evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d    20.08.2009     12:40 Uhr    Seite 24          VESTAMID® TERRA                              ...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d           20.08.2009   12:41 Uhr   Seite 25                                                   ...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d           20.08.2009      12:41 Uhr           Seite 26                                     the...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d               20.08.2009   12:41 Uhr   Seite 27                                               ...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d               20.08.2009         12:41 Uhr        Seite 28                                    ...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d           20.08.2009   12:41 Uhr      Seite 29                                                ...
evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d              20.08.2009          12:41 Uhr         Seite 30              In general, however, ...
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Vestamid Terra - Hightech Plastics From The Field


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Vestamid Terra - Hightech Plastics From The Field

  1. 1. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:40 Uhr Seite 24 VESTAMID® TERRA High-Tech Plastics from th DR. HARALD HÄGER, DR. JÖRG LIMPER 24 elements28 EVONIK SCIENCE NEWSLETTER
  2. 2. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 25 DESIGNING WITH POLYMERSm the Field High-performance plastics are classical petrochemistry products. But with oil in ever shorter supply, an alternative is urgently needed. The experts from the Performance Polymers Business Unit of Evonik Industries have now developed polyamides from biogenic raw materials. The new polymers fulfill demanding technical requirements and are an answer to the rising demand for resource-efficient products. B efore humans discovered oil, coal and natural gas, they primarily used plants to meet their needs. Wood for heating and construction, wool, fibrous and dye plants for textiles, medicinal plants for all kinds of diseases—these were everyday products obtained from the fields and forests. Because fossil raw materials are finite, renewable raw materials once again represent a genuine alternative—with the key difference that we now have modern processes that allow many new products and applications to be converted far more efficiently. Renewable raw materials help slow down climate change because they bind the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as they grow, and actually conserve carbon dioxide when they are used. They also help ensure security of supply—biomasses are continuously renewable and can be cultivated and used in many regions of the earth. Wanted: high-quality bio-alternatives Bio-based raw materials are gaining increasing importance even in technically demanding fields of applications. Their big advantage is their smaller CO2 footprint: When plant ingredients, for example, are converted into chemical raw materials and >>> elements28 EVONIK SCIENCE NEWSLETTER 25
  3. 3. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 26 then processed, energy is used and carbon dioxide is Comprehensive expertise in polyamides generated, but it tends to be far less than using fossil- as a basis for development based raw materials. Even though high-performance plastics are Some years ago, Evonik started several projects to classical petrochemistry products, polymer chains determine the potential of renewable raw materials can also be completely or partially synthesized from for the production of high-performance plastics. bio-based components. This is why the experts of One focus of these projects is the development of Evonik’s Performance Polymers Business Unit are bio-based polyamides. For obvious reasons: Under addressing the question of where renewable raw the trademark VESTAMID®, Evonik has been produ- materials can be used in the high-performance cing polyamides for about 40 years and has compre- plastics portfolio. hensive expertise not only in the manufacture but in One of the driving forces for the development of the use of polyamides. The portfolio includes mold- bio-based polymers at Evonik is the company’s own ing compounds made from polyamide 12, polyamide demand for more resource efficiency and greater 612, polyamide 12 elastomers (PEBA), and most sustainability for the raw materials used. However, recently, polyphthalamide (PPA). The established the market is another driver. More and more cus- materials have been used by renowned manufactu- tomers are no longer only interested in the technical rers for decades and already cover a broad spectrum profile of a plastic but also in its environmental of applications. aspects—in the lifecycle assessment of products and In general, long-chained, semi-crystalline poly- the type and origin of the raw materials. amides absorb little water, are resistant to polar and non-polar solvents, have a low creep tendency and high impact strength, and can be used in a wide VESTAMID® Terra currently comprises the H H range of temperatures, from –50 to +120 °C. No three variants PA 610, other polymer material in this price class supplies PA 1010 and PA 1012 N N this property profile. This is why VESTAMID® has proven itself for 6 8 O O many years for a wide variety of uses, and the dif- n ferent variants are mainly used for long-lived and VESTAMID® Terra HS technically demanding applications. Examples in- PA 610 Based up to 62% on bio-renewables clude fuel and brake lines in cars, oil delivery lines and gas pressure pipes, filaments such as bristles for H H toothbrushes, shoe soles for high-quality sports shoes, cable housings, housings for anti-electrostatic N N devices, and catheters. 10 8 O O Castor oil as raw material n VESTAMID® Terra DS A look at history reveals that biogenic raw materials PA 1010 are nothing new in the field of polyamide chemistry. Based up to 100% on bio-renewables Polyamide 66 was originally produced from compo- nents of oat husks. Today, castor oil plays the biggest H H role in the production of polyamides. Castor oil is N N known primarily as an effective laxative, but because of its good lubrication properties, it is also used as a 10 10 motor oil additive (Castrol®). For polymer chemists, O O n on the other hand, it is an attractive raw material VESTAMID® Terra DD especially suited to chemical syntheses because of its PA 1012 unusual homogeneous composition. It consists of the Based up to 45% on bio-renewables triglyceride of ricinoleic acid, in addition to other glycerides of various C18 fatty acids. >>> 26 elements28 E V O N I K SCIENCE NEWSLETTER
