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  • 1. Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
  • 2.
    • Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
    • Animals inhabit almost every part of the biosphere
    • Despite their amazing diversity
      • All animals face a similar set of problems, including how to nourish themselves
  • 3.
    • The comparative study of animals
      • Reveals that form and function are closely correlated
    Figure 40.1
  • 4.
    • Natural selection can fit structure, anatomy, to function, physiology
      • By selecting, over many generations, what works best among the available variations in a population
  • 5.
    • Concept 40.1: Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape
    • Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment
      • Place certain limits on the range of animal forms
  • 6. Physical Laws and Animal Form
    • The ability to perform certain actions
      • Depends on an animal’s shape and size
  • 7.
    • Evolutionary convergence
      • Reflects different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental challenge
    Figure 40.2a–e (a) Tuna (b) Shark (c) Penguin (d) Dolphin (e) Seal
  • 8. Exchange with the Environment
    • An animal’s size and shape
      • Have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings
    • Exchange with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium
      • Diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membranes
  • 9.
    • A single-celled protist living in water
      • Has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm
    Figure 40.3a Diffusion (a) Single cell
  • 10.
    • Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan
      • Have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials
    Figure 40.3b Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Diffusion Diffusion (b) Two cell layers
  • 11.
    • Organisms with more complex body plans
      • Have highly folded internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials
  • 12. External environment Food CO 2 O 2 Mouth Animal body Respiratory system Circulatory system Nutrients Excretory system Digestive system Heart Blood Cells Interstitial fluid Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (urine) The lining of the small intestine, a diges- tive organ, is elaborated with fingerlike projections that expand the surface area for nutrient absorption (cross-section, SEM). A microscopic view of the lung reveals that it is much more spongelike than balloonlike. This construction provides an expansive wet surface for gas exchange with the environment (SEM). Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopic tubules that exhange chemicals with blood flowing through a web of tiny vessels called capillaries (SEM). 0.5 cm 10 µm 50 µm Figure 40.4
  • 13.
    • Concept 40.2: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
    • Animals are composed of cells
    • Groups of cells with a common structure and function
      • Make up tissues
    • Different tissues make up organs
      • Which together make up organ systems
  • 14.
    • Different types of tissues
      • Have different structures that are suited to their functions
    • Tissues are classified into four main categories
      • Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
    Tissue Structure and Function
  • 15. Epithelial Tissue
    • Epithelial tissue
      • Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body
      • Contains cells that are closely joined
  • 16.
    • Epithelial tissue
    EPITHELIAL TISSUE Columnar epithelia, which have cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volumes, are often located where secretion or active absorption of substances is an important function. A stratified columnar epithelium A simple columnar epithelium A pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelia Simple squamous epithelia Cuboidal epithelia Basement membrane 40 µm Figure 40.5
  • 17. Connective Tissue
    • Connective tissue
      • Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues
      • Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
  • 18.
    • Connective tissue
    Collagenous fiber Elastic fiber Chondrocytes Chondroitin sulfate Loose connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue 100 µm 100 µm Nuclei 30 µm Bone Blood Central canal Osteon 700 µm 55 µm Red blood cells White blood cell Plasma Cartilage Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm CONNECTIVE TISSUE Figure 40.5
  • 19. Muscle Tissue
    • Muscle tissue
      • Is composed of long cells called muscle fibers capable of contracting in response to nerve signals
      • Is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
  • 20. Nervous Tissue
    • Nervous tissue
      • Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
  • 21.
    • Muscle and nervous tissue
    MUSCLE TISSUE Skeletal muscle 100 µm Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere Cardiac muscle Nucleus Intercalated disk 50 µm Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm NERVOUS TISSUE Neurons Process Cell body Nucleus 50 µm Figure 40.5
  • 22. Organs and Organ Systems
    • In all but the simplest animals
      • Different tissues are organized into organs
  • 23.
    • In some organs
      • The tissues are arranged in layers
    Figure 40.6 Lumen of stomach Mucosa. The mucosa is an epithelial layer that lines the lumen. Submucosa. The submucosa is a matrix of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves. Muscularis. The muscularis consists mainly of smooth muscle tissue. 0.2 mm Serosa. External to the muscularis is the serosa, a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue.
