Scope : The opportunities or possibilities for doing something. Trend : A general direction in which something is developing or Changing. Autonomy : Freedom of action. Accountability : Responsible for ones actions and expected to explain them
Delegate : A person sent to represent others Competence : The quality of being competent. Holistic : Treating the whole person rather than just the symptoms of Diseases
Healing methods : Methods may incorporate or base themselves on traditional medicine, folk knowledge, spiritual beliefs, or newly conceived approaches to healing Ayurveda : Hinduism an ancient medical treatise on the art of healing and prolonging life, sometimes regarded as a fifth Veda
Siddha : Sanskrit means "one who is accomplished" and refers to perfected masters who, according to Hindu belief Unani : It traditionally makes use of a variety of techniques including diet, herbal treatments, manipulative therapies, and surgery
Homeopathy :it is a holistic system of treatment that originated in the late eighteenth century. The name homeopathy is derived from two Greek words that mean "like disease. Naturopathy : Medicine, is a form of alternative medicine based on a belief in vitalism, which posits that a special energy called vital energy
Acupunture : Acupuncture is one of the main forms of treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. It involves the use of sharp, thin needles that are inserted in the body at very specific points Biofeedback : By watching biological measurements, one can learn how to alter functions of body by relaxing or holding pleasant images in mind. Imagery :the formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of such images collectively:
Relaxation : relief from bodily or mental work, effort, stress Hypnosis : an artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion. Detoxication : a period of medical treatment, usually including counseling, during which a person is helped to overcome physical and psychological dependence on alcohol or drugs
Definition:The range of practise is the range of roles, functions, responsibilities and activities which a registered nurse is educated, competent and has the authority to perform
promotion and maintenance for the best quality health service for the population. Expansion of the practice must be made in the context of the definitions of nursing Expansion of practise must only be made with due consideration to legislation, national policy, local policy and guidelines. Nurse is competent to carry out the role function
Develop and maintain the competence necessary for professional practise. Expansion of the practise must be based on appropriate assessment, planning, communication and evaluation. The nurse is accountable for the decision to delegate..
In making decisions about an individual nurse‘s scope of practise, the best interest of the patient /client and the importance of promoting and maintaining the highest standards of quality in the health services should be foremost. Nursing care should be delivered in a way that respects the uniqueness and dignity of each patient regardless of culture and religion. Fundamental nursing practise is the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient/client that is based on trust, understanding, and support and serves to empower the patient/client to make life choices
Competency. Accountability and autonomy. Continuing professional development. Support for professional nursing practice. Delegation.
1. Case method: 2. Functional Nursing: 3. Team nursing: 4. Total care: 5. Primary nursing: 6. Patient focussed care: 7.Ambulatory care centres 8. Expansion of employment opportunities: 9. Nursing informatics:
10. Standardised nursing terminologies: 11. Health care informatics: 12. Evidence based practice : 13. Hospice services:
DEFINITION:complimemtary and alternative therapies are the group of diverse medical and health care systems ,practices,and products that are not generally considerd medicine
Ayurveda Siddha Unani Homeopathy Naturopathy Other complimentary therapies
Ayurveda is the ancient Indian medical science, the origin of which can be traced back to more than 5000 years. The source of Ayurveda are the vedas , the oldest available classics.. - It is only system of medicine which incorporates suggestions and remedies for both healthy and diseased people. ayurveda was dealing with the mental, physical and social well being of an individual.
According to Ayurveda every individual is made up of five elements, namely: Prithvi or earth. Apa or water. Tejas or fire. Vayu or air. Akash or space.