  4. 4. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 27 DESIGNING WITH POLYMERS Proven material for demanding jobs: VESTAMID®, the high-performance polyamide from Evonik, which is used in gas pressure lines for pressures between 10 and 20 bar (top), in offshore oil pipelines (below left), and in the air conditioning systems of cars (below right) elements28 EVONIK SCIENCE NEWSLETTER 27
  5. 5. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 28 Here, Evonik’s objective was to bring bio-based Correlation between the melting temperature Tm and the carbonamide group concentration (ratio CO-NH2 to CH2). The bio-based PA 610 has the polyamides to market maturity. To this end, the com- highest melting point of the polyamides offered by Evonik, while the bio-based pany focused its first efforts not on replacing tried variants PA 1010 and PA 1012 occupy an intermediate position between the and tested fossil-based products but on selectively long-chain and short-chain polyamides expanding the range of products and, therefore, Tm in °C CO-NH2/CH2-ratio applications. The result is VESTAMID® Terra—a 250 0.16 group of new polyamides whose monomers are 0.14 based partly or completely on renewable raw materi- 200 0.12 als. VESTAMID® Terra comprises several variants— 150 0.10 PA 610, PA 1010 and PA 1012—that differ in their 0.08 property profile and close gaps in the currently 100 0.06 accessible property profile of polyamides. 0.04 50 0.02 New properties tapped 0 0 PA PA PA PA PA PA The bio-based PA 610 is the polycondensation prod- 610 612 1010 1012 1212 12 uct of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine and 1,10-decane- å å å dioic acid (sebacic acid). Technically, this variant occupies a position between high-performance polyamide 612 and the standard polyamides PA 6 Correlation between carbonamide group concentration (ratio CO-NH2 to CH2) and water absorbtion. The bio-based variants PA 1010 and PA 1012 occupy and PA 66. Because sebacic acid is obtained from an intermediate position here, too, between the long-chain and short-chain castor oil, PA 610 is based up to 62 percent on natural polyamides, while PA 610 displays the highest water-absorbing capacity after resources. 14 days PA 1010 is synthesized from 1,10-decamethy- Water-absorbing capacity after 14 days CO-NH2/CH2-ratio lenediamine and sebacic acid. With its property 3.5 0.16 profile, it closes the gap between long-chained high- 3.0 0.14 performance polyamides like PA 12 and PA 1212 2.5 0.12 and the shorter-chained standard polyamides PA 6 0.10 and PA 66. Because both monomers are obtained 2.0 0.08 from castor oil, PA 1010 is a material based up to 1.5 100 percent on biological resources. Finally, 0.06 1.0 PA 1012 is created from the bio-based C10-diamine 0.04 0.5 and fossil dodecanedioic acid and, therefore, consists 0.02 of up to 45 percent renewable raw materials. 0 0 PA PA PA PA PA PA å610 612 1010 å å 1012 1212 12 Short transport routes for more ecology Castor oil is obtained from the seed of the African castor oil plant, which belongs to the Spurge family. Even with the tensile modulus, polyamides PA 1010 and PA 1012, offered under the trade name VESTAMID® Terra, close the gap Castor oil plants grow primarily in India, Brazil and between long-chain and short-chain polyamides China. Each year, about 550,000 metric tons of the Tensile modulus in N/mm2 oil is sold commercially, with Germany importing 2,500 over 30,000 metric tons annually. The example shows that trade with biogenic raw materials is a 2,000 global industry, in which Europe and the United States, as a rule, have to import large quantities to 1,500 meet their demand. This raises the question of how environmentally sound trade with renewable raw 1,000 materials is when biomasses have to be transported 500 long distances from the point of cultivation to the processing location, and from the processing location 0 to the customer. PA PA PA PA PA PA Evonik’s strategy takes this question into 610 612 1010 1012 1212 12 å å å account: Since the end of last year, the company has produced bio-based polyamides, in addition to the established products, in a plant south of Shanghai. The monomers used for production are sebacic acid 28 elements28 E V O N I K SCIENCE NEWSLETTER
  6. 6. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 29 DESIGNING WITH POLYMERS (C10 diacid), as well as the C10 diamine produced from sebacic acid. Sebacic acid is obtained from the castor oil methyl ester, while C10 diamine is ob- tained from sebacic acid and additional chemical reactions. In the plant near Shanghai, the monomers are then polymerized and processed to molding com- pounds. Transporting the monomers to Germany— for further processing, for example—is unnecessary. In this way, Evonik is not only optimizing the flow of materials but also producing as closely as possible to the customer: Asia, in particular, where numerous renewable raw materials are cultivated and harves- ted for chemical products, is a region which Evonik has targeted for future growth. Also suited to extreme challenges There is no shortage of suitable applications for VESTAMID® Terra. PA 610 is highly temperature- resistant and is thus well suited for parts that must withstand hot conditions, such as the engine covers