UNU Presentation - Transition Tokyo - Climate, Energy, Transpoprt and Food

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  • [1] Brooke, J., (2002). ‘Heat Island’ Tokyo Is in the Global Warming’s Vanguard. The New York Times . August 13, 2001.
  • ※ I added some explanation about each strategy. If it will be helpful at the presentation, please use it. ※ Please check English of following sentences. 1. a. Cap-and -Trade Program One of the techniques of dealings in the emissions trading of a greenhouse gas. The discharge frame as which the upper limit of the amount of emission was set is assigned to the enterprise which becomes a control subject of discharge based on the general amount of emission a government set. This is a cap. It's called a cap and a trade that dealings (trade) do the part of this discharge frame. For example the enterprise to which the surplus part goes out falls below a discharge frame substantially, and can sell a right to emit global warming gases to the enterprise they seem to close beyond a discharge frame and the enterprise which would like to achieve a discharge frame. b. Conducting Projects to Support the Smooth Implementation of Mandatory Emission Reductions One example of initiatives being undertaken to facilitate the creation of Small and Medium-sized Installation Credits Within the Tokyo Area. “ Practical Seminars on Fine-Tuning Energy Conservation Measures” There are many examples of emission reductions achieved through the fine-tuning of energy conservation measures, such as through recalibrating heating and other equipment and by optimizing operational processes to match the individualized circumstances of each facility. These seminars are on the fine-tuning of energy conservation measures, including the participation of leading experts in this field and operators of facilities that have achieved reductions. They are held in order to share experiences and know-how. 2. a. Start of the Programs for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming In April 2010, the Programs for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming took effect. Under this system, small and medium-sized facilities not required to reduce total emissions—that is, those businesses having an annual energy consumption of less than 1,500 kiloliters crude oil equivalent (COE)—will report to TMG their energy consumption and the status of energy conservation activities. This system, designed to allow small and medium-sized businesses to easily assess their CO2 emissions and undertake concrete energy conservation measures, is intended to advance the emission reduction activities of small and medium-sized businesses. b. Project to Promote Energy Conservation and Create Emission Credits for Small and Medium-Sized Facilities Under this project, subsidies will be provided to small and medium-sized facilities in Tokyo for energy-saving equipment upgrades that are performed in response to an energy consumption diagnosis or similar study, on the condition that any CO2 emission reduction credits thereby created are to be transferred at no cost to TMG. It is anticipated that widely publicizing the results of this project will spur independent energy-saving actions on the part of other business entities. 3. Supporting Energy Conservation Under this system, experts in household energy conservation who are registered with the metropolitan government as Household Energy Consultants visit households and provide residents with energy-saving advice tailored to their individual circumstances, free of charge. b. Expanding the Use of Solar Energy To achieve the goal of realizing an installed solar power generating capacity within Tokyo equivalent to one million kilowatts by 2016, in fiscal 2009 TMG initiated a two-year-long project to provide subsidies for a target of 40,000 solar power installations. ※ Referred site : “ No1-a” : http://www.blwisdom.com/word/key/100616.html  ( Japanese ) ※ Rest of the parts of this slide referred   the article from the site : http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/tokyo_climate_change_strategy_progress_report_03312010.pdf   ( English )  ・ p.11   (b) for “No1-b” ・ p.13   (1), (2) for “No2-a & b”, ・ p.16 3-(1), (2) for “No.3-a & b”, From the site of http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/tokyo_climate_change_strategy_progress_report_03312010.pdf   (English)  pp.24-25   for No.4 pp.18-19 for No.5
  • http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/tokyo_climate_change_strategy_progress_report_03312010.pdf (pages 1-7) Green buidings: http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/green_building.pdf
  • ※ From the site of http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/tokyo_climate_change_strategy_progress_report_03312010.pdf (English) pp.34-36 1. Creating Sustainable Growth in Tokyo Through Climate Change Strategies ・ Clarifying the economic effects of Tokyo’s climate change responses ・ Promoting the development of energy-saving technologies through collaboration with Tokyo   Metropolitan University, various research institutions of TMG, and others ・ Promoting the diffusion of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies available through Tokyo’s   businesses 2. Transforming Tokyo into a Low-Carbon City  Promoting reductions in carbon emissions through energy conservation measures for buildings, including for existing structures  Reducing the over-reliance on automobiles  Pursuing the establishment of district heating networks as a CO2 emission reduction measure  Assessing urban energy sourcing options 3. Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on Tokyo  Climate change impact research (begun in fiscal 2009) conducted over a three-year period ending in fiscal 2011  Research in collaboration with related ministries and research institutions so that Japan’s latest national climate change assessments can be used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 4. Efforts at Tokyo Metropolitan Government Facilities  Preparation of a revised Global Warming Prevention TMG Plan during fiscal 2010, with a stricter target for emission reductions by fiscal 2014, and clarification of strategies for achieving this goal  During the first emission reduction period under the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program (fiscal 2010–2014), measures at the main Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building in Shinjuku to “fine-tune” energy efficiency (i.e., by refining procedures for the operation of equipment) and to encourage energy-conserving work styles (i.e., by making work styles more energy-efficient); during the second emission reduction period (fiscal 2015–2019), in the process of scheduled replacement of equipment, installation of highly energy-efficient equipment to further boost energy efficiency and allow TMG to achieve its obligations to reduce emissions 5. Networking with Leading Companies, NGOs, and Experts  Holding symposiums and workshops taking advantage of effective opportunities  Establishing agreements for cooperation with corporations and industry organizations 6. Collaboration with Other Local Governments in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area and Nationwide  Holding policy seminars for representatives of other prefectures and major cities (designated by ordinance)  Strengthening cooperation with prefectural governments throughout Japan working to expand the supply and utilization of renewable energy sources  Collaborating with progressive local governments in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, with the aim of introducing a cap-and-trade program with them 7. Collaboration with Sub-National Governments Worldwide  Coordination with other sub-national governments worldwide through the Club of 20 Regions (R20)  Strengthening cooperation with Seoul and other civic governments in Asia  Collaboration with cities throughout the world, including through the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability
  • http://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/part2-chapter1-section1-1~2.pdf The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan-Meeting global challenges and securing energy futures-(Revised in June 2010) (document sent by Brendan attached to the email- Final Class of 2010)
  • http://www.tepco.co.jp/csr/sustainability/best_mix-j.html The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan-Meeting global challenges and securing energy futures-(Revised in June 2010) (document sent by Brendan attached to the email- Final Class of 2010)
  • The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan-Meeting global challenges and securing energy futures-(Revised in June 2010) (document sent by Brendan attached to the email- Final Class of 2010)

