Ohio Awwa 2008 Ozone Drinking Water Treatment

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Presentation on the application of ozone in drinking water focusing on technological improvements.

Presentation on the application of ozone in drinking water focusing on technological improvements.

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  • 1. Ozone Drinking Water Treatment Applications and Operational Improvements I t Ohio Section AWWA 18 September 2008 Anthony Sacco Spartan Environmental Technologies, LLC & Paul Overbeck International Ozone Association
  • 2. • Providing Multiple Benefits OZONE – Oxidation • TOC • Fe/Mn • Hydrogen Sulfide • Taste & Odor • Color • CL2-DBPs • EDC – Disinfection s ect o • Bacteria • Virus • Parasites – Flocc lation Flocculation • Less Chemical Coagulant • Lower solids Handling • Lower Turbidity & Particles • Longer Run time • Less Backwashing Photo Courtesy of SNWA
  • 3. Microbial Toolbox Watershed Inactivation Demonstration Control of Performance UV Light Program g Improved Treatment Ozone Alternative Pre-treatment Source Lower finished Chlorine Pre-sedimentation water t bidit t turbidity dioxide basin Intake Membranes relocation River bank Bag and filtration Manage timing cartridge filters or level of withdrawal Slow sand filters
  • 4. Ozone destroys bacteria, viruses, y , , cysts and parasites
  • 5. Bacteria Inactivation by Ozone CT = residual concentration (mg/L) x time (min) E. coli 0.02 - 0.06 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA Streptococcus faecalis 0.01 - 0.025 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA Legionella pneumophila 0.3 - 1.1 mg-min/L = CT (2-log)AWWA Total Coliform 0.19 0 19 mg-min/L = CT (6-log) LAAFP HPC 0.19 mg-min/L = CT (3-log) LAAFP
  • 6. Ct Values (mg x min./L) For 99.9 % Inactivation of Giardia and 99.99%Virus Data for 5°C Free Chlorine Chloramine Chlorine Dioxide Ozone ( pH 6 to 7 ) ( pH 8 to 9 ) ( pH 6 to 7 ) ( pH 6 to 7 ) Giardia 122 2200 26.0 1.9 Virus 8 1988 33.4 1.2 Taken from: “Optimizing Water Treatment Plant Performance Using Composite Correction Program.” prepared by Process Applications, Inc., for the U.S. EPA, Office of Drinking Water, Cincinnati, Ohio.
  • 7. US EPA CT Values for i f Virus Inactivation ii by Ozone Temperature °C Inactivation ii <1 5 10 15 20 25 2-log g 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.25 0.15 3-log 1.4 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.25 4-log 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3
  • 8. Drinking Water Regulatory Backdrop Longstanding Dilemma Microbial Risk R DBP Risk Gov ment st vernm nteres M In Level of Chemical Disinfection
  • 9. Disinfection By-Products Chlorine Ozone -Trihalomethanes Trihalomethanes -Bromate Bromate (THM) -Assimilable -Haloacetic Acids Hl i A id Organic Carbon (THAA5) (AOC) -Bromate
  • 10. How does ozone/biofiltration work? Synergy between ozone and biofiltration NOM O3 Breaks macro Results in molecular NOM and TOC/COD/BOD many SOC to reduction biodegradable OM Organics O i NOM HO• break SOC Biofilter TO biodegradable OM bi d d bl Increases microbial growth i filters th in filt
  • 11. By Product By-Product Formation – THM/HAA Pre- and Postchlorination Ozonation & Postchlorination 80 70 Concentration (ppb) 60 n 50 TTHM 40 HAA5 30 20 C 10 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 Courtesy of Gwinnett County, Georgia
  • 12. Dramatic disinfection-by-product reductions D ti di i f ti b d t d ti 120 100 RAA MCL 80 A v e ra g e (u g / L ) 60 40 20 0 Q 3-0 4 Q 4-0 4 Q 1-0 5 Q 2-05 Q 3-05 Q 4 -05 Q 1 -06 Q 2 -06 Q 3-06 Q tr ly T T H M A v g R u n n in g A n n u a l A v g MWRA
  • 13. Summary Bromate Formation Control • Chemical Addition Options – Chlorine – Ammonia – Alkalinity – Organic Matter – pH Adjustment • Temperature Control • Lower O3 Applied Dose & Reaction Time i i i
  • 14. For rmation Pote ential (BrO3 µg/L) Ct B. Daw, et.al. 2001
  • 15. Microflocculation • Improved Floc/Clarification & Filtration • TOC Reduction • Dosage Influenced by pH, TOC • Extends Filter Runs E d Fil R • Reduces Solid Handling
  • 16. Microflocculation
  • 17. Organic Color Reduction
  • 18. Taste & Odor • Oxidation – Ozone Alone – Advanced Oxidation Processes • Algal Sources – methyl isoborneal (MIB) –GGeosmin i • Other Organic Matter
  • 19. Use of Ozone for Taste and Odor Control has been Successful: Tastes great, less chlorine May 14, 1994 Ozone treatment makes water safer, taste better July 25, 1995
  • 20. Water Treatment Performance Emerging Contaminants EDC Removal <50% 50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-89% 90-99% Monylphenol Acenaphtylene Trimethoprim Diazepam Atrazine Meprobromate BHC Phenolythrene Acetaminophen Oxybenzone Naphtalene Iopromide Anthracene Caffeine Progesterone Musk Ketone Heptachlor Aldrine Galaxolide Erythromyein-H2O Ethynylestradin Dieldrin DDE Sulfamethozazone Testroterone Endrin Metolachlorine Andeostenedione Benzo (a) () Fluoxetine pyrene Chrysene Pentoxifylline Naproxen Methoxychlor Ibuprofen Pilantin Carbcamazepine Diclofenae Triclosan DEET Gernfibrozil Fluorene Pyrene Octylphenol Fluoraythene Courtesy of SNWA
