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TOKYO – CLIMATE CHANGE CONCERNS AND STRATEGIES Main discussion Tokyo as a mega city susceptible to natural hazards like floods, typhoons, and rising temperatures How Japan (Tokyo) is dealing with current debates on global warming, green house emissions and renewable energy
Climate change issues include – rising temperature, floods and typhoons as well as energy concerns.
Floods and typhoons in Tokyo
Tokyo Metropolitan Area’s proximity to water bodies exposes it to flooding. The rivers are prone to flooding because they flow rapidly, due to the steepness of slopes along their basins.
Tokyo’s economic and political activities are centered around the Tokyo Bay which increases its vulnerability to weather related-disasters.
According to the study, “Rising Temperatures and megacities” 2003,
Over the last 100 years, the average temperature in Tokyo has risen by 5.3°F degrees while the rest of the world’s average temperatures rose by 1°F (Brooke 2002)
Also it was noted that Japan's population fell by a record 123,000 people in 2010, and suspicion has fallen on last year's scorching summer and weather extremes as the main cause.
The major thrust of Japan’s resource and energy diplomacy has traditionally been to secure a stable supply of fossil fuels, namely oil and natural gas.
Soaring demand for energy from emerging nations like China and India and rising resource nationalism in energy-rich countries like Russia are among the factors making this a period of historic transition in the international energy situation.
TOKYO CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY ADOPTED BY THE TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT IN JUNE 2007
2. Small and medium-sized establishments
Start of the Programs for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming
Project to Promote Energy Conservation and Create Emission Credits for Small and Medium-Sized Facilities
4. Measure in a new building and large-scale development
Define Energy Performance as a
Basic Performance Standard for
Raise the Energy Efficiency
Standards for New Buildings, and
Give Local Governments
Discretionary Power to Set
5. Use promotion of renewable energy
Expanded Use of Solar
Power in the Commercial
and Industrial Sectors
to Expand Renewable
Applications of Wave
Generation by the Private
Sector and Others
1. Large business establishments
Implementation of the Tokyo Emission Trading System (Tokyo-ETS) Cap-and- Trade Program
Conducting Projects to Support the Smooth Implementation of Mandatory Emission Reductions
1. Cap-and-Trade and Other Innovative Programs in Collaboration with Tokyo Businesses and Industry organizations - aims to reduce total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, is the third cap-and-trade system in the world, and the first in the world to specifically target the commercial sector. - Program for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming (Voluntary submission and mandatory submission) 2. Green Buildings: A New Era - Enhancement of Tokyo Green Building Program - Introduction of energy efficiency performance standards - Introduction of reporting on energy efficiency performance assessments - Enhancement of Green Labeling Program for Apartment Buildings 3. Creating and Promoting Low-Carbon Business Models - Submission of Energy Performance Certificates - Creation of District Energy Program for Efficient Use - Certification System for High-Efficiency Household Water Heaters 4. Enhancing Programs to Promote the Tokyo Climate Change Strategy - 10-Year Project for a Carbon-Minus Tokyo - Collaboration with Wards and Municipalities in Tokyo - Establishment of the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Climate Change Actions 5. Sharing Innovative Policies with the World TOKYO – CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES
Building next-generation energy and social systems
Developing and diffusing innovative energy technologies
Realizing a low carbon energy demand structure
・ Enhancing the world’s most advanced energy efficiency through introducing the most advanced technologies for replacing equipment
・ Enhancing the energy conservation law operations, commercializing innovative technologies and enhancing support for fuel conversion, etc.
Residential sector (i.e. households and offices)
. Making net-zero-energy houses available by 2020 and realizing net-zero-energy houses in average by 2030.
・ Prevailing highly efficient water heaters to the amount of 80-90% of all family unit sin 2030
・ Replacing 100% of lights with highly-efficient lights (including LED and organic EL lighting) on a flow basis by 2020and on a stock basis by 2030
Commercial sectors (i.e. offices)
Realizing net-zero-energy buildings in new public building by 2020
Introducing new integrated standards for energy consumption at all buildings for implementation in two years
Deepening strategic relationships with resource-rich countries through resource
Raising self-sufficiency ratio of strategic rare metals (including recycling and alternative materials development) to more than 50%
Enhancing development of domestic and overseas resources including methane hydrate and sea-floor hydrothermal deposits, etc.
