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  • 1. Greece and Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  • 2. Ancient Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
  • 3. Geography and Resources
    • Surrounded by mountains, deserts, and Persian Gulf.
      • Open to attack from Central Asian nomads
    • Limited Natural Resources
      • Water very scarce
        • Caused creation of underground irrigation networks
    • Resources available: copper, tin, iron, gold, silver, and timber
    • Created extensive road system
  • 4. Rise of Persian Empire
    • 550 B.C.E. – Cyrus overthrew Median king and began Persian Empire
    • Persian Empire built by 3 kings:
      • Cyrus
      • Cambyses
      • Darius I
    Darius I Cambyses Cyrus
  • 5. Taking Over
    • Cyrus captures:
      • Lydia in Anatolia (546 B.C.E.)
      • Mesopotamia (539 B.C.E.)
    • Darius I extends empire east to Indus Valley and west to European Thrace.
  • 6. Map of Persian Empire
  • 7. Organization and Ideology
    • Empire divided into 20 provinces after Darius I.
    • Satrap administered each province
      • Satrap was related or connected to royal family, position tended to become hereditary
      • Satraps in distant provinces had much autonomy
    • Provinces required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver
  • 8. Persian Kings
    • Kings seen as aloof and majestic
    • Kings were masters of all subjects and nobles
    • Owned and administered vast tracts of “king’s land” around empire
    • Acted as lawgivers, but allowed people to live according to their traditions
    • Managed administration at capital of Susa
    • Performed ceremonies at Persepolis
  • 9. Zoroastrianism
    • Zoroaster lived between 1700–500 B.C.E.
    • Zoroaster wrote the Gathas or hymns of Zoroastrianism.
    • The universe is dualistic
    • God of good, Ahuramazda, locked in epic battle with the god of evil, Angra Mainyu.
    • This dualism may have influenced Judaism and Christianity.
  • 10. The Rise of the Greeks 1000 – 500 B.C.E.
  • 11. Geography and Resources
    • Part of Mediterranean ecological zone
      • Great area for migration, transfer of crops and technology, trade
    • Greek culture area is Greek mainland and islands and the western edge of Anatolia.
    • No water resources for irrigation
      • Could not support large population
    • Few metal resources, little timber
    • Many harbors
  • 12. Map of Ancient Greece
  • 13. Emergence of the Polis
    • “ Dark Age” after Mycenaean period from 1150 – 800 B.C.E.
      • Ended when contact and trade with Mediterranean lands reestablished.
    • Phoenicians supplied Greeks with alphabetic writing system.
    • Archaic period begins (800 – 480 B.C.E.)
      • Explosive population growth
      • Shift to agricultural economy, import food and materials
      • Development of urbanization, specialization, and polis
  • 14. The Polis
    • Urban center and its rural territory
    • Acropolis
    • Agora
    • Fortified Walls
    • Public Buildings
    • No sharp distinction between urban and rural inhabitants
  • 15. Acropolis at Athens Parthenon
  • 16. War
    • Frequent wars between city-states
    • Used hoplites in warfare
      • Close formation of heavily armored infantrymen to break enemy’s line of defense
    • Soldiers were farmer-citizens who served for short periods of time when needed
  • 17. Colonization
    • Greeks sent excess population to colonies in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
      • Not enough resources to support them in Greek mainland
    • Brought Greeks in contact with other peoples with new ideas
    • Sharpened sense of Greek identity
    • Spurred invention of coins in Lydia during the early sixth century B.C.E.
  • 18. Rule in Greece
    • Emergence of middle class in Archaic Greek society led to one-man rule by tyrants in the mid-seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.
      • Reduced power of traditional elites
    • Tyrants eventually rejected
    • Governments developed in two ways:
      • Oligarchy
      • Democracy
  • 19. New Intellectual Currents
    • Developed concepts of:
      • Individualism
      • Humanism
    • Philosophers question traditional Greek religion.
      • Try to explain rationally why world was created, what it is made of, why it changes.
  • 20. The reason you are in class…
    • Late sixth century B.C.E.
    • “logographers” in Ionia gathered information:
      • Peoples of the Mediterranean
      • Background of important Greek families
    • This method was adopted by Herodotus in Histories .
    • Herodotus collected information about Greeks and Persians going to war AND he tried to explain why.
  • 21. Herodotus He developed the discipline of “history” in its modern sense. History is the Greek word for inquiry.
  • 22. Sparta
    • Polis in the Pelopponese in southern Greece.
    • Sparta took over fertile land of Messenia and enslaved the people to feed themselves.
    • Fear of slave uprising caused Spartans to create a severe and highly militarized society in which all Spartan males trained for the army.
  • 23. Spartan Soldier
  • 24. Spartan Spirit
  • 25. Spartan Warriors
  • 26. Athens
    • Very large hinterland allowed for a population of about 300,000 in fifth century B.C.E.
    • Period of rule by tyrants in sixth century B.C.E.
      • Ejected tyrants and developed a democracy.
    • Pericles completed transition to democracy in 460s-450s.
    • Government included Assembly, Council of 500, and People’s Courts.
  • 27. Athens
  • 28. Struggle of Persia and Greece 526 – 323 B.C.E.
  • 29. Early Encounters
    • 499 B.C.E. – Greek cities in Anatolia stage 5-year revolt against Persian rule.
