1. University of InnsbruckSchool of ManagementInformation SystemsCoPrA: A Process Analysis Technique toInvestigate Collaboration in Groups45th HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCESDesigning, Deploying, and Evaluating Tools and Techniquesto Support Team CollaborationWailea, Maui, HawaiiIsabella Seeber, Ronald Maier, Barbara WeberVisit the following URL to download resources:http://www.uibk.ac.at/iwi/staff/iseeber/copra.html
2. University of InnsbruckMotivation and Purpose• There is a need to investigate group processes:“further fundamental research on how groups […] accept, adopt, and adapt repeatablecollaboration processes. How do groups embrace a given repeatable collaborationprocess over time? How do they change it over time to better suit their needs?” (deVreede et al. 2008)• include the analysis of actions performed during the collaborationprocess2Start ofCollaborationEnd ofCollaborationcollaboration processcoll.objectcom com comcomcomcomcomcomcomThinkLet(s)evaluationcriteria• questionnairedata• assessment ofcoll. object
3. University of InnsbruckMotivation and Purpose (con‘t)Can we observe:• if and when phases or pattern of collaboration change overtime?• if participants adopt the provided experimental treatment, e.g.,process structure provided by thinkLets?• if and when participation of group members changes over time?• how deeply and comprehensively participants negotiate?• sequences of actions that can be interpreted as candidates forcausal dependencies?3
4. University of InnsbruckThe CoPrA Approach4Data Collection Data Preparation Data AnalysisEXAMPLE:Research Design: Laboratory Experiments – Task: writea report on proposals for technical and organizationalmeasures to support Knowledge Management in anorganization.Research Question: How does process structure impactdistributed teams during collaborative writing?Gather Data - Communication Log:Harley: 2:40 – document management systemQuinn: 2:40 - they could use a WikiBilly: 2:41 – Probably they can use MS Sharepoint, withaltering and all the stuff….
5. University of InnsbruckCodingHarley: 2:40 – document management systemQuinn: 2:40 - they could use a WikiBilly: 2:41 – Probably they can use MS Sharepoint, withaltering and all the stuffExport of Process Information<…><ProcessInstance id="I002"><AuditTrailEntry><WorkflowModelElement>N propose</WorkflowModelElement><EventType>start</EventType><Timestamp> 2011-05-12T02:41:00 </Timestamp><Originator> Billy</Originator></AuditTrailEntry>The CoPrA Approach5Data Collection Data Preparation Data Analysisuse inNegotiation Model• propose• support• argue-against• argue-for• reject• accept• … assign action: propose
6. University of InnsbruckThe CoPrA Approach6Data Collection Data Preparation Data AnalysisTimeproposesupportargue-forargue-against.…02:42 - 02:47 2 2 0 002:48 - 02:53 6 1 0 102:54 - 02:59 3 1 0 0… .. .. .. ..03:48 - 03:53 0 0 0 0Timestamp WorkflowModelElementOriginator12.05.201102:39 SA-perform harley12.05.201102:40 N propose harley12.05.201102:40 N propose quinn12.05.201102:41 N propose billy12.05.201102:41 N propose harley12.05.201102:41 N argue-for harleyTime Quinn Harley Billy02:46 - 02:41 1 4 102:42 - 02:47 4 3 202:48 - 02:53 2 4 2… .. .. ..03:00 - 03:05 4 2 1
7. University of InnsbruckCase Example (con‘t) – Experiment with thinkLets7Can we observe if participants adopt the provided experimentaltreatment, e.g., process structure provided by thinkLets?DirectedBrainstorm FastFocus/BoomWagon/ReviewReflect
8. University of InnsbruckCase Example (con‘t) – Experiment with thinkLets8Can we observe if and when phases or pattern of collaborationchange over time?GENERATEREDUCE
9. University of InnsbruckConclusion and OutlookCoPrA allows• analyzing collaboration processes based on activity andperformer information• interpreting observations within their context due tocommunication logs• insights into similarities and differences of communicationworkflows• Augment analysis with additional data sources, e.g.,development of written digital artifact• Augment analysis with additional activities, e.g., start search onGoogle, resulting in activity streams to be investigated9
10. University of InnsbruckContactIsabella SeeberIsabella.Seeber@uibk.ac.atUniversity of InnsbruckSchool of ManagementInformation Systems IUniversitätsstraße 156020 Innsbruck, AustriaThank you for your attention!Visit the following URL to download resources:http://www.uibk.ac.at/iwi/staff/iseeber/copra.html
11. University of InnsbruckCase Example (con‘t) – Experiment with thinkLets11Comments made per actionAccept ProposeArgue-against RejectArgue-for Supportchallenge WithdrawCounterNegotiationactionsCan we observe how deeply and comprehensively participantsnegotiate?
12. University of InnsbruckCase Example – Experiment with thinkLets12Comments made per userCan we observe (if and when) participation of group members (changesover time)?
13. University of InnsbruckCase Example – Experiment with thinkLets13Sequences of ActionsCan we observe sequences of actions that can be interpreted ascandidates for causal dependencies?