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ARGOMARINE final presentation - JRC Presentation - Guido Ferraro

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  • 1. Illegal oil discharges 
from vessels 
in the Mediterranean Sea 


What is changed in these last 10 years?Guido Ferraro (EC-JRC)Olaf Trieschmann (EMSA) 13 June 2012 GeoMaritime, London 1
  • 2. What is changed in these last 10 years*? 1. What is changed from a legal point of view?
 2. What is changed in surveillance? 3. What is changed from an operational point of view? 
 4. What’s next? * 1st meeting of the European Group of Experts on remote sensing Monitoring of marine Pollution (22-24 March 2004)21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 2
  • 3. 1. What is changed from a legal point of view? No Major changes in the international legal regime. MARPOL/UNCLOS lay down the extent of enforcement powers of the Flag State, Coastal State, and Port State. In order to meet the aims of these two Conventions, they must be implemented in national law through appropriate legislation. 
 Jurisdiction on ships - 2 possibilities: 
 1. Nationality of the ship: 
 - Principle of jurisdiction of the Flag State
 
 
 2. Geographical position of the ship:
 
 - Principle of jurisdiction of the Coastal State 
 (State where the ship is sailing)
 
 - Principle of jurisdiction of the Port State 
 (Port where the ship is in ) EU legislation 
 Directive 2000/59 on port reception facilities
 
 Directive 2005/35 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties 
 for infringements Ferraro, G., Pavliha, M., 2010. The international legal framework on monitoring and response to oil pollution. Journal for Environmental Monitoring, 2010, vol. 12, pp. 574–580. 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 3
  • 4. 1. What is changed from a legal point of view?Since 2004… creeping jurisdiction of the coastal states… 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 4
  • 5. 2. What is changed in surveillance? From research to the operational use of satelliteimagery to detect oil pollution
Visible or detectable oil discharges fromships, observed in a MARPOL special area,are illegal.
21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 5
  • 6. 2. What is changed in surveillance? Analysis from archives (no real-time) Yearly coverage and possible oil slicks detected over the whole Mediterranean basin in the period 1999-2004. Year   Coverage  in     Coverage  in     Possible  oil  spills   Spills  per     square  degrees   mio  square  km     mio  square  km   1999   1382   13.26   1638   123.54   2000   3642   34.94   2297   65.74   2001   2495   23.94   1641   68.55   2002   1840   17.65   1401   79.36   2003   2289   21.96   897   40.85   2004   3885   37.27   1425   38.23   Total   15533   149.02   9299      Ferraro, G., Meyer-Roux, S., Muellenhoff, O., Pavliha, M., Svetak, J., Tarchi, D., and Topouzelis, K., 2009. Long term monitoring of oil spills in European Seas. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2009, vol. 30 (3), pp. 627 – 645. 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 6
  • 7. 2. What is changed in surveillance? Analysis from archives (no real-time) 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 7
  • 8. 2. What is changed in surveillance? 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 8
  • 9. 2. What is changed in surveillance? 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 9
  • 10. 2. What is changed in surveillance? 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 10
  • 11. 2. What is changed in surveillance? 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 11
  • 12. 2. What is changed in surveillance? Analysis from real-time CleanSeaNet data Yearly coverage and possible oil slicks detected over the whole Mediterranean basin in the period April 07- Dec 10. Year   Coverage  in     Possible  oil  spills   Spills  per     Spills  per     mio  square  km   mio  square  km   mio  square  km       Mediterranean   Mediterranean   Mediterranean   Europe   2007   40.55   787   19.41   2008   82.32   1586   19.27   10.77   2009   56.59   847   14.97   7.61   2010   64.97   825   12.70   5.68   Total   244.43   4045           21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 12
  • 13. 3. What is changed from an operational point of view? Combining satellite images with AISFerraro, G., Bernardini, A., Matej, D., Meyer-Roux S., Muellenhoff, O., Perkovic, M., Tarchi, D., Topouzelis, K., 2007. Towards anoperational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: A demonstration in the Adriatic Sea,Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2007, vol. 54 (4), pp. 403-422. 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 13
  • 14. 3. What is changed from an operational point of view?Attention to the users: 
From Confidence Levels to an Alert System•  Criteria related to SAR image quality •  SAR derived oil spill probability •  Related to image processing, information about errors in the processing chain, image quality, features related to image analysis (like geometry of slick, structural aspects, appearance of the edge, grey level values and contrast to surroundings), and detection constraints like sea state conditions.•  Criteria related to the context •  Additional information (e.g., metoceanic and contextual) •  Contextual information can improve the probability of detecting oil spills as well as reducing the number of false positives. Indeed, human contextual criteria like traffic lines, secondary routes, oil spill archives, oil rigs and other human installations likely to release oil slicks are essential. •  Impact Factor •  This addresses the need for additional information on the drift of the detected slick (oil drift trend), the area possibly concerned and its environmental sensitivity. The competent national authority needs detailed information to decide on follow up measures to oil spill detection. •  Culprit identification Capabilities-AIS •  The vicinity of ships has usually been considered as further confirmation of the oil-spill detection probability. On the other hand, the probable spill, and the navigation route of a potential culprit should be taken into account in order to increase the alert level of the detection, since this could lead to further verification. 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 14
  • 15. 3. What is changed from an operational point of view? Alert System combining different data Culprit Identification Capabilities - AIS Additional Information (e.g. metoceanic, contextual) Inference Follow-up decision Engine SAR Derived Oil Spill Probability Impact (e.g. Environmental Consequences)Ferraro, G., Baschek, B., de Montpellier, G., Njoten, O., Perkovic, M., Vespe, M., 2010. On the SAR derived alert in the detection of oilspills according to the analysis of the EGEMP, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2010, vol. 60 (1), pp. 91-102. 

Ferraro, G., Perkovic, M., Trieschmann, O., Tarchi, D., 2012. Confidence Levels in the Detection of Oil Spills from Satellite Imagery:From Research to the Operational Use, Proceedings of SPIE Remote, Edinburgh, 24 - 27 September. 

 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 15
  • 16. 3. What is changed from an operational point of view?Matrix alert regimes Impact n/a from Coastal High Medium Low State A A A A High B B B B A A A A Culprit Medium B B B B A A A A Low B B B BA: most likely oil and 
B: pattern observed which i.a. could be oil21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 16
  • 17. 3. What is changed from an operational point of view?21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 17
  • 18. 5. Questions?Implementation: How new areas of jurisdiction will be implemented?
 Sustainability: Are satellite costs sustainable?Quality:Is data quality, integrity and traceability ensured?
 Validation: Verification of detected spills in satellite images... 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 18
  • 19. Thank you   Joint Research Centre (JRC) Serving society Stimulating innovation Supporting legislation www.jrc.ec.europa.eu guido.ferraro@jrc.ec.europa.eu European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) Satellite services CleanSeaNet www.emsa.europa.eu Olaf.trieschmann@emsa.europa.eu 21 November 2012 ARGOMARINE Final Conference 19

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