      • Aided by Eretria and Athens
    • This revolt led to the Persian Wars.
  • 30. First Persian War
    • Generals of Darius I:
      • Captured Eretria
      • Attacked Athens in 490 B.C.E.
    • Attack on Athens foiled when Athenian forces defeated Persians at Marathon.
      • A messenger named Philippidès ran from Marathon to Athens to tell of the victory. He died from exhaustion.
        • The marathon is now run to celebrate his heroism.
  • 31. Second Persian War
    • 480 B.C.E. – Xerxes led large army and fleet against Greeks.
      • Many Greek city-states submitted to his domination.
    • Sparta organized Hellenic League to defeat Persians.
    • Athens organized Delian League to go on offensive and drove Persians out of eastern Mediterranean (except Cyprus).
  • 32. Height of Athenian Power 480 – 323 B.C.E.
  • 33. Classical Period
    • Dominant role of Athens
      • Imperial power because of Delian League
      • Power based on Athenian navy
    • Created trireme – 170 oar boat
      • Lower-class men were rowers
      • Because the rowers were so important, they demanded full rights of citizenship
  • 34. Wealth of Athens
    • Used power to:
      • Carry out profitable trade
      • Extract tribute from subject states
    • Wealth of Athens allowed it to construct massive public works projects, put on grand festivals and support arts and sciences.
  • 35. Socrates
    • One of the most influential philosophers of this time.
    • Focused on ethics and precise meaning of words.
    • Created Socratic Method of question and answer.
    • Charged with corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city.
    • Sentenced to death.
  • 36. The Death of Socrates
  • 37. Plato
    • Explored justice, excellence, and wisdom.
    • Taught that the world as we see it is a pale reflection of a higher, ideal reality.
    • Transitioned from oral to written culture.
    • Read and wrote books
    • Founded a school called “The Academy”
  • 38. Plato’s Academy
  • 39. Philosophy in Ancient Greece
  • 40. Athenian Democracy
    • Very limited in its scope
    • Only free adult males could participate
      • 10-15% of total population
    • Women, slaves, foreigners did not have rights of citizens
  • 41. Athenian Slaves
    • Mostly foreign
    • 1/3 of the population
    • Regarded as property
    • Average family owned 1 or more slaves
    • Treated like domestic servants
    • Provided males with time for political activity
  • 42. Women in Ancient Greece
    • In Sparta – women free and outspoken
    • In Athens – women confined and oppressed
    • Athenian marriages – young women to older men
    • Duties of wife – produce and raise children, weave cloth, cook, and clean
  • 43. Pelopponesian War
    • Imperial Athens upset other city-states
    • 431 B.C.E. – Athenian and Spartan alliances go to war.
    • Sparta, with Persian navy, defeats Athens in 404 B.C.E.
  • 44. Sparta
    • Sparta became very arrogant.
    • This inspired opposition from other city-states.
    • Internal conflict allowed Persia to regain their lost territory in Anatolia.
  • 45. Macedonia
    • Northern Greek Kingdom
    • King Philip developed it into a great military power
    • Strengthened army by:
      • Giving soldiers longer spears
      • Using cavalry and infantry forces
      • Developing new siege equipment like catapults
  • 46. King Philip of Macedonia
  • 47. Macedonian Catapult
  • 48. Alexander the Great
    • Invaded Persia in 336 B.C.E. and won
    • Goal was to conquer the known world
    • Built his own empire as far as Pakistan
    • Used Persian, Greek, and Macedonian officials in his empire
  • 49. Alexander the Great
  • 50. Alexander’s Empire
  • 51. Hellenistic Synthesis
  • 52. Death of Alexander the Great
    • When Alexander died, his empire broke into 3 kingdoms, each ruled by a Macedonian dynasty.
    • This period is the Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.)
  • 53. Seleucid Kingdom
    • Core area of Mesopotamia, Syria, part of Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley.
    • Iran and Indus Valley territory lost in second century B.C.E.
    • Seleucids established new Greek-style cities
    • Maintained Persian style of administrative system
  • 54. Ptolemies
    • Ruled Egypt and sometimes Palestine
    • Took over Egyptian administrative and taxation systems
    • Made Alexandria their capital and encouraged Greek immigration
    • Lifestyle and language of most Egyptian population did not change, but they resented Greek rule
    • Egyptian uprisings became common in early second century B.C.E.
  • 55. Antigonids
    • Ruled Macedonia and parts of Greece
    • Spartans and other city-state confederations resisted Macedonian rule
    • Athenians remained neutral in fight for rule
  • 56. Alexandria
    • Greatest city of the Hellenistic age.
    • Population of 500,000
    • Featured the Mausoleum of Alexander, Library, and Museum.
    • City was a political center, great center of learning, and major trading city.
  • 57. Alexandria
    • Greek city – Greeks had citizenship and participated in government (Assembly and Council)
    • City had public baths, theaters, gymnasiums.
    • City had significant Jewish population that dominated 2 of 5 residential districts
  • 58. Alexandria
  • 59. Hellenization
    • Intermarriage between Greeks and non-Greeks
    • Spread of Greek language and lifestyle
    • Synthesis of indigenous and Greek culture
  • 60. Hellenistic Civilization