of cars. PA 1010 is also extremely rigid and, as a fiber-reinforced variant, especially well suited to high-stress housings and similar applications. In con- trast, PA 1012 is transparent and stands out for its high impact resistance. As an additive in the soles of Test passed with flying colors: Close- premium athletic footwear, it improves absorption to-the-engine installation of a charge air duct made of VESTAMID® HTplus, and enhances elasticity. All three representatives of a polyphthalamide from Evonik, the VESTAMID® Terra family are semicrystalline in a Lotus Exige race car. Evonik will and, therefore, display high mechanical and chemi- also offer a bio-based version of the material beginning in summer 2009 cal stability. Bio-based polyamides can be used even for extreme applications. One polymer capable of parti- cularly high performance is VESTAMID® HTplus—a polyphthalamide (PPA) from Evonik that permanently resists external temperatures over 180 °C. It is used, input, if damaging or toxic emissions are released for example, as a charge air duct in turbochargers, and during the lifecycle of the plastic, or if the required will also be offered in a bio-based version beginning transport distances are long. Even when the cultiva- in the summer of 2009. In the Lotus Exige sportscar tion of biomasses directly competes with food pro- from Great Britain, for example, VESTAMID® HT plus duction, technical use can be questionable. In this reduced the weight of the charge air duct by half case the castor oil plant receives a high score: compared to the metal duct, and also improved the Because of its drought resistance, it is primarily culti- flow properties—saving fuel and minimizing CO2 vated in sites that are unsuitable for other useful emissions. plants. Because so many factors come into play, a direct Cultivation under extreme comparison of bio-based and fossil raw materials for conditions is also possible chemical production is a complex matter. Previous studies with VESTAMID® Terra prove that the biova- As the development of the VESTAMID® Terra family riants have an edge on other products when it comes proves, raw materials from the field are not only to greenhouse gas potential and primary energy good for energy generation or short-lived products consumption. PA 610, for example, requires signifi- but also for high-stress high-tech plastics. However, cantly lower primary energy consumption than the being “bio-based” does not necessarily make some- chemically similar fossil-based PA 6 or PA 66. For the thing sustainable and eco-friendly. For example, a 100 percent biological PA 1010, experts anticipate bio-based product is not practical if the use of renew- an even lower greenhouse gas potential. Studies are able raw materials requires a particularly high energy currently still underway. >>> elements28 EVONIK SCIENCE NEWSLETTER 29
  7. 7. evo_ele28_e.qxd:evo_ele25_d 20.08.2009 12:41 Uhr Seite 30 In general, however, a well-balanced coexistance of fossil-based and biological raw materials appears Global Warming Potential* (GWP) of VESTAMID® Terra. Recent studies show that polyamides based on bio-renewables outperform purely fossil-based types. to be the most workable solution, because even new If the process conditions are optimized, the values can be lowered even further. streams of biomasses have to be professionally *Tentative data. Source: Evonik, PE International managed. Also, new products—whether partially or completely bio-based—are only really sustainable Current process conditions Optimized process conditions when they meet environmental, economic and social Polyamide GWP in kg CO2 criteria to the same degree: when they show low equivalent/kg material CO2 emissions and resource consumption, open up VESTAMID® Terra HS (PA 610, 62% based on bio-renewables) 4.1 2.6 sustainable markets, and not least, guarantee the VESTAMID Terra DS (PA 1010, 100% based on bio-renewables) ® 2.8 1.1 customer high quality. VESTAMID® Terra meets all VESTAMID® Terra DD (PA 1012, 100% based on bio-renewables) 3.0 1.5 of these criteria. Evonik produces VESTAMID® Terra at a plant located south of Shanghai DR. HARALD HÄGER DR. JÖRG LIMPER Born in 1968 Born in 1960 Harald Häger is the Vice President of Process and Jörg Limper is responsible for the Lifestyle Market Product Development in the Evonik High Performance Segment in Evonik’s High Performance Polymers Polymers Business Line; his work focuses on C12 Business Line. After studying agricultural sciences and chemistry, long-chain aliphatic polyamides, PPA, PEEK, earning his Ph.D. at Justus Liebig University Gießen bio-renewable materials, and lifecycle assessments. (Germany), he started his career in 1989 at Boehringer He holds a degree in chemistry from Philips University Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH. Limper held a number of in Marburg (Germany). After earning his Ph.D. in 1996, positions there—his last position being head of R&D Häger worked for almost two years as a PostDoc at the coordination with responsibility for planning and con- university of Dublin (Ireland) and then joined the High trolling research projects—before moving to the Feed Performance Polymers Business Line in 1998 as an Additives Business Unit of the former Degussa in 1995. R&D employee. In 2003, he transferred to the newly established Functional Films Beginning in 1996 he headed Animal Nutrition at Applied Technology. In 1999 he Project House, where he was responsible for the development of high-performance took charge of marketing for the feed additive amino acid DL-methionine, and in nano-composites and the corresponding processing technologies. Häger accepted his 2004 he also assumed marketing responsibility for the amino acid L-lysine. Limper current position in 2006 after the successful completion of the project house. has worked in his current position since 2006. +49 2365 49-2351, harald.haeger@evonik.com +49 2365 49-9689, joerg.limper@evonik.com 30 elements28 E V O N I K SCIENCE NEWSLETTER