  • 24.
    • Representing a level of organization higher than organs
      • Organ systems carry out the major body functions of most animals
  • 25.
    • Organ systems in mammals
    Table 40.1
  • 26.
    • Concept 40.3: Animals use the chemical energy in food to sustain form and function
    • All organisms require chemical energy for
      • Growth, repair, physiological processes, regulation, and reproduction
  • 27.
    • The flow of energy through an animal, its bioenergetics
      • Ultimately limits the animal’s behavior, growth, and reproduction
      • Determines how much food it needs
    • Studying an animal’s bioenergetics
      • Tells us a great deal about the animal’s adaptations
  • 28. Energy Sources and Allocation
    • Animals harvest chemical energy
      • From the food they eat
    • Once food has been digested, the energy-containing molecules
      • Are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work
  • 29.
    • After the energetic needs of staying alive are met
      • Any remaining molecules from food can be used in biosynthesis
    Figure 40.7 Organic molecules in food Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Cellular respiration Biosynthesis: growth, storage, and reproduction Cellular work Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in urine Heat Heat External environment Animal body Heat Carbon skeletons ATP
  • 30.
    • An animal’s metabolic rate
      • Is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
      • Can be measured in a variety of ways
    Quantifying Energy Use
  • 31.
    • One way to measure metabolic rate
      • Is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced by an organism
    Figure 40.8a, b This photograph shows a ghost crab in a respirometer. Temperature is held constant in the chamber, with air of known O 2 concentration flow- ing through. The crab’s metabolic rate is calculated from the difference between the amount of O 2 entering and the amount of O 2 leaving the respirometer. This crab is on a treadmill, running at a constant speed as measurements are made. (a) (b) Similarly, the metabolic rate of a man fitted with a breathing apparatus is being monitored while he works out on a stationary bike.
  • 32.
    • An animal’s metabolic rate
      • Is closely related to its bioenergetic strategy
    Bioenergetic Strategies
  • 33.
    • Birds and mammals are mainly endothermic, meaning that
      • Their bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism
      • They typically have higher metabolic rates
  • 34. Stem Elongation
    • Amphibians and reptiles other than birds are ectothermic, meaning that
      • They gain their heat mostly from external sources
      • They have lower metabolic rates
  • 35.
    • The metabolic rates of animals
      • Are affected by many factors
    Influences on Metabolic Rate
  • 36. Size and Metabolic Rate
    • Metabolic rate per gram
      • Is inversely related to body size among similar animals
  • 37.
    • The basal metabolic rate (BMR)
      • Is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest
    • The standard metabolic rate (SMR)
      • Is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest
    • For both endotherms and ectotherms
      • Activity has a large effect on metabolic rate
    Activity and Metabolic Rate
  • 38.
    • In general, an animal’s maximum possible metabolic rate
      • Is inversely related to the duration of the activity
    Figure 40.9 Maximum metabolic rate (kcal/min; log scale) 500 100 50 10 5 1 0.5 0.1 A H A H A A A H H H A = 60-kg alligator H = 60-kg human 1 second 1 minute 1 hour Time interval 1 day 1 week Key Existing intracellular ATP ATP from glycolysis ATP from aerobic respiration
  • 39.
    • Different species of animals
      • Use the energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment
    Energy Budgets
  • 40.
    • An animal’s use of energy
      • Is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, homeostasis, growth, and reproduction
    Figure 40.10a, b Endotherms Ectotherm Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 800,000 Basal metabolic rate Reproduction Temperature regulation costs Growth Activity costs 60-kg female human from temperate climate Total annual energy expenditures (a) 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female python from Australia Energy expenditure per unit mass (kcal/kg•day) 438 Deer mouse 233 Adélie penguin 36.5 Human 5.5 Python Energy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kg•day) (b)
  • 41.
