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AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt
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AP WH Chapter 04 large ppt

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  • 1. Greece and Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  • 2. Ancient Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  • 3. Geography and Resources
    • Surrounded by mountains, deserts, and Persian Gulf.
      • Open to attack from Central Asian nomads
    • Limited Natural Resources
      • Water very scarce
        • Caused creation of underground irrigation networks
    • Resources available: copper, tin, iron, gold, silver, and timber
    • Created extensive road system
  • 4. Rise of Persian Empire
    • 550 B.C.E. – Cyrus overthrew Median king and began Persian Empire
    • Persian Empire built by 3 kings:
      • Cyrus
      • Cambyses
      • Darius I
    Darius I Cambyses Cyrus
  • 5. Taking Over
    • Cyrus captures:
      • Lydia in Anatolia (546 B.C.E.)
      • Mesopotamia (539 B.C.E.)
    • Darius I extends empire east to Indus Valley and west to European Thrace.
  • 6. Map of Persian Empire
  • 7. Organization and Ideology
    • Empire divided into 20 provinces after Darius I.
    • Satrap administered each province
      • Satrap was related or connected to royal family, position tended to become hereditary
      • Satraps in distant provinces had much autonomy
    • Provinces required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver
  • 8. Persian Kings
    • Kings seen as aloof and majestic
    • Kings were masters of all subjects and nobles
    • Owned and administered vast tracts of “king’s land” around empire
    • Acted as lawgivers, but allowed people to live according to their traditions
    • Managed administration at capital of Susa
    • Performed ceremonies at Persepolis
  • 9. Zoroastrianism
    • Zoroaster lived between 1700–500 B.C.E.
    • Zoroaster wrote the Gathas or hymns of Zoroastrianism.
    • The universe is dualistic
    • God of good, Ahuramazda, locked in epic battle with the god of evil, Angra Mainyu.
    • This dualism may have influenced Judaism and Christianity.
  • 10. The Rise of the Greeks 1000 – 500 B.C.E.
  • 11. Geography and Resources
    • Part of Mediterranean ecological zone
      • Great area for migration, transfer of crops and technology, trade
    • Greek culture area is Greek mainland and islands and the western edge of Anatolia.
    • No water resources for irrigation
      • Could not support large population
    • Few metal resources, little timber
    • Many harbors
  • 12. Map of Ancient Greece
  • 13. Emergence of the Polis
    • “ Dark Age” after Mycenaean period from 1150 – 800 B.C.E.
      • Ended when contact and trade with Mediterranean lands reestablished.
    • Phoenicians supplied Greeks with alphabetic writing system.
    • Archaic period begins (800 – 480 B.C.E.)
      • Explosive population growth
      • Shift to agricultural economy, import food and materials
      • Development of urbanization, specialization, and polis
  • 14. The Polis
    • Urban center and its rural territory
    • Acropolis
    • Agora
    • Fortified Walls
    • Public Buildings
    • No sharp distinction between urban and rural inhabitants
  • 15. Acropolis at Athens Parthenon
  • 16. War
    • Frequent wars between city-states
    • Used hoplites in warfare
      • Close formation of heavily armored infantrymen to break enemy’s line of defense
    • Soldiers were farmer-citizens who served for short periods of time when needed
  • 17. Colonization
    • Greeks sent excess population to colonies in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
      • Not enough resources to support them in Greek mainland
    • Brought Greeks in contact with other peoples with new ideas
    • Sharpened sense of Greek identity
    • Spurred invention of coins in Lydia during the early sixth century B.C.E.
  • 18. Rule in Greece
    • Emergence of middle class in Archaic Greek society led to one-man rule by tyrants in the mid-seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.
      • Reduced power of traditional elites
    • Tyrants eventually rejected
    • Governments developed in two ways:
      • Oligarchy
      • Democracy
  • 19. New Intellectual Currents
    • Developed concepts of:
      • Individualism
      • Humanism
    • Philosophers question traditional Greek religion.
      • Try to explain rationally why world was created, what it is made of, why it changes.
  • 20. The reason you are in class…
    • Late sixth century B.C.E.
    • “logographers” in Ionia gathered information:
      • Peoples of the Mediterranean
      • Background of important Greek families
    • This method was adopted by Herodotus in Histories .
    • Herodotus collected information about Greeks and Persians going to war AND he tried to explain why.
  • 21. Herodotus He developed the discipline of “history” in its modern sense. History is the Greek word for inquiry.
  • 22. Sparta
    • Polis in the Pelopponese in southern Greece.
    • Sparta took over fertile land of Messenia and enslaved the people to feed themselves.
    • Fear of slave uprising caused Spartans to create a severe and highly militarized society in which all Spartan males trained for the army.
  • 23. Spartan Soldier
  • 24. Spartan Spirit
  • 25. Spartan Warriors
  • 26. Athens
    • Very large hinterland allowed for a population of about 300,000 in fifth century B.C.E.
    • Period of rule by tyrants in sixth century B.C.E.
      • Ejected tyrants and developed a democracy.
    • Pericles completed transition to democracy in 460s-450s.
    • Government included Assembly, Council of 500, and People’s Courts.
  • 27. Athens
  • 28. Struggle of Persia and Greece 526 – 323 B.C.E.
