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Hydrogen cars
 

Hydrogen cars

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Hydrogen as a Transport Fuel: The Key to Reducing UK Oil Dependence?...

Hydrogen as a Transport Fuel: The Key to Reducing UK Oil Dependence?

Speaker: Prof. Kevin Kendall (Birmingham University, School of Chemical Engineering)

Professor Kevin Kendall has been researching hydrogen and fuel cells for 30 years. He was responsible for the first hydrogen filling station in England, which has fuelled hydrogen vehicles running on the Birmingham University campus since 2008. But what is the full potential of hydrogen as a transport fuel? When can we expect affordable mass production of fuel cell vehicles to occur? How can large quantities of hydrogen be produced cleanly? Prof. Kendall will address these issues and take questions from the floor.

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Hydrogen cars Hydrogen cars Presentation Transcript

  • HYDROGEN CARS Kevin Kendall & Iain Staffell Chemical Engineering University of Birmingham k.kendall@bham.ac.uk
  • SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEM• Transport takes about 30% of our energy planes, ships, trucks, cars etc• All of it is fossil fuel; carbon problem• Half of this is our cars WE NEED TO TAKE PERSONAL ACTION
  • UK OIL AND GAS SUPPLY ANDDEMAND
  • CARS CAUSE DEATH• Approx 8,500 people die in UK as a result of particulate emissions from vehicles• Every 10 µg/m3 PM10 =1% increase mortality (all cause) [COMEAP Prof Jon Ayres]
  • ANSWER: ELECTRIC CARS• Are electric cars better?• CABLED demonstration project• Early indicative results• Solve problems with hydrogen hybrid NEEDS ACTION IN BIRMINGHAM
  • Well to Wheel Approach for Fossil Fuels from Refinement to Distribution to Car
  • Well to Wheel Approach for Electricity from Generation via Transmission to Car and Distribution
  • Comparison of Well to Wheel Efficiency Approximate differences in efficiency100 85 ICV 20 45 35 50 100 EV
  • Possible New GenerationWind Off-shore wind Wave Solar Nuclear
  • ONE SOLUTION 1.4 kW Feed in tariff 40p/unit Save £500/year Cost £7000 Return 8%
  • 25 delivered 12 Dec 2009
  • CABLED – Coventry And Birmingham Low Emission Demonstrator •Consortium of 13 organisations •Arup as Project Managers •6 vehicle manufacturers •E.ON – electricity supplier •Birmingham City Council •Coventry City Council •3 universities • Aston • Birmingham • Coventry •£7.5 M subsidy from TSB & AWM
  • RESULTNominal Range 80 milesTrue range 56 milesWorst 30 milesAverage trip 20 miles
  • PROBLEMS OF BATTERY CARS • Low range a problem • Too long to charge up makes life difficult • No charging points real pain • Cycle life – not known 50 cycles no problem
  • HYDROGEN HYBRID CAR• Hydrogen gives energy storage• Microcab- fuel cell recharges battery• Smaller battery
  • BENEFITS OF HYBRID FC vehicle1. Small fuel cell2. Lighter + cheaper batteries3. No deep discharge ; long life4. Fast refuelEconomic, Low mass,Long life, Rapid refuel
  • Fuel cell hybrid car 2005£50k prototype vs £4M for GM
  • MICROCAB & HYDROGEN STATION
  • Mail Run • Mail Run testMail van movieReal operators • Mail run operations • Improve system efficiency • Single vehicle approval • Component improvements • Larger fuel cell- Loughborough
  • RESULTS• Combined 3,000km travelled (approx. 3,000 trips around campus)• Racked up 5,000 hours operational time (>2,000 in the leading vehicle)• Over 120 refuelling events (58kg of hydrogen transferred with no incidents)
  • Tank to wheel efficiency 31 MJ 18 MJ traction 42 MJ 28 MJ 38 MJ @ 48V @ 25-30V 100 MJHydrogen Motor losses (37%) Battery charging DC converter (10%) losses (20%) Power for auxiliary equipment (9%) Fuel cell losses (58%)
  • Proposed Microcab Improvements Voltage based • Ensure batteries are left at high SOC • Cut off fuel cell before inefficiency creeps in FC shut-off • Cost: £10 • Increase top speed to 40 mphUpgrade motor • Efficiency 63% -> 88% • Cost: £2,000 for 10 kW • More storage / less weight (90 Wh/kg)Li-ion batteries • Greater charge/discharge efficiency • Cost: £2,500 for 5 kWh • 2 fuel cells in seriesNovel FC / DCDC • No DC converters? configurations • Cost: £3000
  • So, what does all this mean?• How does the Microcab compare with other hydrogen vehicles?• How do these compare with today’s cars?
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0 ) m k / J M ( 1.5 n o i t p m Honda Clarity 2008 uKarls 1.0 n Kordesch o 1970 c l e u F 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of major FCVs 2.5 Average new car: 30 mpgUS 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noi Toyota Prius: 50 mpgUStpmus 1.0nocleuF Hypercar: 100 mpgUS 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of UK prototypes 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • Fuel economy of UK prototypes 2.5 2.0)mk/JM( 1.5noitpmus 1.0nocleuF 100+ mpg equivalent 0.5 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Vehicle mass (kg)
  • CONCLUSIONS• Electric cars are coming• CABLED project is demonstrating• Hydrogen cars can solve problems long range rapid refill