According to Ayurveda, health is a state of balance between the body, mind and consciousness.. Disease is a condition of disharmony in any of these factors. The root cause of imbalance, or disease, is an aggravation of 3 dosha, vata-pitta-kapha
-there are 122 undergraduate colleges in India and 24 post graduate instistutions -There are 5000 licenced pharmacies and 13 governmental assisted pharmacies which manufacturing ayurvedic drugs -ayurvedic pharmacopia committee has been set up to evolve uniform standards in preparation of drugs
Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha medicine are almost similar to ayurveda. The only difference appears to be that the siddha medicine recognizes predominance of vata, pitta and kapha in childhood, adulthood and old age respectively, whereas in ayurveda it is totally reversed: kapam is dominant in childhood, vata in old age and pitham in adults
- According to the experts, there were 18 principal siddhar Of these 18, agasthiyar is believed to be the father of siddha medicine. -Siddhars were of the concept that a healthy soul can only be developed through a healthy body. So they developed methods and medication that are believed to strengthen their physical body and thereby their souls.
Na (tongue): black in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, white in kapha, ulcerated in anaemia. Varna (colour): dark in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, pale in kapha; Svara (voice): normal in vatha, high pitched in pitha, low pitched in kapha, slurred in alcoholism. Kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitha, pale in kapha. Sparisam (touch): dry in vatha, warm in pitha, chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the body.
Mala (stool): black stools indicate vatha, yellow pitha, pale in kapha, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness. Neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish yellow excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron colour in jaundice and looks like meat washed water in renal disease. Nadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial artery
The treatment in siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven elements. Internal medicine was used through the oral route and further classified in to 32 categories based on their form, methods of preparation, shelf life, etc. External medicine includes certain forms of drugs and also certain applications like nasal, eye and ear drops and also certain procedures like leech application.it also classified in to 32 categories.
The undergraduate programme is for 5 years and PG programmes for 3 years -The standareds are maintained by central council of Indian medicine -the research in siddha medicine has been done by central council for research in ayurveda and siddha -siddha pharmacopia committee is consituted to establish standards of single and compound drugs
-Unani medicine as the name suggests, originated in greece or unan Hippocrates (460-377BC) who freed medicine from the realm of superstition and magic and gave the status of science
The fundamental principle of the unani system recognises that disease is a natural process and symptoms of a disease are bodys reaction to disease. The chief function of the physician is to aid the natural forces of the body -Unani also postulates that the body contains a self-preservative power, which strives to restore any disturbance within the limits prescribed by the constitution or state of the individual..
The unani Physician-called Hakim diagnoses a disease by feeling the Nabz(pulse) and rhythmic expansion of arteries by fingers. stool and urine examination also help in diagnosis. Four types of treatment lines are available: (1) (regimental therapy), (2) (dietotherapy), (3) (Pharmacotherapy) and (4 (Surgery).
-The regimental therapy includes procedures like venesection, cupping, Turkish bath, massage, exercise and leeching among others. These therapies involves working on specificbody reflexes, most commonly by massage. - dietotherapy involves administration of specific diets or regulation of quantity and quality of food, where as pharmacotherapy deals with administration of drugs derived from plant and mineral sources.
An early assertion that like cures like was made by Hippocrates about 400 BC, when he prescribed mandrake root, which produced mania, to treat mania, by prescribing a dose smaller than what would produce mania -Homeopathy is based on the theory of similia simbilibus currentis or let like be treated by like which means that any substance capable of producing artificial symptoms on healthy individuals can cure the same symptoms in anatural disease
1.the law of direction of cure:-The direction of cure states that during curative process the symptoms disappear in the reverse order of its apearence from downwards ie ,from more important organs to less important organs 2.the law of remedy:homeopathy generally uses only a single medicine whic has a true similarity of symptom with that of remedy 3.the law of minimum doses;the doses applied are the minimum possible ,just sufficient to correct the diseased state 4.the theory of chronic diseases :this theory states that most of the diseases are due to irregular living ,constant exposure to unhealthy situation ,emotional stress,atmospheric influences etc
Bachelor of homeopathic medicine and surgery and doctor of medicine in homeopathy are avialable now -Homeopathic pharmacopia laboratory has been set up national level .It include conducting research and preparing homeopathic pharmaceutical codex of homeopathic medicine
It, is a form of alternative medicine based on a belief in vitalism -It is based on application of simple laws of nature -The system is closely associated with ayurveda - Naturopathic practitioners are split into two groups, traditional naturopaths and naturopathic physicians. Naturopathic physicians employ the principles of naturopathy within the context of conventional medical practices.
