INTRODUCTION Bharatpur known for its world famous Keoladev National Park, Sujan Ganga and other historic monument is growing rapidly. Population growth is resulting in generation of increased quantity of solid waste. This Trend is expected to continue in near and far future also. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) affects the overall urban environment and if not managed properly. Since the city is a tourist attraction for it historic monuments, keeping its Environment clean is all the more important. Bharatpur Nagar Parishad (BNP) the local civic body, which is looking after solid waste management of the city. Solid waste management is an important issue as we know that solid waste thrown haphazardly and waste water ultimately find its way in the Sujan Ganga and several other small water bodies, which are scattered all over city. Sujan Ganga, which is a tourist attraction and which is presently in a polluted state, need full protection form all such polluting factors. Stopping entry of municipal solid waste in to lake will immensely help in its protection.
Continued…… Bio Medical waste is a great risk to health and safety of citizens. At present, there is no organized procedure for handling bio medical waste in the city. Some institutions are sending the waste to Alwar for disposal. Bharatpur shall have a full fledge system for separately handling bio medical waste. It looks like that resource and capabilities of BNP are also falling short in handling the MSW. Present Population of Bharatpur is 251056 this is expected to swell to 424629 by 2026. At present city generate 111.720 T of municipal solid waste every day, which is likely to increase to 226 T/day by 2026. BNP is required to initiate steps for community participation to make its own work in solid waste management easy and smooth. Also some organizational changes and introduction of private participation in collection and transport of waste can help BNP in effectively mange the MSW.
EXISTING SWM SYSTEM Solid Waste Management in Bharatpur is looked after by Health department of local body “Bharatpur Nagar Parishad” (BNP). Health department is headed by expert Medical officer. A small setup is in existence for looking after day to day activity of Solid Waste Management. However, available infrastructure in form of equipment, manpower and disposal site is not sufficient to meet the overall requirement of the Solid Waste Management of the city. Also, awareness in the citizens about importance of the subject is very low. As a result garbage heeps, scattered waste on the road, cattle eating plastics and other type of wastes can be seen in the town at several locations. Poor arrangement of solid waste collection, its transportation to land fill site is resulting in unhygienic conditions and spoiling aesthetics of the city. Improvement in infrastructure and changes in institutional setup are thus urgent requirements. Solid waste generation in city, existing infrastructure and institutional arrangement are discussed in subsequent sections of this report
SOLID WASTE GENERATION As per information collected from health department & transport department of BNP, which is further confirmed by field interviews of people engaged in Solid Waste Management, at present, the quantity of the solid waste generation is 116.74 MT/D at which comprises of 22.09 T of silt from open drain, 3.01 T biomedical wastes, 86.62 Tone of organic and recycle waste 5.02 T / Day. Sources of the solid waste are households, Streets, sidewalls, alleys, vacant lots, construction and demolition sites, remodeling, repairing sites, treatment plants, Parks, gardens, roadside trees, hospitals, clinics and nursing homes institutions and commercial establishments such as hotels, stores, restaurants, markets.
QUANTIFICATION OF SOLID WASTES Category T/day % of Total SWEEPING & FOLIAGE. 13.80808 11.83 Household 59.75133 51.18 Hotels and Restaurants 0.502112 0.430 Vegetable Market, Fish/meat market /Anaz Mandi 6.2764 5.38 Hospital Waste 3.012672 2.58 Industrial Waste excluding hazardous wastes 6.2764 5.38 Silt from Open drains 22.09293 18.92 Recyclable Waste 5.02112 4.30 Total 116.741 100
GARBAGE FROM HOSPITALS & NURSING HOMES:- In general, most of the nursing homes, hospitals are not following the practice of segregating. Storing, treatment and disposed as per the bio-medical waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998
RECYCLABLE SOLID WASTES
STORAGE OF SOLID WASTES For this intermediate collection following arrangement is being practiced at present There are total 253 collecting points in the City. Out of this 136 are having closed bins and 117 locations are having open dumping arrangement. Existing system of intermediate storage is not scientifically designed. There is capacity mismatch. At several locations bins are not getting fully filled while at some locations capacity is inadequate and as a results waste is found to be overflowing and getting spread in the nearby area. Distances between bins and point of generations are large.
METHOD OF TRANSPORTATION Sweepings and all other solid wastes that is collected in bins and in open hips is transported to by dumper placer, compactor, tractor-trailers to notified treatment and disposal site, which is approximately 6 km away from Bharatpur city, near Noah Village. Loading and unloading of approximately 85% of solid wastes is manual. There are only two automated vehicle, one dumper placer and one refuse compactor.
METHOD OF DISPOSAL At present, solid waste collected from the city is transported to land fill site that is located 6 km away from city Near Noah village. The site is isolated, away from habitation and provided with a boundary wall. Hazardous waste (biomedical waste & industrial) is not fully segregated at present as required by Bio-Medical Handling Rule 1998 and Hazardous waste (management & handling) Rule 1989. A compost plant is under construction at the disposal site. Presently Waste is not given any treatment and simply dumped at the site.