Expanding the introduction of renewable energy (wind, middle-small size hydro, geothermal, and biomass in addition to photovoltaic )
Promoting nuclear power generation - Building 9 new or additional nuclear plants (with the overall plant capacity utilization rate at about 85%) by 2020 and more than 14(with the rate at about 90%) by 2030
Advanced utilization of fossil fuels by constructing new coal fossil power plants by the beginning of the 2020s. Also Spreading its advanced clean coal technologies overseas and promoting further technology development and demonstration domestically.
Building the world’s most advanced next-generation interactive grid network as early as possible in the 2020s
(demand side) (supply side) TARGETS AND SPECIFIC MEASURES TO ACHIEVE THEM Reduce GHG emissions by 25% by 2020 in comparison to 2000 level Reduce a mere 10% from 2000 levels in overall Industrial and Commercial Sectors Reduce 20% in household sectors Renewable energy Targets Aim to heighten the % of renewable energy consumption of Tokyo up to 20% by 2020.
This estimation is premised on considerable energy conservation, additional building (at least14 plants)and increased facility utilization rate (approx. 90%)of nuclear power plants based on ensured safety while acquiring understanding and trust of the public on installation location, etc., as well as introduction of renewable energy to the maximum extent. Stability of the power system needs be separately studied. Coal-fired thermal power plants assume that, in response to commercialization, CCS will be provided together with all power plants when they are replaced. It should be noted that the estimate may change depending on future technological development and securing of CO2 storage locations, etc. Japan’s and Tokyo’s balance of primary energy supply and its future Source:Tepco 2010 Tokyo Japan Source: The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan 2010 Sector of conversion Renewable energy : Implementation offeed-in-tariff system(depending on institutional Nuclear power :Building additional 14 plants, facility utilization rate 90%
Tokyo as a megacity has the following to consider:
Its energy self-sufficiency ratio which is less than 1%. There is a need to deepen cooperation with regions that have rich sources of renewable energy in order to increase its development and use of renewable energy sources.
As an earthquake and other climatic change disaster prone city, is it really safe to invest in Nuclear Energy ?
With a falling economy, a high deficit, an aging population, and declining investments in science and technology, are all the sustainable targets and commitments set by Japan and the city of Tokyo achievable?
Planes Trend of Narita Airport: Passenger no. tripled since 1980 Cargo quadruple since 1980 But fuel consumption increased “only” by 2.5 Expected double air travel demand till 2050 Evaluation of today's actions : High level of environment initiatives Eco-Airport Master Plan Potential to improve: Development of technologies Efficient Use of Airspace Efficient Plane capacities Optimizing routes and velocities Biokerosene Alternative Domestic Transportation
Educate consumers and sell “ugly” produce via discounts and campaigns.
More home delivery systems? (Bonus: internet based, can easily be used to increase consumer education, put spotlight on eco-friendly solutions)
Repurpose unconsumed food for public good:
Tokyo NPO Second Harvest gathers food that would be discarded by corporations and restaurants to feed people lacking food security in Tokyo (single parent households, marginalized elderly, the homeless…)
If megacities like Tokyo could produce some of their own food, that would help a lot.
Looking down from Tokyo Tower, a lot of unused space is visible on roofs… That’s a lot of sunlight potential.
Some for solar energy production, some for for production?
Tokyo has seen many urban farming ideas
Some are working well: e.g. Ginza beekeeping http://www.japanfs.org/en/mailmagazine/newsletter/pages/029489.html
Most urban farming ideas focus on attempting clever solutions or developing technologies that are more in the realm of NASA (and require nuclear reactors to power them effectively) – see Pasona underground Urban Farm à FALSE SOLUTION http://www.japantrends.com/tokyos-eco-office-pasona-urban-farm/
Real solution? Actually just do it, using existing technologies. Greenhouses, multi-layering, effective composting of ambient food waste. Even aquaponics (“hydroponics” + “aquaculture”). See example of Growing Power, Inc. in Milwaukee/Chicago: http://growingpower.org/