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Trade Networks and Communication of the Silk Road, Indian Ocean Maritime System, Sahara Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa

Trade Networks and Communication of the Silk Road, Indian Ocean Maritime System, Sahara Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa

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  • 1. Networks of Communication and Exchange
    300 B.C.E. – 1100 C.E.
    Chapter 7
  • 2. Part One:The Silk Road
  • 3. Part 1: The Silk Road
    Map of Silk Road
  • 4. Part 1: The Silk Road
    Map of Silk Road
    http://intranet.dalton.org/groups/rome/RMap2.html-
  • 5. A. Origins and Operations
    Overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world via Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia.
    Two periods of heavy use:
    150 B.C.E. – 907 C.E.
    Thirteenth through seventeenth centuries C.E.
    Regular large-scale trade needed to provide Chinese with western products.
    Part 1: The Silk Road
  • 6. Part 1: The Silk Road
    B. Imports and Exports
    Chinese imported:
    Alfalfa
    Grapes
    New crops
    Medicinal products
    Metals
    Precious stones
    Chinese exported:
    Peaches
    Apricots
    Spices
    Silk
    Pottery
    Paper
  • 7. C. Impact of the Silk Road Trade
    Turkic nomads benefited from the trade
    Their elites constructed houses, lived in settled villages, and became interested in foreign religions.
    Part 1: The Silk Road
  • 8. Part 1: The Silk Road
    D. Military Technologies
    Central Asian military technologies like the stirrup were exported east and west.
    This significantly impacted the conduct of war at this time.
  • 9. Part Two:Indian Ocean Maritime System
  • 10. A. Introduction
    Linked lands bordering the Indian Ocean basin and the South China Sea.
    Trade took place in 3 distinct regions:
    South China Sea
    Southeast Asia to the east coast of India
    West coast of India to the Persian Gulf and East Africa
    Part 2: IndianO. Maritime System
  • 11. Made possible by and followed the patterns of seasonal changes in the monsoon winds.
    Sailing technology included lateen sail and new shipbuilding techniques.
    Because distances traveled were longer than in the Mediterranean, traders in these systems did not maintain political ties to homelands.
    Part 2: IndianO. Maritime System
    A. Introduction
  • 12. Part 2: IndianO. Maritime System
    Lateen Sail
  • 13. B. Origins of Contact and Trade
    Evidence of early trade between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.
    Trade appears to have broken off as Mesopotamia turned more toward trade with East Africa.
    Two thousand years ago, Malay sailors migrated to Madagascar.
    Did not maintain ties to homeland.
    Part 2: IndianO. Maritime System
  • 14. C. Impact of Indian Ocean Trade
    What we know about it comes from The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea.
    States goods traded included a wide variety of spices, aromatic resins, pearls Chinese pottery, and other luxury goods.
    Volume of trade was not as high as in the Mediterranean.
    Culture of ports was different then culture in their homelands, causing the development of different customs.
    Part 2: IndianO. Maritime System
  • 15. Part Three:Routes Across the Sahara
  • 16. A. Early Saharan Cultures
    Evidence of an early Saharan hunting culture that was later joined by cattle breeders who looked like contemporary West Africans.
    Artwork indicates that the cattle breeders were later succeeded by horse herders who drove chariots.
    Other artwork indicates that camel riders came after charioteers.
    Camel was probably related to development of trans-Saharan trade.
    South to north diffusion of camel riding.
    Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
  • 17. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
    Sahara Rock Wall Painting
  • 18. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
    Other Sahara Rock Wall Painting
  • 19. B. Trade Across the Sahara
    Developed slowly when 2 local trade systems linked.
    Southern Sahara had salt and exported to sub-Saharan regions for kola nuts and palm oil.
    Traders in north exported agricultural products and wild animals to Italy.
    Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
  • 20. B.1. Invasion and Revolt
    When Rome declined and the Arabs invaded North Africa (mid-7th century C.E.), trade of Algeria and Morocco was cut off.
    Berber people of these areas revolted against the Arabs in the 700s and established independent city-states including Sijilmasa and Tahert.
    Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
  • 21. B.2. The Berbers
    After 740 the Berbers found that the southern nomads were getting gold dust from the Niger and other areas of West Africa in exchange for their salt.