  • 21. Components of an Ozone System Ozone Generation O G ti Feed-Gas Supply Options (Select 1) Power Supply Unit Air Moisture Removal System O2 CRYO O2 System Ambient Flow Fl Air O2 PSA O2 System Meter O3 %wt Supply O2 VPSA O2 System O2 Purchased LOX Ozone Generator Flow Control Valve Ozone Contacting Options (Select 1) Flow Meter M Off-Gas Blower Bubble Injection Diffuser Ozone O3 Destruct Ozone O Contactor Ctt Contactor
  • 22. Important Advancements in Ozone System Design and Operation • Lowered capital and O&M cost by switching to oxygen feed-gas (LOX and VPSA) and yg g( ) improvements in ozone generator design • Developed/implemented robust p p p process monitoring and control • Improved fine bubble diffusion & side stream dissolution
  • 23. From Air to Oxygen: Pre 1987, Pre-1987 1987 to 1993 and Post 1993 kWh/kg 10 ergy, kWh/lb Low Frequency Air-fed Air fed 9 17.6 8 Medium Frequency Air-fed 15.4 7 13.2 6 pecific Ene 5 10.0 8.8 4 Medium Frequency 3 6.6 Medium Frequency q y High Efficiency 4.4 44 2 Sp Oxygen-fed Oxygen-fed 2.2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ozone Concentration, %wt
  • 24. Advances from 1987 to 1993 Based on Performance Data 10 9 1987 LAAFP 8 1993 Randall Bold WTP nergy, kWh/lb 7 6 5 Specific En 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Ozone Concentration, %wt O C t ti %t
  • 25. Advances 1993 to Date also Date, Based on Performance Data 10 Plant 10 Supplier A @ 95F 9 Plant 11 Supplier B @ 70F 8 Plant 13 Suppler C @ 66F Specific Energy, kWh/lb b 7 +/- 10% 6 1993 Randall Bold WTP 5 E 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Ozone Concentration, %wt O C t ti %t
  • 26. Ozone Equipment is Simplified Desiccant Earlier air fed ozone systems air-fed Dryer Air Compressor Refrigerant Dryer Ozone Generator Less equipment = Lower maintenance, capital cost, and operating cost Liquid Oxygen Storage & Ambient Vaporizers Ozone Generator Current oxygen-fed ozone systems
  • 27. Ozone Residual Monitoring has Improved • “Indigo Trisulfonate” Standard Method ozone residual test • Trustworthy on-line residual analyzers and robust sampling systems bt li t Display Range: 0-200.0 PPB, 0-2.000 PPM or 0-20.00 PPM Accuracy: ± 0 02 PPM or 0 5% of F S 0.02 0.5% F.S. Repeatability: ± 0.01 PPM or 0.3% of F.S. Linearity: 0.1% of F.S. Zero Drift: < 0.01 PPM per month
  • 28. Las Vegas AMS Water Vegas, 7 days of hourly data Treatment Plant • Water flow varies from 150 to 550 MGD twice per day • Dose target = 1.1 mg/L Range = 1.0 to 1.2 • Gas flow is constant • Ozone production range is 1500 to 5500 lb/day lb/d
  • 29. Controlling Disinfection is the Performance GOAL (e.g., Giardia) (e g MWD Jensen – August 2007 100% of time PR>2 (1-log) f ti PR 2 (1 l ) 1% of time PR>4 (2-log) Average PR = 3 or 1.5-logs
  • 30. Ozone Dissolution Options Bubble Diffuser Side Stream oo Ozone oo oo oo oo G oo oo oo L oo oo oo High Efficiency oo oo oo oo Venturi Injectors oo oo oo oo oo oo oo ---- Water Flow For many reasons, the Historically, the most common side stream option is ozone contacting option gp becoming more popular today
  • 31. Fine Bubble Diffuser Material Improvements One-piece design is formed Hypalon diffuser gaskets Alternative expanded- of a gas permeable porous after 2-yr service in a Teflon gaskets that are alumina diffuser ceramic high-ozone- high ozone gaining popularity for bonded at high temperature concentration (8%wt) use in oxygen-fed ozone yielding a corrosion resistant oxygen-fed applications product. Stainless steel ozone application components, polymer gaskets and cements of any kind have been eliminated.
  • 32. Option 1 - Designed to maximize ozone transfer within the side stream flow Gas flow Fail-close control High Shut-off valve Pressure Ozone Valve Liquid FM Switch Destruct P M M Trap P P P Heater M To s From Atmosphere Ozone Pressure Generators Control Check Pressure P Valve Control P FM P (Optional) P Venturi Degas P Injector Sidestream Vessel Pump Mixing- Water Flow enhancement nozzles
  • 33. Option 2 - Designed to utilize ozone contactor for ozone transfer assistance Gas flow Fail-close control High Shut-off valve Pressure Valve To FM Liquid Switch P M Atmosphere M Trap P P Heater M s From Ozone Generators G P Destruct Check Valve P P FM P L Venturi Injector Sidestream Pump Mixing-enhancement nozzles Water Flow
  • 34. International Ozone Association www.io3a.org Joint IOA & IUVA Conference 04 – 06 M 2009 May Boston, MA Anthony Sacco Spartan Environmental Technologies, LLC & Paul Overbeck International Ozone Association