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In a tug of war the strongest team wins.
In a tug of war the strongest team wins.
There is a single covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms in a hydrogenmolecule.
There is a single covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms in a hydrogenmolecule.
There is an identical force of attraction between the nucleus of each atom andthe shared pair of electrons.
The bonding pair of electrons is shared equally.
The situation is different when one atom is smaller than the other.
The nucleus of the smaller atom is closer to the shared pair of electrons.
There is a greater force of attraction between the nucleus of the smaller atom andthe shared pair of electrons.
The force of attraction is also unequal when one atom has a greater nuclearcharge.
The right-hand atom has a greater nuclear charge than the left-hand atom.
There is a greater force of attraction between the nucleus of this atom and theshared pair of electrons.
The relative ability of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a covalent bond iscalled its electronegativity.
Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. It pulls the shared pair ofelectrons towards itself.
This causes a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom and a partial positivecharge on the hydrogen atom.
Chlorine is more electronegative than carbon, so it gains a partial negative charge.
Carbon gains a partial positive charge. When partial charges are separated likethis, a dipole forms.
Linus Pauling’s scale is often used to show relative electronegativity values.
Fluorine is the most electronegative element. It is given an electronegativityvalue of 4.0 on Pauling’s scale.
Hydrogen has an electronegativity value of 2.2 on the scale.
Elements become less electronegative as you go down a group.
Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
Ionic bonding occurs when there are big differences in electronegativity, usuallybetween a metal and a non-metal.
Ionic bonding occurs when there are big differences in electronegativity, usuallybetween a metal and a non-metal.
Covalent bonding occurs when there are small differences in electronegativity,usually between two non-metals.
Polar bonding lies between the two extremes. A bond might be only slightly polar.
A bond might be covalent with a degree of ionic character.
It might be ionic with a degree of covalent character.
It might be ionic with a degree of covalent character.
Electronegativity and polar bonds
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Electronegativity and polar bonds

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Transcript of "Electronegativity and polar bonds"

  1. 1. In a tug of war the strongest team wins.
  2. 2. In a tug of war the strongest team wins.
  3. 3. There is a single covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms in a hydrogenmolecule.
  4. 4. There is a single covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms in a hydrogenmolecule.
  5. 5. There is an identical force of attraction between the nucleus of each atom andthe shared pair of electrons.
  6. 6. The bonding pair of electrons is shared equally.
  7. 7. The situation is different when one atom is smaller than the other.
  8. 8. The nucleus of the smaller atom is closer to the shared pair of electrons.
  9. 9. There is a greater force of attraction between the nucleus of the smaller atom andthe shared pair of electrons.
  10. 10. The force of attraction is also unequal when one atom has a greater nuclearcharge.
  11. 11. The right-hand atom has a greater nuclear charge than the left-hand atom.
  12. 12. There is a greater force of attraction between the nucleus of this atom and theshared pair of electrons.
  13. 13. The relative ability of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a covalent bond iscalled its electronegativity.
  14. 14. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. It pulls the shared pair ofelectrons towards itself.
  15. 15. This causes a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom and a partial positivecharge on the hydrogen atom.
  16. 16. Chlorine is more electronegative than carbon, so it gains a partial negative charge.
  17. 17. Carbon gains a partial positive charge. When partial charges are separated likethis, a dipole forms.
  18. 18. Linus Pauling’s scale is often used to show relative electronegativity values.
  19. 19. Fluorine is the most electronegative element. It is given an electronegativityvalue of 4.0 on Pauling’s scale.
  20. 20. Hydrogen has an electronegativity value of 2.2 on the scale.
  21. 21. Elements become less electronegative as you go down a group.
  22. 22. Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
  23. 23. Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
  24. 24. Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
  25. 25. Elements become more electronegative as you go from left to right across aperiod.
  26. 26. Ionic bonding occurs when there are big differences in electronegativity, usuallybetween a metal and a non-metal.
  27. 27. Ionic bonding occurs when there are big differences in electronegativity, usuallybetween a metal and a non-metal.
  28. 28. Covalent bonding occurs when there are small differences in electronegativity,usually between two non-metals.
  29. 29. Polar bonding lies between the two extremes. A bond might be only slightly polar.
  30. 30. A bond might be covalent with a degree of ionic character.
  31. 31. It might be ionic with a degree of covalent character.
  32. 32. It might be ionic with a degree of covalent character.

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