    A pattern of trade then developed in which the Berbers of North Africa traded copper and manufactured goods to the nomads of the southern desert in return for gold.
    Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
  • 22. B.3. Kingdom of Ghana
    One of the early sub-Saharan beneficiaries of this new trans-Saharan trade.
    First description of kingdom is the eleventh century account by al-Bakri.
    Described a city of two towns, Muslim merchant town and capital of animist king and his court.
    After 1076, Ghana was weakened by invasion of Moroccan Almorovids.
    Even after Almorovid retreat, Ghana never recovered.
    Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
  • 23. Part 3: Routes Across the Sahara
    Kingdom of Ghana Artwork
  • 24. Part Four:Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 25. A. Geography
    Large area with many different environmental zone and many geographical obstacles to movement.
    Significant geographical areas:
    Sahel
    Tropical Savanna
    Tropical Rainforest
    Temperate highlands
    Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 26. B. Development of Cultural Unity
    African cultures are highly diverse.
    Estimated 2,000 languages spoken on continent.
    Numerous food production systems.
    Difficulty in communication and trade between groups.
    No foreign power was able to conquer Africa and impose a unified culture.
    Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 27. C. African Cultural Characteristics
    African cultures display certain common features that attest to an underlying cultural unity that some scholars have called “Africanity.”
    One concept was a kingship in which kings were isolated and oversee societies in which the people are arranged in age groups and kinship divisions.
    Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 28. C. More Characteristics
    Other common features include:
    Cultivation with hoe and digging stick
    Use of rhythms in African music
    Functions of dancing and mask wearing in rituals
    Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 29. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
    D. Advent of Iron
    Sub-Saharan agriculture had its origins north of the equator and then spread southward.
    Iron working also began north of the equator and spread to southern Africa by 800 C.E.
    Caused by the Bantu Migrations.
  • 30. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
    Sub-Saharan African Iron Work
  • 31. E. Bantu Migrations
    Original homeland of the Bantu people was in the area on the border of modern Nigeria and Cameroon.
    Suggests that Bantu people spread out toward the east and south through a series of migrations over the period of the first millennium C.E.
    By the eighth century, Bantu-speaking people had reached East Africa.
    Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 32. Part 4: Sub-Saharan Africa
    Bantu Migrations Map
  • 33. Part Five:The Spread of Ideas
  • 34. A. Ideas and Material Evidence
    Very hard to trace dissemination of ideas in preliterate societies.
    Invention of coins – created in Anatolia and spread to Europe, North Africa, and India.
    China made cast copper coins – was this inspired by the Anatolian example?
    Part 5: Spread of Ideas
  • 35. B. Spread of Religion
    Spread of ideas in a deliberate and organized fashion such that we can trace it is a phenomenon of the first millennium C.E.
    Case with spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam
    Part 5: Spread of Ideas
  • 36. B.1. Spread of Buddhism
    Facilitated both by royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary pilgrims and missionaries.
    In India, Mauryan king Ashoka and King Kanishka of the Kushans supported Buddhism.
    Buddhist missionaries from India traveled to a variety of destinations:
    West to Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
    Also went to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Tibet
    Part 5: Spread of Ideas
  • 37. B.1. Buddhism Continued
    Buddhism changed and further developed as it spread.
    Theraveda Buddhism became dominant in Sri Lanka
    Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet
    Chan (Zen) Buddhism in East Asia
    Part 5: Spread of Ideas
  • 38. Part 5: Spread of Ideas
    Bodhieattva at Barnian
    Carved into the side of a cliff at Bamiam, this was one of two monumental Buddhist sculptures near the top of a high mountain pass connecting Kabul, Afghanistan, with the northern parts of the country. Carved in the sixth or seventh century, the sculptures were surrounded by cave dwellings of monks and rock sanctuaries, some dating to the first century B.C.E. (Ian Griffiths/Robert Harding Picture Library)
  • 39. B.2. Spread of Christianity
    Armenia was an important trading center for the Silk Road.
    Mediterranean states spread Christianity to Armenia in order to bring that kingdom over to its side and thus deprive Iran of control of this area.
    The transmission of Christianity to Ethiopia was similarly linked to a Mediterranean Christian attempt to deprive Iran of trade.
    Part 5: Spread of Ideas