-the treatment modalities mainly based on the regulation of eating styles,adaptation of purifactory measures ,use of hydrotherapy ,massages and variety of measures -It is a holistic system and it helps to promote physical mental social and spiritual health by self regulation of life activities on a normal and natural basis
Body tissues are manipulated to promote wellness and reduce pain and stress. Massage is the manipulation of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue to enhance function, aid in the healing process, and promote relaxation and well-being
massage has been shown to help relive muscle soreness ,pain due to back injuries and fibromyalgia and to help relieve anxiety in cancer patient. There are over eighty different recognized massage modalities. The most cited reasons for introducing massage as therapy have been client demand and perceived clinical effectiveness.[
This is an alternative system of medicine which treats ailments by insertion of needles at acupoints. To be effective a specific sensation called Quichi or Teichi should be elicited during needling
Analgesia i.e. pain-relieving effects useful in variety of painful conditions. Sedation or calming effects useful in epilepsy, insomnia & mental disease like mania & anxiety states. Homeostasis or maintaining the normal balance of the body. Immunity improvement –better immunity & protection from infection.
-Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) states that the body is made up of five hollow organs. –These are represented on the body surface according to their energy flow on ‘Meridians’. -Specific points or acupoints were charted out on these meridians.- The stimulation of these points by needles leads to a balance of energy forces and this is responsible for cure of diseases caused by imbalance of body energy.
Yogait is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India whose goal is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility.The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism Buddhism and Jainism
- The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving Moksha. In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma, In the present view ,yoga is one of the most helpful and healthy forms of experience to manage the influence of thinking by turning psychological and physical force in to spiritual energy.yoga therapy eases oneself from cramped tension
Most practices in yoga therapy are used as complimentary practices to conventional medicine .some of the se practices are exercise ,meditation and massage . According to practioners of yoga therapy it is safer and more effective for treatment of common medical problems Yoga therapy consists of three basic parts of our body which work together : -physical posture , breathing technique ,relaxation technique,
Yoga therapy shows positive results in treating depression -Deep breathing associated with yoga is beneficial incontrolling premature ventricular complexes -yoga therapy is beneficial in post treating strategy, breast cancer
-improve nerve function and lower blood sugar -In rhematoid arthritis cases yoga will increases muscle strength -It helps in weight reduction
It is quieting the mind by focusing one’s attention. A sense of oneness withself, universe and Greater Power is felt.
It is the therapeutic form of meditation. One technique of relaxation isprogressive muscle relation (PMR). The client focuses on skeletal muscles and alternatively contracts and relaxes them. Nurses in all settings can learn and teach relaxation response to clients.
-,In which people are trained to improve their health by using signals from their own bodies. In the late 1960s research showed that certain involuntary activities like brain activity, blood pressure, heart rate can be altered by tuning into our body. -
Simply put biofeedback is the technique of looking into the signals from our body, for example measuring one’s weight or temperature are simple methods of biofeedback, as both devices feedback information about the body. -Biofeedback is used in a variety of situations. It is generally used by physical therapists to help stroke victims regain movement in paralyzed muscles. Psychologists use it to help tense and anxious clients learn to relax
Clinical biofeedback techniques are widely used to treat a host of conditions. These include: Disorders of the digestive system Migraine headaches, tension headaches, and many other types of pain High blood pressure and low blood pressure Cardiac arrhythmias (abnormalities, sometimes dangerous, in the rhythm of the heartbeat) Raynauds disease (a circulatory disorder that causes uncomfortably cold hands) Epilepsy Paralysis and other movement disorders
Biofeedback demands the patients to examine their day-to-day lives and to find out if they may be contributing to their own distress They must commit themselves to practicing biofeedback or relaxation exercises every day, change bad habits and even ease up on some good ones
combined with imagery and guided suggestions induce alteredstate of consciousness (a trance). Hypnotised persons become absorbed in the images suggested by hypnotherapist and are are able tonsuspend disbelief .It can be also used to help people to change their behaviour and thus improve their health It can be also used to treat psychological symptoms also Hypnosis has been used with some success to help people to stopsmocking and lose of weight.