  • 29. Early Encounters
    • 499 B.C.E. – Greek cities in Anatolia stage 5-year revolt against Persian rule.
      • Aided by Eretria and Athens
    • This revolt led to the Persian Wars.
  • 30. First Persian War
    • Generals of Darius I:
      • Captured Eretria
      • Attacked Athens in 490 B.C.E.
    • Attack on Athens foiled when Athenian forces defeated Persians at Marathon.
      • A messenger named Philippidès ran from Marathon to Athens to tell of the victory. He died from exhaustion.
        • The marathon is now run to celebrate his heroism.
  • 31. Second Persian War
    • 480 B.C.E. – Xerxes led large army and fleet against Greeks.
      • Many Greek city-states submitted to his domination.
    • Sparta organized Hellenic League to defeat Persians.
    • Athens organized Delian League to go on offensive and drove Persians out of eastern Mediterranean (except Cyprus).
  • 32. Height of Athenian Power 480 – 323 B.C.E.
  • 33. Classical Period
    • Dominant role of Athens
      • Imperial power because of Delian League
      • Power based on Athenian navy
    • Created trireme – 170 oar boat
      • Lower-class men were rowers
      • Because the rowers were so important, they demanded full rights of citizenship
  • 34. Wealth of Athens
    • Used power to:
      • Carry out profitable trade
      • Extract tribute from subject states
    • Wealth of Athens allowed it to construct massive public works projects, put on grand festivals and support arts and sciences.
  • 35. Socrates
    • One of the most influential philosophers of this time.
    • Focused on ethics and precise meaning of words.
    • Created Socratic Method of question and answer.
    • Charged with corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city.
    • Sentenced to death.
  • 36. The Death of Socrates
  • 37. Plato
    • Explored justice, excellence, and wisdom.
    • Taught that the world as we see it is a pale reflection of a higher, ideal reality.
    • Transitioned from oral to written culture.
    • Read and wrote books
    • Founded a school called “The Academy”
  • 38. Plato’s Academy
  • 39. Philosophy in Ancient Greece
  • 40. Athenian Democracy
    • Very limited in its scope
    • Only free adult males could participate
      • 10-15% of total population
    • Women, slaves, foreigners did not have rights of citizens
  • 41. Athenian Slaves
    • Mostly foreign
    • 1/3 of the population
    • Regarded as property
    • Average family owned 1 or more slaves
    • Treated like domestic servants
    • Provided males with time for political activity
  • 42. Women in Ancient Greece
    • In Sparta – women free and outspoken
    • In Athens – women confined and oppressed
    • Athenian marriages – young women to older men
    • Duties of wife – produce and raise children, weave cloth, cook, and clean
  • 43. Pelopponesian War
    • Imperial Athens upset other city-states
    • 431 B.C.E. – Athenian and Spartan alliances go to war.
    • Sparta, with Persian navy, defeats Athens in 404 B.C.E.
  • 44. Sparta
    • Sparta became very arrogant.
    • This inspired opposition from other city-states.
    • Internal conflict allowed Persia to regain their lost territory in Anatolia.
  • 45. Macedonia
    • Northern Greek Kingdom
    • King Philip developed it into a great military power
    • Strengthened army by:
      • Giving soldiers longer spears
      • Using cavalry and infantry forces
      • Developing new siege equipment like catapults
  • 46. King Philip of Macedonia
  • 47. Macedonian Catapult
  • 48. Alexander the Great
    • Invaded Persia in 336 B.C.E. and won
    • Goal was to conquer the known world
    • Built his own empire as far as Pakistan
    • Used Persian, Greek, and Macedonian officials in his empire
  • 49. Alexander the Great
  • 50. Alexander’s Empire
  • 51. Hellenistic Synthesis
  • 52. Death of Alexander the Great
    • When Alexander died, his empire broke into 3 kingdoms, each ruled by a Macedonian dynasty.
    • This period is the Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.)
  • 53. Seleucid Kingdom
    • Core area of Mesopotamia, Syria, part of Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley.
    • Iran and Indus Valley territory lost in second century B.C.E.
    • Seleucids established new Greek-style cities
    • Maintained Persian style of administrative system
  • 54. Ptolemies
    • Ruled Egypt and sometimes Palestine
    • Took over Egyptian administrative and taxation systems
    • Made Alexandria their capital and encouraged Greek immigration
    • Lifestyle and language of most Egyptian population did not change, but they resented Greek rule
    • Egyptian uprisings became common in early second century B.C.E.
  • 55. Antigonids
    • Ruled Macedonia and parts of Greece
    • Spartans and other city-state confederations resisted Macedonian rule
    • Athenians remained neutral in fight for rule
  • 56. Alexandria
    • Greatest city of the Hellenistic age.
    • Population of 500,000
    • Featured the Mausoleum of Alexander, Library, and Museum.
    • City was a political center, great center of learning, and major trading city.
  • 57. Alexandria
    • Greek city – Greeks had citizenship and participated in government (Assembly and Council)
    • City had public baths, theaters, gymnasiums.
    • City had significant Jewish population that dominated 2 of 5 residential districts
  • 58. Alexandria
  • 59. Hellenization
    • Intermarriage between Greeks and non-Greeks
    • Spread of Greek language and lifestyle
    • Synthesis of indigenous and Greek culture
  • 60. Hellenistic Civilization

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