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AP WH Chapter 09 PPT


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  • 1. Christian Europe Emerges 300 – 1200 C.E.
  • 2. Byzantine Empire 300 – 1200 C.E.
  • 3. Map of Byzantine Empire
  • 4. Byzantine Empire Video
  • 5. Church and State
    • Roman rule and traditions remained in the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople.
    • The Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople and intervened in church matters.
    • Religious differences and doctrinal disputes abounded, but polytheism was eliminated.
  • 6. Constantinople
  • 7. Church of Hagia Sophia
  • 8. External Threats
    • Byzantine Empire did not break up because of unity of political and religious power.
    • Foreign threats included:
      • Goths and Huns in North
      • Sasanids in East
        • Attacked for over 300 years
  • 9. Losing Power
    • Muslim Arabs took wealthy provinces of Syria, Tunisia, and Egypt from Byzantines.
    • Permanently reduced power of Empire.
    • Empire also experienced declining relations with the popes and princes of Western Europe.
    • Formal break between Latin and Orthodox Churches in 1054.
  • 10. Society and Decline of Urbanism
    • Byzantine Empire experienced a decline of urbanism similar to Rome.
    • Middle class people moved out of cities and into rural areas.
    • Byzantine society was then characterized by a HUGE gap between wealth of aristocrats and poverty of peasants.
  • 11. Family Life
    • Family very rigid
    • Women confined to homes and wore veils if they went out.
    • Byzantine women ruled alongside husbands between 1028 and 1056.
    • Women did not take refuge in nunneries.
  • 12. Economic Intervention
    • At this time, emperors would:
      • Set prices
      • Controlled provision of grain to capital
      • Monopolized trade on certain goods
    • Results:
      • Constantinople was well supplied.
      • Cities and rural areas lagged behind in wealth and technology.
  • 13. Views of Byzantine Empire
    • Western Europeans began to view the Byzantine Empire as a crumbling power.
    • Byzantines thought that westerners were uncouth barbarians.
  • 14. Cultural Achievements
    • Put together collection of Roman laws and edicts under the title Body of Civil Law .
      • Became basis of Western European civil law.
    • Developed technique of making domed buildings.
      • Italian renaissance architects adopted dome in 15 th and 16 th centuries.
  • 15. Early Medieval Europe 300 – 1000 C.E.
  • 16. From the Roman Empire to Germanic Kingdoms…
  • 17. Fifth Century C.E.
    • Roman Empire breaks down
    • Europe is politically fragmented
    • Germanic kings ruling a number of different kingdoms
    • Western Europe continues to suffer invasions as Muslim Arabs and Berbers took Iberian Peninsula and go into France.
  • 18. Charlemagne & the Carolingians
    • The Carolingians united various Frankish kingdoms into a larger empire.
    • Under Charlemagne, this empire includes Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy.
    • Empire was subdivided by Charlemagne’s grandsons and never united again.
  • 19. Charlemagne
  • 20. Charlemagne’s Empire
  • 21. Charlemagne’s Church
  • 22.  
  • 23. Vikings
    • Attacked England, France, and Spain in the late eighth and ninth centuries.
    • Settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066.
  • 24. A Self-Sufficient Economy
    • Fall of Roman Empire brings about:
      • De-Urbanization
      • Decline in Trade
    • Without domination of Rome’s “Great Tradition,” regional elites become self-sufficient and local “small traditions” flourished.
  • 25.  
  • 26. Vassals
    • Vassals held most of a king’s realm
    • Most vassals granted substantial parts of land to their vassals.
    • Kings were weak because they depended on vassals.
  • 27. Fief
    • Kings and nobles granted land (fief) to a man in return for a promise to supply military service.
    • By 10 th century, fiefs became hereditary.
  • 28. Administration
    • Kings and nobles had limited ability to administer and tax their realms.
    • Power was further limited by their inability to tax the vast landholdings of the Church.
    • Most medieval people saw the lord’s manor as government.
  • 29. Manors
    • Self-Sufficient farming estates
    • Primary centers of agricultural production
    • Manors grew from need for self-sufficiency and self-defense.
  • 30. Typical Manor Layout
  • 31. Medieval Diet
    • Northern Diet
    • Beer
    • Lard or Butter
    • Bread
    • Southern Diet
    • Wheat
    • Wine
    • Olive Oil
  • 32. Lord of the Manor
    • Had almost unlimited power over his agricultural workers.
      • Agricultural Workers = Serfs
    • Conditions of agricultural workers varied
    • Tradition of a free peasantry survived in some areas
  • 33. Early Medieval Society in West
    • Class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights.
    • Landholding and military service became inseparable.
    • Military service to a lord = feudalism
  • 34. Military Security
    • Need for security leads to the development of new technology:
      • Stirrup
      • Bigger Horses
      • Armor and Weapons of the knight
    • Equipment was expensive, so knights needed land to support themselves.
  • 35. Knight’s Equipment Horse Bit Spur
  • 36. Women
    • Noble women were pawns in marriage politics.
    • Women could own land.
    • Non-noble women worked alongside the men.
  • 37. The Western Church
  • 38. The Structure of Christian Faith
    • Christian faith and Catholic church, headed by the Pope, were sources of unity and order in the fragmented world of medieval Europe.
    • Church hierarchy tried to deal with challenges to unity by calling councils of bishops to discuss and settle questions of doctrine.
  • 39. Politics and the Church
    • Popes sought to combine their religious power with political power by forging alliances with kings .
    • Finally did so by choosing a German king to be “Holy Roman Emperor ” in 962.
