Definition Of Environmental Pollution:
Environmental pollution is the contamination of the physical and
biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent
that normal environmental processes are adversely
Types Of Environmental Pollution
There are three major types of environmental pollution:
•Soil pollution (contamination)
Air pollution is the introduction into
the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate
matter, or biological materials that cause
discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other
living organisms such as food crops, or damage the
natural environment or built environment .
Smoke from chimneys, automobile exhaust, burning of
fossil fuels and forest fires result in air pollution
Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur
dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
and airborne particles, with radioactive pollutants
probably among the most destructive ones (specifically
when produced by nuclear explosions).
Due to increase in the volume of these gases in
atmosphere the ozone layer is depleting because of
which the ultraviolet rays of sun are reaching us and
causing damage to our skin, eyes and other organs.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water
pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or
indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to
remove harmful compounds.
The main sources of water pollution are1. Effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste
treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying
quality directly into urban water supplies.
2. Oil spills.
3. In villages people have baths in the river, they wash
their clothes and utensils there because of which
the river water gets polluted.
4. In holy rivers like Ganga people have baths. They
also immerse the dead bodies in the river because
of which the water gets severely polluted.
5. In cities the people throw food wrappers and other
wastes in the water bodies which pollutes the
water. This is the reason why Mumbai’s Mithi river is
Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill
POLLUTION OF RIVERS
BATH IN RIVER
Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence
of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in
the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial
activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste.
The most common chemicals involved are
petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
(such as naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene),solvents,
pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is
correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of
Soil contamination can be caused by:
Corrosion of underground storage
tanks (including piping used to transmit the
Application of pesticides and fertilizers
Oil and fuel dumping
Disposal of coal ash
Leaching from landfills
Direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil
Drainage of contaminated surface water into the
Mining coal pollutes the environment
Coal Ash pollutes the forests
EFFECTS OF POLLUTION
Air Pollution- Air pollution has serious effects on environment as well as human
health. They are:
Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric
acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides
released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned.
Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the air. Haze
obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see.
Effects on wildlife. Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on soils or surface
waters, can impact wildlife in a number of ways. Like humans, animals can
experience health problems if they are exposed to sufficient concentrations of
air toxics over time. Respiratory problems, reduced lung functioning are certain
problems which can occur in the people.
Ozone depletion- This is a layer present in the atmosphere which protects us
from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun which can cause skin cancer. But
due to the air pollutants this layer is getting depleted.
These gases also cause the Green house effect and Global warming.
The air pollutants also cause diseases in humans like lung
cancer, asthma, Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat, Disruption of
endocrine, reproductive and immune systems and other respiratory
2. Water Pollution- Its effects are as follows:i. Water bodies like lakes and rivers are polluted
which results in the death of marine animals like
fishes, turtles, whales, dolphins etc.
ii. Oil spills not only harm marine animals but they
also affect precipitation rate.
iii. If the polluted water is consumed by humans
then water-borne diseases like typhoid, cholera,
A oil spill affected Duck
iv. When the pesticides after surface runoff reach
the lakes, they lead to the growth of algae which
after sometime covers the whole lake and due
to lack of oxygen the animals die.
3. Soil Pollution- Its effects are:i. The waste from landfill leaches and causes
contaminates the groundwater.
ii. Certain animals like cows eat waste like plastic bags
iii. It emits foul odour and becomes breeding ground for
iv. The waste on a landfill reduces the fertility of the soil.
v. Pesticides, benzene, chromium and weed killers
sprayed on the field are carcinogens which have been
established to lead to all kinds of cancer. Long-term
benzene exposure is responsible for irregular
menstrual cycles in women, leukemia and anemia.