It is a type of thinking using one’s senses to evoke the imagination. Nurses can create guided imagery for clients who are capable of hearing and following nurse’ssuggestions of meaningfully positive, physiological images. Patent with fracture canbe shown stages of bone healing with the help of a chart/model and asked to imaginethese stages happening in his own body. Imagery can also be used for distracting theclients’ attention from pain and negative emotions, for decision making (quittingsmoking) and for altering behaviours.
MUSIC THERAPY:Music therapy is an allied health profession and one of the expressive therapies consisting of an interpersonal process in which a trained music therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients to improve or maintain their health.
Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health across various domains (e.g., cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional and affective development, behavior and social skills, and quality of life) by using music experiences (e.g., singing, songwriting, listening to and discussing music, moving to music) to achieve treatment goals and objectives
. Some commonly found practices include developmental work with individuals with special needs, songwriting and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderly, processing and relaxation work, and rhythmic entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims.
Bioelecromagnetic therapy is the application of electromagnetic feilds to treat and prevent disease and promote health Whenever current passes through a wire ,it includes a magnetic feild
Living tissue is essentially transparent to magnetic feilds .when a varying electromagnetic feild is placed close to a conductive medium such as the humanbody ,it will include electrical currents. Some of the doccumented effects of electromagnetic feilds include accelerated healing ,greater cellular energy ,vasodilation ,reduced inflammation ,muscle relaxation ,cell membrane changes ,enhanced movemens of electrolytes ,reduced stress and better mood.
Photoenergy therapy devicesemit infra red light typically ata wavlength of 880 nm .This wavelength is believed tostimulate the release of nitricoxide which will improve thevasodilation of the capillariesin the microcirculatorysystem.
Photoenergy therapy devices seem to address the underlying problem of neuropathies ,poor microcirculation ,which leads to pain and numbness in the exremities
Detoxication therapy involves the removal oftoxic substances..Our body naturally eliminates orneutralises toxins ....Firstly a brief physical checkup is made ,x-ray is taken ,urine and blood samples andsent for testing..Colonic irrigation ,fasting ,special diets,hyperthermia ,and other treatmentsnutrional suppliments are some methods ofdetoxication ...Avoid detoxication therapy for the patientshaving liver and kidney problems ,high orlow B P ,heart diseases ,epilepsy andasthmaand blood coagulation disorders
Laughing is found to lower blood pressure ,reduce stress hormones ,increase muscle flexion ,and boost immune function ,which produce disease destoying antibodies . laughter also triggers the release of endorphines ,and produces a general sense of wellbeing . participants gather in early morning for the purpose of laughing
this is the use of water ,both internally and externally in the form of baths ,packs ,copressess ,packs ,sprays it can give a remarkable result in the treatment of both acute and chronic conditions
Aromatherapy is the practice of using volatile plant oils, including essential oils for psychological and physical well-being. -Essential oils, the pure essence of a plant, have been found to provide both psychological and physical benefits when used correctly and safely. -In addition to essential oils, aromatherapy encourages the use of other complementary natural ingredients including cold pressed vegetable oils, jojoba (a liquid wax), hydrosols, herbs, milk powders, sea salts, sugars (an exfoliant), clays and muds.
• Massage: This popular method can be experienced by getting essential oils mixed in massage lotions applied directly to the skin through a massage. The application of oil on the skin improves the functioning of the immune system, and kills bacteria. The massage can create a feeling of relaxation and reduce depression by calming frayed nerves. • Olfactory: The healing fragrances of the essential oils are released by burning scented candles or by mixing bath salts in warm water. The fragrance of the essential oils can release chemicals like Serotonin, Endorphins, and Enkephalin, which induce relaxation. • Cosmetic: In this, the essential oils are applied on the body, skin and hair. The oils are often mixed with cosmetic products like bath soaps and face creams