Exploring Public Health in Georgia and Metro Atlanta

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Looks at a variety of public health data, along with socioeconomic and demographic data, to provide a context for health.Health involves so much more than just the care we receive. Socioeconomics and demographics drive health outcomes in powerful ways. Research is focused on the recently released 2013 County Health Rankings.

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Exploring Public Health in Georgia and Metro Atlanta

  1. 1. Georgia StatewideCounty Health RankingsAtlanta Regional CommissionRegional Snapshot: June 2013For more information contact:mcarnathan@atlantaregional.com
  2. 2. Health Factors & Outcomes Z-ScoresFactors Z-Score Outcomes Z-ScoreHealth Factors are what influence thehealth of a county. Such measuresinclude tobacco use, diet and exercise,education, employment, communitysafety or physical environment quality.Health Outcomes represent how healthya county is. The two components ofhealth outcomes are how long people live(mortality) and how healthy people feelwhile alive (morbidity).Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau* Negative Z-scores indicate relatively healthier counties
  3. 3. Statewide County Rankings: Health FactorsTop 10 Rankings1. Fayette 6. Harris2. Oconee 7. Cobb3. Forsyth 8. Gwinnett4. Columbia 9. Union5. Cherokee 10. BryanThese are the 10 healthiestcounties based on healthfactors.Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau
  4. 4. Statewide County Rankings: Health OutcomesTop 10 Rankings1. Forsyth 6. Cobb2. Fayette 7. Columbia3. Oconee 8. Morgan4. Gwinnett 9. Coweta5. Cherokee 10. RockdaleThese are the 10 healthiestcounties based on healthoutcomes.Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau
  5. 5. Health Factors Z-Scores: VariablesIncomeSource: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census BureauZ-ScoresZ-Scores measure how far aparticular county deviates from thestate average on a selectedmeasure. Here we are looking atoverall health factor z-scores.Negative z-scores mean thatcounties are relatively healthierthan the state average.• This scatter plot shows thatincome and the overall rankingon health factors are related –i.e. the higher the income, thelower the z-scores, thus thehealthier the counties.• Subsequent slides showsseveral of these scatterplotsthat tracks the relationshipsbetween socioeconomics anddemographics to overall health.
  6. 6. Health Factors Z-Scores: VariablesIncomePopulation Age 65 and overNon-White PopulationEducationSource: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau
  7. 7. Health Outcomes Z-Scores: VariablesIncomePopulation Age 65 and overNon-White PopulationEducationSource: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau
  8. 8. Counties with Highest Access to PrimaryCare Physicians (per 100,000)Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau• Floyd County, withRome as the countyseat, has the highestnumber of primary carephysicians per 100,000at 117.• Fulton County has thehighest population inthe state, and ranks No.5 in Primary Physicianrate.• Of the top 20 countieslisted, only four arelocated in the 20-CountyMetro area.• Seminole County ranksNo. 3 in primaryphysician rate, but has170 preventablehospital stays per 1,000Medicare enrollees.Primary Physician RatePreventable Hospital Stays2012 CountyPopulation Estimates
  9. 9. Counties with Lowest Access to PrimaryCare Physicians (per 100,000)Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau• Macon County has thelowest rate of primarycare physicians in thestate.• Paulding County, one ofthe 20-County Metroarea counties, ranks 148on primary carephysician rate with arelatively highpopulation at 144,800.• Rural counties have asignificantly lower rateof primary carephysicians . However,this does not necessarilytranslate into highernumbers of preventablehospital stays.2012 CountyPopulationEstimatesPrimary Physician RatePreventable Hospital Stays
  10. 10. Preventable Hospital Stays and PeopleWithout Health InsuranceSource: Small Area Health Insurance Estimates, 2010, U.S. Census Bureau• Dark purpleindicates countieswith highnumbers ofpreventablehospital stays.• There is a strongcorrelationbetweenuninsuredchildren andadults.• Counties with thehighest numbersof preventablehospital stays alsohave the highestrates of uninsuredpeople.
  11. 11. Healthcare Costs Per Person andHousehold IncomeSource: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2005-2011, U.S. Census Bureau• Dark red indicatescounties with highercost of health careper person.• Southeasterncounties have adense concentrationof high health carecosts in the state.• Of these counties,the percentage ofhouseholds withincome less than$35,000 is 30% orgreater.• There is littleconnection betweenpeople who cannotaccess a doctor dueto cost, householdincome, or averagehealth care cost perperson.
  12. 12. Obesity Rates and EducationalAttainmentSource: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion 2009, U.S. Census Bureau• Dark browncounties have thehighest obesityrates.• There exists astrongcorrelationbetween obesityrate and income.• The loweststatewide obesityrates are found inthe Northeasternand Metro-Atlanta counties.
  13. 13. Smoking in Relation to Cancer andRespiratory DeathsSource: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2005-2011, U.S. Census Bureau• Counties with norecords havepopulations of30,000 or less.• Counties with thehighest rate ofsmokers tend to berural and lesspopulated.• Counties with highrates of respiratorydeaths (over 150,per 100,000population) tend tohave high rates ofcancer as well (200or more, per100,000population).
  14. 14. STD Rate, Income and Non-WhitePopulationSource: Georgia Department of Public Health, STD Program, 2009-2011, U.S. Census Bureau• Dark purpleindicates countieswith higher STDrates.• Counties with anon-whitepopulation of 50%or greater tend tohave the highestrates of STDs inGeorgia.• Low-incomecounties do notshow a significantcorrelationbetween STDs ornon-whitepopulation.
  15. 15. YPLL 75 Rate, Education and IncomeSource: Georgia Department of Public Health, 2009-2011, U.S. Census Bureau• Dark brownindicates areaswith high Years ofPotential Life Lostafter Age 75 (YPLL75), which is ameasure ofpremature death.• Rural countiesexperience highrates (per100,000)population) ofYPLL 75.• Higher YPLL 75rates can be foundin counties withlower educationalattainment andlower income.
  16. 16. 20-County Metro Atlanta: Income,Death Rate and Primary Care Access• Dark greenrepresents thewealthiestcounties in termsof medianhouseholdincome.• The graph showsthat there is littlecorrelationbetween deathrate and primarycare physicianrates.• County deathrates are moreclosely correlatedwith levels ofincome andeducation.Source: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau
  17. 17. 050100150200250300350 CancerExternal CausesRepiratoryCardiovascular20-County Metro Atlanta Death RatesRateofDeath(per100,000)Source: Georgia Department of Public Health, 2009-2011
  18. 18. 20-County Metro Atlanta: Teen BirthRates• Dark redrepresents thepercent of birthsthat are towomen ages 10-19.• Counties with highpercentages ofpeople 25 andolder with no highschool diplomaand mothers whodid not completehigh school alsohave the highestrates of teenpregnancy.• Poorer countieshave higher ratesof teen pregnancy.Source: Georgia Department of Public Health, Maternal Child Health (MCH) Statistics, 2009-2011, U.S. Census Bureau
  19. 19. • Dark blue representshigher medianhousehold income.• Single fathers bringhome a biggerpaycheck than singlemothers in everycounty except forRockdale: here,single mothers earn$4,459 moreannually than singlefathers.• Both single mothersand fathers arebelow the medianhousehold income,highlighting asignificant economicdisadvantage.20-County Metro Atlanta: Income forSingle Mothers and FathersSource: U.S. Census Bureau
  20. 20. 10-County Atlanta Area: Health Behaviors0510152025303540SmokingPhysical InactivityObesityExcessive DrinkingPercentageofPopulationSource: HRSA Area Resource File, 2011-2012, U.S. Census Bureau

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