers’ interest –e.g. through character development & plot tension - understand, interpret & experiment with devices & word play e.g. spoonerisms, puns etc. Creating – texts that explore students’ own experiences & imagining, developing storylines, characters & settings. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 22
  23. 23. Year 4 -Year level emphases Listen to, read, view & interpret ...texts in which the primary purpose is aesthetic, as well as texts designed to inform & persuade (no change) Encompass traditional tales, picture books, chapter books, verse, non- fiction, drama & those used as models for own creation (no change from Year 3) Australian literature, from the traditions of ATSI & classic & contemporary world literature, including texts from & about Asia (no change) Literature that assumes students are independent readers & which describe ‘complex series of events & involve unusual happenings’ (no change) Informative texts that use complex language features, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a variety of punctuation conventions & illustrations & diagrams that support & extend the printed text (no change) Students create imaginative, informative & persuasive types of texts including narratives, procedures, performances, reports, reviews, poetry & expositions (an expanding range of forms). Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 23
  24. 24. Year 4 Achievement standard – By the end of Year 4: Students understand that texts have different structures depending on purpose and audience Explain how language features, images & vocabulary are used to engage audiences Describe literal & implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts Express preferences & respond to others’ viewpoints Create texts that show how images & detail can be used to extend key ideas. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 24
  25. 25. Year 5 Content description Context – Identify aspects of literary texts that convey details about social, cultural and historical contexts Responding – present a point of view about particular literary texts using appropriate metalanguage and reflecting on the viewpoints of others Use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures & language features on particular audiences Examining – Recognise that ideas in literary texts can be conveyed from different viewpoints, which can lead to different kinds of interpretations and responses Understand, interpret and experiment with sound devices and imagery, including simile, metaphor and personification in narratives, shape poetry, songs, anthems and odes Create literary texts using realistic and fantasy settings and characters that draw on the worlds represented in texts students have experienced Create literary texts that experiment with structures, ideas and stylistic features of selected authors. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 25
  26. 26. Year 5-Year level emphases Listen to, read, view, interpret and evaluate texts in which the primary purpose is aesthetic, as well as texts designed to inform & persuade, including media texts e.g. Newspapers, film and digital texts, junior and early adolescent novels, poetry, non-fiction and drama Text encompass Australian literature, including the oral narrative traditions of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander peoples, as well as classic and contemporary world literature, including texts from and about Asia Literature that assumes students are independent readers & which describe complex sequences, a range of non-stereotypical characters and elaborated events, including flashbacks and shifts in time Informative texts supply technical and content information about a wide range of topics and with text structures and language features calling for student navigation of unfamiliar technical vocabulary, figurative language and information presented in various types of graphics Students create imaginative, informative & persuasive types of texts including narratives, procedures, performances, reports, reviews, explanations and discussions (an expanding range of forms). Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 26
  27. 27. Year 5 Achievement standard – By the end of Year 5: Students explain how text structures assist in understanding the text & how language features, images and vocabulary influence interpretations of characters, settings and events Analyse and explain literal and implied information and describe how events, characters and settings are depicted. They explain their own responses to them Develop and explain a point of view about a text, selecting ideas, information and images from a range of sources Create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. Make presentations and contribute actively to discussions, taking into account other perspectives. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 27
  28. 28. Year 6 –Year level emphases Context – make connections between own experiences & those of characters & events drawn from different historical, social & cultural contexts Responding - analyse & evaluate similarities & differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots - explain how choices in language modality, emphasis, repetition & metaphor influence personal response Examining – Identify, describe & discuss similarities & differences between texts & evaluate characteristics that define an author’s individual style - Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery & language patterns in narratives & poetry Create literary texts in innovative ways, for example using imagery .... Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 28
  29. 29. Year 6 Achievement Standard – By the end of Year 6: Students analyse and explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used by different authors to represent ideas, characters and events. Compare and analyse information in different texts, explaining literal and implied meaning. Select and use evidence from a text to explain their response to it. Listen to discussions, clarifying content and challenging others’ ideas. Show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. Create detailed texts, elaborating on key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 29
  30. 30. In summary the curriculum expects: Students to move from simple/complex; familiar/unfamiliar; recognise & understand ‘some’/most/many; describe/explain/analyse/evidence From literal, to non-literal interpretation, including implied meanings Increasingly sophisticated from ‘personal preferences’/listen to the opinions of others/reflect on own opinions From ‘identify & describe’ how an author achieves their effects’ to ‘critique & compare’& ‘justify’ interpretations from the text From ‘create’ to ‘combine multimodal features in innovative ways’. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 30
  31. 31. Our role in enhancing student learning in English: Know the texts and how to access them Understand the literary qualities and challenges in particular texts Know students, what they bring and what they need to know Know the General Capabilities, the Cross-curriculum priorities and see connections between areas of the curriculum. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 31
  32. 32. General capabilities & English: Literacy – applying knowledge and skills to everyday purposes across the curriculum ICT – Using ICTs to investigate & create around literary texts Critical and creative thinking – heightened through literary analysis and creation Personal and social capability – learning to understand themselves and others Ethical behaviour – through a study of the issues and dilemmas present in texts Intercultural understanding – dealing with texts from diverse cultural perspectives & questioning cultural beliefs, assumptions and stereotypes. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 32
  33. 33. Cross-curriculum priorities Students develop an appreciation of the literature of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples & respectful critical understandings of the social, historical and cultural contexts associated with the use of language and textual features Appreciate the range of traditional and contemporary texts about the peoples and countries of Asia Interrogate a range of texts to shape their own decision-making in relation to sustainability issues and actions. Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 33
  34. 34. A trial run: What is this book about? How do you feel about it? (responding) Do you know any similar texts or ones on similar themes? (connecting) Which features strike you as interesting? (examining) Can you describe any similarities and differences? (comparing) How would you evaluate the effectiveness of the author/illustrator’s choices in words, imagery, images? (critical analysis) What ‘mark out of ten’ would you give this book & why? (criteria for evaluation) Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 34
  35. 35. Looking at books with these expectations in mind: Who is this for? What would you do with it? What would you draw attention to at different year levels? How would you mediate the experience of the text? How would this text contribute to student learning in English? - How does this book contribute to learning in the Literature strand? In the Language strand? In the Literacy strand? Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 35
  36. 36. Looking at books: How might this text contribute to learning in the General capabilities? How might you ‘use’ the book to develop those capabilities? How might this text contribute to Cross- curriculum priorities? How does it connect between areas of the curriculum? How might you use it to develop understandings & sensibilities for English and for life? Jenni Connor ASLA Sept 2013 36

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