      • In reality, the Holy Roman Empire was not more than a loose coalition of German princes.
  • 40. Holy Roman Empire Map
  • 41. Power Struggle
    • Secular rulers in the Holy Roman Empire argued that they should be able to appoint bishops who held land in fief.
    • Popes disagreed
    • Concordat of Worms .
      • a compromise in 1122
      • Popes could appoint bishops
      • Kings could assign where they worked
  • 42. Origins of Monasticism
    • Developed in Egypt in the 4 th century on the basis of previous religious practices such as:
      • Celibacy
      • Devotion to Prayer
      • Isolation from Society
  • 43. Benedict of Nursia
    • Lived from 480 – 547 C.E.
    • Organized monasteries and supplied them with a set of written rules which governed all aspects of ritual and daily life.
  • 44. Functions of Monasteries
    • Centers of literacy and learning.
    • Refugees for widows and other vulnerable women.
    • Inns and orphanages.
    • Managed their own estates of agricultural land.
  • 45. Monasteries
  • 46. Control
    • Difficult for Catholic church to exercise oversight over monasteries.
    • Reform development started by monastic establishment in 11 th century.
      • Abbey of Cluny sought to improve the administration and discipline of monasteries.
  • 47. Three Legal Traditions
    • Western Europe developed:
      • Germanic feudal law
      • Canon (church law)
      • Roman law
    • Presence of conflicting legal theories and legal jurisdictions was a significant characteristic of Western Europe.
  • 48. Kievan Russia 900 – 1200
  • 49. Geography
    • Includes territory from the Black and Caspian Seas in the south to the Baltic and White Seas in the north.
    • Territory includes series of ecological zones running from east to west.
    • Several navigable rivers.
  • 50. Kievan Russia Map
  • 51. Agriculture
    • Poor agricultural land
    • Short growing season
    • Primitive farming technology
    • Food production was low and trade was necessary to feed the people
  • 52. Early History
    • Inhabited by a number of peoples of different language and ethnic groups whose territory shifted from century to century.
    • Emerged to a pattern of:
      • Slavs in the east
      • Finns in the north
      • Turkic tribes in the south
  • 53. Trade
    • Forest dwellers, steppe nomads, and farmers traded with each other.
    • Long-distance caravan trade linked Russia to the Silk Road.
    • Varangians were active traders on the rivers.
    • Khazar Turks built a trading kingdom at the mouth of the Volga River.
  • 54. Rus
    • Societies of western Slav farmers ruled by Varangian nobles.
    • Most important cities = Kiev and Novogorod
      • Both cities were centers of trade
  • 55. Kiev and Novogorod
    • Had populations of 30,000 to 50,000
      • Much smaller than Constantinople or large Muslim cities
    • Kiev, Novogorod, and other urban areas were centers for craftsmen and artists.
      • Their social status was higher than peasants.
  • 56. Vladimir I
    • In 980, he became Grand Prince of Kiev.
    • Chose Orthodox Christianity as the religion of his state.
    • Imitated the culture of the Byzantine Empire:
      • Built churches
      • Adopted the Cyrillic alphabet
      • Oriented his trade toward the Byzantines.
  • 57. Spread of Christianity
    • Spread very slowly in Kievan Russia.
    • Pagan customs and polygamy persisted until the 12 th century.
    • Christianity eventually took over and became very powerful in the 12 th century.
      • Clergy even functioned as tax collectors for the state.
  • 58. Decline
    • Caused by:
      • Internal political struggles
      • Conflict with external foes
    • Decline happened after 1100.
  • 59. Western Europe Revives 1000 – 1200
  • 60. Reviving Western Europe
    • Population and agricultural production increased in the period from 1000-1200.
      • Caused resurgence of trade
      • Enabled kings to strengthen control
    • Revival because of
      • New technologies
      • Appearance of self-governing cities
  • 61. New Technology
    • Heavy moldboard plow
    • Horse collar
    • Breast-strap harness
  • 62. Italy and Flanders
    • These two cities were the beginning of the emergence of independent, self-governing cities.
      • Relied on manufacturing and trade for income
      • Had legal independence so laws could favor manufacturing and trade
  • 63. More cities emerge…
    • Venice became a dominant sea power
      • Traded in Muslim ports for spices and other goods
    • Ghent imported wool from England and wove it into cloth for export
  • 64. With trade came…
    • Increase in use of high-value gold and silver coins
      • Rarely been used in early medieval Europe
    • During the mid-twelfth century Europeans began minting silver and gold coins.
  • 65. The Crusades 1095-1204
  • 66. Roots of the Crusades
    • Series of Christian military campaigns against Muslims in eastern Mediterranean from 1100 to 1200.
  • 67. Reasons for Crusades
    • Religious zeal
    • Knights’ willingness to engage in church-sanctioned warfare
    • Desire for land on part of younger sons of European nobility
    • Interest in trade
  • 68. The Holy Land
    • Holy Land made focus of Crusades because of:
      • Tradition of pilgrimages,
      • Muslim control of Christian religious sites
      • Byzantine Empire requests for help against Muslims
  • 69. The First Crusade
    • 1095 – Pope Urban II initiated First Crusade by telling Europeans to stop fighting each other and fight the Muslims instead.
  • 70. Impact of Crusades
    • Limited impact on Muslim world.
    • Crusaders ended Europe’s intellectual isolation when Arabic and Greek manuscripts gave Europeans access to work of ancient Greek philosophers.
    • Crusades had significant impact on lifestyle of European elites.