EXISTING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT Over all management of Solid wastes in Bharatpur is looked after by Bharatpur Nagar Parishad. Executive body headed by the Commissioner comprises of the Health Officer, Chief Sanitary Officer, Sanitary Inspectors, Jamadars and Sanitary workers. List of man power engaged in SWM work is given below CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTOR (CSI) SANITARY INSPECTOR (SI) JAMADAR PERMANENT SAFAI KARAMCHARI ON CONTRACT SAFAI KARAMCHARI 1 7 45 397 200
Carry out environmental examination of proposed sanitary landfill sites and ensure that all environmental clearances are obtained.
Determine the potential for private sector participation in waste collection, recycling, transportation and disposal.
Prepare a comprehensive Solid Waste Management Master Plan in three phases, for the 5 th year, 10 th year and 15 th year for all project ULBs.
Prepare and design packages for solid waste disposal land fill sites/dumping sites including complete mechanical/ electrical/ civil works, to workout requirement of Solid Waste collection and transportation equipment based on solid waste master plan, specifications of equipments, procurement packages complete in all respect.
Propose changes in the institutional arrangements for improving collection, transportation and disposal of solid wastes including increased private sector involvement; and
Propose suitable steps/ measures to be taken up for solid waste management in lieu of Supreme Court decision
POPULATION PROJECTION DESIGN YEAR POPULATION 2008 251056 2011 273916 2016 316911 2021 366799 2026 424629
WASTE QUANTITY FOR DIFFERENT PLAN PERIOD Plan Period Waste Generation Factor Solid Waste Qty. Solid Waste Qty Solid Waste Qty Solid Waste Qty kg/capita/d T/day Cu. M/Day T/year Cu. M/Year 2008 to 2011 0.458 125.586 295.497 45838.922 107856.288 2011 to 2016 0.482 152.710 359.318 55739.258 131151.194 2016 to 2021 0.506 185.766 437.096 67804.556 159540.132 2021 to 2026 0.532 226.024 531.821 82498.728 194114.655
PROPOSED METHODS OF PRIMARY COLLECTION OF WASTE
Collection of Road Sweepings
For Road sweeping, it is suggested that in congested areas 250 to 350 running meters may be given to each Safai Karamchari (SK). In less congested areas 400 to 600 running meter may be allotted to a sweeper. In low-density areas even 650 to 750 running meters of road length can be given a sweeper.
2. Door to Door collection
Each Waste Collector (WC) will be given a hand cart / tricycle with suitable no of 50 lit capacity bins. Each WC will be assigned a fixed area of and a fixed number (200 to 250) of houses for collection of waste. The local ward committee and municipality based on local conditions, fix the work norms, as they deem appropriate.
3 . Collection of Waste from Slums
For 50-house hold one set of bins shall be provided. Residents will be motivated to bring their waste to these bins and to dispose the same in the specific bins.
4. Collection Of Waste From Shops And Establishments
Nagar Parishad will provide storage bins of the capacity of 1M3 & 2 M3 at different places and Large commercial complexes will be provided with 4.5 M3 containers.
Biomedical waste will be collected as per the guidelines of “Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules “1998.
6. Collection Of Hotel And Restaurant Waste
Every hotel and restaurant will keep three types of bins, one for the storage of biodegradable waste, one for recyclable waste and other for hazardous wastes.
Every hotel and restaurant will make their own arrangement for the transfer of the waste material into the waste collection device i.e. Wheel barrow/ tricycle with container for collection.
Vegetable, Fruit, Meat & Fish Markets And Anaj Mandi Waste
Arrangement shall be made to collect wastes from fruit and vegetable market daily early in the morning.
Shop keepers dealing in trading meat, fish and like things shall be asked to keep close containers in their premises for collection of waste. They shall be instructed not to spread the waste in way that attracts stray animals. Waste from close container shall be given to waste collector of the area
Solid waste collected at several location in the city is required to be transported to treatment and disposal site. Guidelines of Solid Waste Management Act in respect of transportation is given below
Vehicle used for transportation of wastes shall be covered. Waste should not be visible to public nor exposed to open environment preventing their scattering. The following criteria shall be met :
The storage facilities set up by Municipal authorities shall be daily attended for cleaning of wastes.
Collection and transportation vehicles shall be so designed such that multiple handling of wastes, prior to final disposal is avoided.
Transportation system for solid waste management is designed keeping above requirement in mind
REQUIREMENT OF VEHICLES FOR DESIGN PERIOD 2011-2016 List of Bins propose by Nagar Parishad Bharatpur. Type Of Vehicles NO Trips Per Vehicle Carrying Capacity of Vehicle T Total Amount T/Day Total Carrying Capacity T/Day Total Waste Generated T/Day Compactor 3 1 7T 21 Design Period (2008-2011) + (2011-2016) = 140 T + 41 T = 181 T 152.710 Truck with hydraulic lift 2 4 5T 20 Total 41 Loader backhoe machine @15.0 1 - - - - - TYPE OF BINS NO CARRYING CAPACITY OF BIN Litter Bins (twin bin) 200 150 Lit Bins 150 1.1 Cum Bins 15 3 Cum TOTAL 365
PROCESSING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE In Indian condition it has been found that biological processing of the MSW are cost effective.
