INTRODUCTION TO BIOMETRICS
Biometric technologies is defined as automated method of identifying or
authenticating the identity of a person based on physiological or behavioural
Physiological characteristics are more stable and few examples are,
1. Face recognition
2. Finger print recognition
3. Iris recognition
4. DNA recognition
Behavioural characteristics are the reflection of the make up and few examples are,
IRIS RECOGNITION-WHAT? AND WHY?
Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses
pattern recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of
the iris of an individual eyes.
As long as a person has an eye with iris, that eye can be identified
by iris recognition.
Even the fingerprinting technology allows only 60 to 70 degrees
With video technology, a camera scans the iris pattern, which
consists of corona, pupil, etc.
The system then digitizes unique information of the iris from the
photograph and is stored in a database.
To record an individual’s iris code, a black and white video
camera uses approximately 30 frames per second to zoom the eye
and “grab” a sharp and accurate image of the iris.
METHODS OF IRIS
In identifying one’s iris, there are 2 methods for its recognition
The active Iris system requires that a user be anywhere from six
to fourteen inches away from the camera.
The passive system allows the user to be anywhere from one to
three feet away from the camera that locates the focus on the iris.
USAGE OF IRIS RECOGNITION IN THE
• The voting process consists of,
1. Enrolment of iris pattern
2. Iris scanning of individuals
3. Verification for the identity
4. Permission to vote
5. Voting process
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF IRIS
RECOGNITION IN VOTING PROCESS
Before the election the people has to enrol their iris pattern at the
district head quarters, municipal office , etc.
This registration can be done once throughout the life.
The distance between the camera and the human eye can be 4 to
In the entire process, the enrolment stage needs human work.
IRIS CODE GENERATION
The iris pattern is encoded after the unnecessary parts have been
discounted and this process is called as demodulation and it creates a
The phase sequence is called an iris code template, and it captures
the unique features of an that allows easy and rapid comparisons
against large databases of other templates and is encrypted.
In less than few seconds, even on a database of millions of
records, the iris code template is generated from a live image is
compared to previously enrolled ones to see if it matches any of
PERMISSION AND VOTING PROCESS
The server provided at the polling station will verify the iris code
with the database and then it verifies whether they had already
After getting the permission from the server the person can vote
by pressing the keys and the pre recorded voice message will help to
select the candidate.
SPECIALISATION OF IRIS OVER OTHER
It uses camera technology, with suitable infra-red illumination
reducing reflection from the convex cornea, to create images of rich
structures of iris.
Because of its speed of comparison, iris recognition is the only
biometric technology well-suited for one-to-many identification.
ADVANTAGES OF IRIS RECOGNITION
Election malpractices can be stopped.
Imitation is not possible and pattern cannot be changed without
risking the eye.
High accuracy rate.
DISADVANTAGES OF IRIS RECOGNITION
Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger
than a few meters.
Irises are not typically deposited by people at crime scenes, and
so are not useful as fingerprints and DNA for forensic
Optical readers are difficult to operate requiring advanced
training for employees.
APPLICATIONS OF IRIS RECOGNITION
All foreign nationals who posses a visa to enter the UAE(United
Arab Emirates) are processed through iris cameras.
One of the three biometric identification technologies
internationally standardized by ICAO for use in future passports (the
other two are finger print and face recognition).
At Schiphol Airport, Netherlands, iris recognition has permitted
passport-free immigration since 2001.
APPLICATION OF IRIS SCANNING
FOR BAGHDAD REFUGEES
ADVANTAGES OVER FINGERPRINT SCANNING:
There is no need for the person to be identified to touch any
equipment that has recently been touched by a stranger, thereby
eliminating an objection that has been raised in some cultures
against fingerprint scanners, where a finger has to touch a surface or
retinal scanning, where the eye can be brought very close to a lens
(like looking into a microscope lens).
NO TWO IRISES ARE ALIKE:
No two irises are alike, not even in one individual or identical
The iris consists of over 400 different characteristics.
Compared to the 40 or 50 points of distinct finger print
characteristics, the iris has more than 250 distinct features.
Hence, iris scanning is much more accurate than fingerprints
or even DNA analysis of the different features.
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