    • Concept 40.4: Animals regulate their internal environment within relatively narrow limits
    • The internal environment of vertebrates
      • Is called the interstitial fluid, and is very different from the external environment
    • Homeostasis is a balance between external changes
      • And the animal’s internal control mechanisms that oppose the changes
  • 42.
    • Regulating and conforming
      • Are two extremes in how animals cope with environmental fluctuations
    Regulating and Conforming
  • 43.
    • An animal is said to be a regulator
      • If it uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation
    • An animal is said to be a conformer
      • If it allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
  • 44.
    • Mechanisms of homeostasis
      • Moderate changes in the internal environment
    Mechanisms of Homeostasis
  • 45.
    • A homeostatic control system has three functional components
      • A receptor, a control center, and an effector
    Figure 40.11 Response No heat produced Room temperature decreases Heater turned off Set point Too hot Set point Control center: thermostat Room temperature increases Heater turned on Too cold Response Heat produced Set point
  • 46.
    • Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback
      • Where buildup of the end product of the system shuts the system off
  • 47.
    • A second type of homeostatic control system is positive feedback
      • Which involves a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
  • 48.
    • Concept 40.5: Thermoregulation contributes to homeostasis and involves anatomy, physiology, and behavior
    • Thermoregulation
      • Is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
  • 49.
    • Ectotherms
      • Include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-bird reptiles
    • Endotherms
      • Include birds and mammals
    Ectotherms and Endotherms
  • 50.
    • In general, ectotherms
      • Tolerate greater variation in internal temperature than endotherms
    Figure 40.12 River otter (endotherm) Largemouth bass (ectotherm) Ambient (environmental) temperature (°C) Body temperature (°C) 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 0
  • 51.
    • Endothermy is more energetically expensive than ectothermy
      • But buffers animals’ internal temperatures against external fluctuations
      • And enables the animals to maintain a high level of aerobic metabolism
  • 52. Modes of Heat Exchange
    • Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes
    Figure 40.13 Radiation is the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Radiation can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact, as when a lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun. Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas. Evaporation of water from a lizard’s moist surfaces that are exposed to the environment has a strong cooling effect. Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface, as when a breeze contributes to heat loss from a lizard’s dry skin, or blood moves heat from the body core to the extremities . Conduction is the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other, as when a lizard sits on a hot rock.
  • 53. Balancing Heat Loss and Gain
    • Thermoregulation involves physiological and behavioral adjustments
      • That balance heat gain and loss
  • 54. Insulation
    • Insulation, which is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds
      • Reduces the flow of heat between an animal and its environment
      • May include feathers, fur, or blubber
  • 55.
    • In mammals, the integumentary system
      • Acts as insulating material
    Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle Blood vessels Adipose tissue Hypodermis Dermis Epidermis Figure 40.14
  • 56.
    • Many endotherms and some ectotherms
      • Can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin
    Circulatory Adaptations
  • 57.
    • In vasodilation
      • Blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss
    • In vasoconstriction
      • Blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss
  • 58.
    • Many marine mammals and birds
      • Have arrangements of blood vessels called countercurrent heat exchangers that are important for reducing heat loss
    Figure 40.15 1 3 In the flippers of a dolphin, each artery is surrounded by several veins in a countercurrent arrangement, allowing efficient heat exchange between arterial and venous blood. Canada goose Artery Vein 35°C Blood flow Vein Artery 30º 20º 10º 33° 27º 18º 9º Pacific bottlenose dolphin 2 1 3 2 3 Arteries carrying warm blood down the legs of a goose or the flippers of a dolphin are in close contact with veins conveying cool blood in the opposite direction, back toward the trunk of the body. This arrangement facilitates heat transfer from arteries to veins (black arrows) along the entire length of the blood vessels. 1 Near the end of the leg or flipper, where arterial blood has been cooled to far below the animal’s core temperature, the artery can still transfer heat to the even colder blood of an adjacent vein. The venous blood continues to absorb heat as it passes warmer and warmer arterial blood traveling in the opposite direction. 2 As the venous blood approaches the center of the body, it is almost as warm as the body core, minimizing the heat lost as a result of supplying blood to body parts immersed in cold water. 3
  • 59.
