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  • 1. Database Processing:Fundamentals, Design, and Implementation Chapter One: Introduction 1
  • 2. Chapter 1• Q1: Why Data Base? 2
  • 3. A1: To make decision according to created collection of facts 3
  • 4. Q2: You are working in Production, how to decide whether or not to stop the product of 20 items in your company. 4
  • 5. A2:Collect Data  Convert data to Information  make Decision 5
  • 6. Q3:Collect data  So what ? What to consider in collecting data? 6
  • 7. A3:We have to consider the following problems : not interpreted data Mass of data (Non structured data) I do not like the data Biased data Wrong data Not accurate Imprecise - Interpreted in many meaning 7
  • 8. For the above reasons and others we have to make so manyconsiderations and good knowledge of how to deal with data.The notion of dealing with data is called database; It includes: DB design DB Modeling DB Redesign Components of DB Relational concept of DB Normalization of DB Single access to DB Multi-user access DB Application on Db (VB, JAVA, XML, ASP, ..) 8
  • 9. The new trend of DB in the age of internetInternet changed DB strategy from just publishing factsto interaction between DBs and users in dynamic wayThis new trajectory of DB makes people with this fieldone of the most wanted worker in business 9
  • 10. WHY solid and good DB ?let us study the following DB: Rent Company ListContractor Equipment Phone $ rate/day Start date End date $charge and so onH & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….JDS N 666 33 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$OZ opics H 777 55 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp B 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp C 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp D 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….Mitel F 555 12 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….…..……Q4: Find out the problems from the above DB – table?The problems justify the need for good DB strategies and solid designprocedures 10
  • 11. Problem-1: Rent Company ListContractor Equipment Phone $ rate/day Start date End date $charge and so onH & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….JDS N 666 33 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$OZ opics H 777 55 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp B 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp C 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp D 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….Mitel F 555 12 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….…..If there is change in phone number field for the H & C company, we have tosearch all fields and change them one by one.If the list contains 10 000 rows then 10 000 rows must be searched.LENGTHY AND TEDIOUS PROCEDURE as well as possibility of makingerrorIf you forgot to update one or more rows of H&C company THEN you will bestack in the problem of DATA INCONSISTENCY,GOOD DB DESIGN must eliminate the occurrence of INCONSISTENCY inthe Data 11
  • 12. Problem-2: Rent Company ListContractor Equipment Phone $ rate/day Start date End date $charge and so onH & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….JDS N 666 33 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$OZ opics H 777 55 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp B 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp C 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp D 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….Mitel F 555 12 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….…..……If the company H&C is permanent client of the Rental company, i.e. in oneyear they have at least 1000 events or more THEN you have to repeat thecommon fields (such as Address, Tel No) 1000 times; again LENGTHYPROCEDUE AND MORE SPACE NEEDED 12
  • 13. Problem 3 - 5  If the rental company uses PC for its data, then they  stack with problem of memory capacity. Good DB designer must handle this problem by eliminating the redundancy  Redundancy elimination in the DB will save time in the search & transaction processes. 13
  • 14. Problem 6: Rent Company ListContractor Equipment Phone $ rate/day Start date End date $charge and so onH & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….JDS N 666 33 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$OZ opics H 777 55 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp B 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp C 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….H & C Comp D 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….Mitel F 555 12 11/02/04 1/9/04 333$H & C Comp A 222 11 11/11/04 12/12/04 444$ ….…..……If the client Mitel changed their mind and cancel the rental orderTHEN the DB designer deletes the row of Mitel client this will cause lost ofdata which might be needed for future events.Good DB designer must think of such problems. 14
  • 15. Problems could be more if you are using shared DB:Just imagine if the data is shared by many users in the company ,i.e. on different PCsThen any change in the phone number by one user cause toinconsistency, because other users still have the same old notupdated numberOR the DB administrator has to walk around the PC’s and updatethe phone number NOT PRACTICAL – TIME CONSUNING 15
  • 16. Other problems Accounting want to keep track of the status of invoices Sales want to keep track of contract approval Customer support want to know which , where when problems occurred to deliver an order in time (a sort of SCM) job privacy (i.e. no other department see what they are doing)Power failure cause to damage or lost of DBGood pack up systemHENCE the need of security and privacy and DB Integrity. 16
  • 17. The Characteristics of Databases• The purpose of a database is to help people track things of interest to them• Data is stored in tables, which have rows and columns like a spreadsheet. A database may have multiple tables, where each table stores data about a different thing• Each row in a table stores data about an occurrence or instance of the thing of interest• A database stores data and relationships 17
  • 18. Data in Tables 18
  • 19. The Key Characteristic ofDatabases: Related Tables 19
  • 20. Naming Conventions in this Textbook• Table Names are written with all capital letters: – STUDENT, CLASS, GRADE• Column names are written with an initial capital letter, and compound names are written with a capital letter on each word: – Term, Section, ClassNumber, StudentName 20
  • 21. Databases Create Information• Data = Recorded facts and figures• Information = Knowledge derived from data• Databases record data, but they do so in such a way that we can produce information from the data – The data on STUDENTs, CLASSes and GRADEs could produce information about each student’s GPA 21
  • 22. Database Examples• Types of DB• Personal database – 1 user; < 10 MB• Workgroup database – < 25 users; < 100 MB• Organizational database – Hundreds to thousands users – >1 Trillion bytes, possibly several databases 22
  • 23. Components of a DatabaseSystem: Microsoft Access 23
  • 24. Microsoft Access• Microsoft Access is a low-end product intended for individual users and small workgroups• MS Access tries to hide much of the underlying database technology from the user• A good strategy for beginners, but not for database professionals• NOTE: MS Access is discussed in detail in Appendix A 24
  • 25. MS Access in Detail 25
  • 26. Applications, the DBMS and SQL• Applications are the computer programs that users work with• The Database Management System (DBMS) creates, processes and administers databases• Structured Query Language (SQL) is an internationally recognized standard database language that is used by all commercial DBMSs 26
  • 27. Enterprise-Class Database Systems 27
  • 28. Prominent DBMS Products• Microsoft Access• Microsoft SQL Server – New: Microsoft SQL Server Express• IBM DB2• Oracle Corporation ORACLE• And don’t overlook MySQL 28
  • 29. DBMS Power vs. Ease of Use 29
  • 30. Metadata Tables 30
  • 31. Database Contents 31
  • 32. Three Types of Database Design 32
  • 33. Database Design from Existing Data 33
  • 34. Database Design from New Systems DevelopmentEntity-Relationship data modeling is covered in Chapter Five, and data modeltransformations to database designs are covered in Chapter Six 34
  • 35. Database Design from Database RedesignDatabase redesign iscovered in ChapterEight, after coverage ofSQL in Chapter Seven 35