Composting is the process of bio-chemical conversion of organic matter into humus (lignoprotiens) by mesophilic and thermophilic organisms.
On the basis of the nature of composting methods are of two types:
Continued…. 1. Aerobic Composting Only biodegradable organic materials can be stabilized by composting. Properly segregated solid waste is expected to be consists of about 80-85 percent of compostable material. 2. Vermi composting In general Vermi composting consists of four main steps: Step 1 : Collection of waste; separation of metal, glass, ceramics, etc. From the organic waste; storage of the organic waste. Step 2 : Earthworm beds are maintained and the earthworms are fed with the organic waste. Step 3 : After the organic waste has been worked by the earthworms, the Vermicomposting, cocoons, earthworms and the undigested material are separated. Step 4 : Packaging of the vermicompost and reintroduction of undigested material into the vermipits. One cycle takes approximately 90 days. Thus in a year 3 cycles are possible.
‘ Bio-Medical Waste’ means any solid and/or liquid waste including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animal or in research pertaining thereto or in the production or testing thereof.
Segregating. Storing, treatment and disposal of Bio-Medical waste should be as per the Bio-Medical waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998
Create separate and independent system for biomedical waste treatment. Services of private entrepreneurs may be made use of in this matter.
LAND FILL PLANNING & DESIGN Basic Data Location of the landfill site : Noah, Bharatpur Present waste generation : 116.74 T / day Design Life : Active period = 16 years Duration of one trench : 2 years Topography : Flat land Water table : 8 m below ground surface Sub soil : Sandy silt up to 18m below ground surface, underlain by bedrock Average total rainfall : 650 mm per year Start year : 2011 Present Total solid waste generation/capita/day : 450gm/capita/day
REQUIREMENT OF LAND FILL AREA Area of land fill site as per khasra plan is 11.24 ha . This consists of three nearby locations. Location 1 – area of land fill site is approximately 7.3 ha. Location 2 – area of land fill site is approximately 3.01 ha. Location 3 – area of land fill site is approximately 0.93 ha. Office, shed, a compost plant and internal road & drains are being developed at present by Nagar Parishad, approx. 1.7 Ha. land is used in location 1. Area required for land fill is 11.34 ha. At present available area for land fill is approximately 8.31 ha. (11.24 – 1.75 = 9.51ha.). The size of land fill is insufficient to manage the system up to the design period 2026. Due to irregular shape of present land fill site as well as land not in one piece, additional land is required in addition to 11.34 ha.
Private sector participation in Solid Waste Management in the city of Bharatpur is recommended in the following areas:
Door-to-door collection of waste in residential areas, vegetable market and commercial areas.
Private sector participation should be implemented from the year 2009 in the following areas.
Door to door collection.
Transportation of waste from storage point to he disposal ground.
Composting of the biodegradable MSW.
From 2009 BNP should engage private agencies for transportation of at least 40 % of the MSW. Which will reduce the capital investment of the BNP?
SCOPE OF WORK FOR COST ESTIMATE The Scope includes construction of boundary wall, internal road, construction of one sanitary land fill trench as per drawing enclosed, street lighting and plantation along with boundary wall etc. Construction of office & Compos Plant, Construction of tube well, Construction of Weighbridge has been already constructed under the supervision of Bharatpur Municipal Council.
COST ESTIMATE S. No. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate (Rs./Unit) Amount (Rs) Total (Rs. ) A. For Primary Collection of Waste 1 Rickshaw Trollies 8 bins 39 No. 14,000.00 546,000.00 2 Push Cart (Hand Cart) 6 bins 79 No. 9,000.00 711,000.00 3 Litter bins (Twin Bins) 150 lit capacity 314 No. 5,987.00 1,879,918.00 4 Closed container bins – 1.1 cum 145 No. 18,000.00 2,610,000.00 5 Auto Rickshaw Bins 1.1 cum.Bin Carrier 3 No 400,000.00 1,200,000.00 Sub Total of A 6,946,918.00 6,946,918.00 B. For Secondary Collection of Waste 6 Truck Mounted Refuse Compactor (14 Cum) 2 No 2,400,000.00 4,800,000.00 7 Dumper for transportation of MSW 10 cum 1 No 1,400,000.00 1,400,000.00 8 Loader backhoe email@example.com 1 No 2,300,000.00 2,300,000.00 9 Dumper 5 cum 1 No 1,200,000.00 1,200,000.00 Sub Total of B 9,700,000.00 9,700,000.00 C. Land fill Site 10 Development of land fill site 14,366,745.79 Sub Total of D 14,366,745.79 D. Training And IEC Program 11 Training And IEC Programe LS 500,000.00 500,000.00 Sub Total of E 500,000.00 Total Estimate Rs. 31,513,663.79 Add @ 5% for contingency & quality control etc 1,575,683.19 Garand Total (Rs.) 33,089,346.98