    • Some specialized bony fishes and sharks
      • Also possess countercurrent heat exchangers
    Figure 40.16a, b (a) Bluefin tuna. Unlike most fishes, the bluefin tuna maintains temperatures in its main swimming muscles that are much higher than the surrounding water (colors indicate swimming muscles cut in transverse section). These temperatures were recorded for a tuna in 19°C water. (b) Great white shark. Like the bluefin tuna, the great white shark has a countercurrent heat exchanger in its swimming muscles that reduces the loss of metabolic heat. All bony fishes and sharks lose heat to the surrounding water when their blood passes through the gills. However, endothermic sharks have a small dorsal aorta, and as a result, relatively little cold blood from the gills goes directly to the core of the body. Instead, most of the blood leaving the gills is conveyed via large arteries just under the skin, keeping cool blood away from the body core. As shown in the enlargement, small arteries carrying cool blood inward from the large arteries under the skin are paralleled by small veins carrying warm blood outward from the inner body. This countercurrent flow retains heat in the muscles. 21º 25º 23º 27º 29º 31º Body cavity Skin Artery Vein Capillary network within muscle Dorsal aorta Artery and vein under the skin Heart Blood vessels in gills
  • 60.
    • Many endothermic insects
      • Have countercurrent heat exchangers that help maintain a high temperature in the thorax
    Figure 40.17
  • 61. Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss
    • Many types of animals
      • Lose heat through the evaporation of water in sweat
      • Use panting to cool their bodies
  • 62.
    • Bathing moistens the skin
      • Which helps to cool an animal down
    Figure 40.18
  • 63.
    • Both endotherms and ectotherms
      • Use a variety of behavioral responses to control body temperature
    Behavioral Responses
  • 64.
    • Some terrestrial invertebrates
      • Have certain postures that enable them to minimize or maximize their absorption of heat from the sun
    Figure 40.19
  • 65. Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
    • Some animals can regulate body temperature
      • By adjusting their rate of metabolic heat production
  • 66.
    • Many species of flying insects
      • Use shivering to warm up before taking flight
    Figure 40.20 PREFLIGHT PREFLIGHT WARMUP FLIGHT Thorax Abdomen Temperature (°C) Time from onset of warmup (min) 40 35 30 25 0 2 4
  • 67.
    • Mammals regulate their body temperature
      • By a complex negative feedback system that involves several organ systems
    Feedback Mechanisms in Thermoregulation
  • 68.
    • In humans, a specific part of the brain, the hypothalamus
      • Contains a group of nerve cells that function as a thermostat
    Figure 40.21 Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms. Sweat glands secrete sweat that evaporates, cooling the body. Blood vessels in skin dilate: capillaries fill with warm blood; heat radiates from skin surface. Body temperature decreases; thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms. Increased body temperature (such as when exercising or in hot surroundings) Homeostasis: Internal body temperature of approximately 36–38  C Body temperature increases; thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms. Decreased body temperature (such as when in cold surroundings) Blood vessels in skin constrict, diverting blood from skin to deeper tissues and reducing heat loss from skin surface. Skeletal muscles rapidly contract, causing shivering, which generates heat. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms.
  • 69. Adjustment to Changing Temperatures
    • In a process known as acclimatization
      • Many animals can adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks
  • 70.
    • Acclimatization may involve cellular adjustments
      • Or in the case of birds and mammals, adjustments of insulation and metabolic heat production
  • 71. Torpor and Energy Conservation
    • Torpor
      • Is an adaptation that enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions
      • Is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases
  • 72.
    • Hibernation is long-term torpor
      • That is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity during which the animal’s body temperature declines
    Additional metabolism that would be necessary to stay active in winter Actual metabolism Body temperature Arousals Outside temperature Burrow temperature June August October December February April Temperature (°C) Metabolic rate (kcal per day) 200 100 0 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Figure 40.22
  • 73.
    • Estivation, or summer torpor
      • Enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies
    • Daily torpor
      • Is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems to be adapted to their feeding patterns