Origins of the Crisis in
the Middle East
The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans
Late nineteenth century – Ottoman Empire was in
decline and losing the outlying provinces closest to
– The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman
Empire, sometimes in cooperation, at other times as rivals.
The Young Turks:
– conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan
– advocated centralized rule and Turkification of minorities
– carried out modernizing reforms.
The Turks turned to Germany for assistance and
hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s