Transcript

  • 1. TOKYO – CLIMATE CHANGE CONCERNS AND STRATEGIES Main discussion Tokyo as a mega city susceptible to natural hazards like floods, typhoons, and rising temperatures How Japan (Tokyo) is dealing with current debates on global warming, green house emissions and renewable energy
  • 2.
    • Introduction
    • Megacity
    • Climate change issues include – rising temperature, floods and typhoons as well as energy concerns.
    • Floods and typhoons in Tokyo
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Area’s proximity to water bodies exposes it to flooding. The rivers are prone to flooding because they flow rapidly, due to the steepness of slopes along their basins.
    • Tokyo’s economic and political activities are centered around the Tokyo Bay which increases its vulnerability to weather related-disasters.
    • Rising temperatures
    • According to the study, “Rising Temperatures and megacities” 2003,
    • Over the last 100 years, the average temperature in Tokyo has risen by 5.3°F degrees while the rest of the world’s average temperatures rose by 1°F (Brooke 2002)[1]
    • Also it was noted that Japan's population fell by a record 123,000 people in 2010, and suspicion has fallen on last year's scorching summer and weather extremes as the main cause.
    • Energy
    • The major thrust of Japan’s resource and energy diplomacy has traditionally been to secure a stable supply of fossil fuels, namely oil and natural gas.
    • Soaring demand for energy from emerging nations like China and India and rising resource nationalism in energy-rich countries like Russia are among the factors making this a period of historic transition in the international energy situation.
    FACTS
  • 3.
    • 3. Measure at home
    • ( Measure in daily life )
    • Supporting Energy Conservation
    • Expanding the Use of Solar Energy
    TOKYO CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY ADOPTED BY THE TOKYO METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT IN JUNE 2007
    • 2. Small and medium-sized establishments
    • Start of the Programs for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming
    • Project to Promote Energy Conservation and Create Emission Credits for Small and Medium-Sized Facilities
    • 4. Measure in a new building and large-scale development
    • Define Energy Performance as a
    • Basic Performance Standard for
    • Buildings
    • Raise the Energy Efficiency
    • Standards for New Buildings, and
    • Give Local Governments
    • Discretionary Power to Set
    • Standards
    • 5. Use promotion of renewable energy
    • Expanded Use of Solar
    • Power in the Commercial
    • and Industrial Sectors
    • Interregional Cooperation
    • to Expand Renewable
    • Energy Usage
    • Promoting Practical
    • Applications of Wave
    • Power Electricity
    • Generation by the Private
    • Sector and Others
    • 1. Large business establishments
    • Implementation of the Tokyo Emission Trading   System (Tokyo-ETS) Cap-and- Trade Program
    • Conducting Projects to Support the Smooth Implementation of Mandatory Emission   Reductions
  • 4. 1. Cap-and-Trade and Other Innovative Programs in Collaboration with Tokyo Businesses and Industry organizations - aims to reduce total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, is the third cap-and-trade system in the world, and the first in the world to specifically target the commercial sector. - Program for Reporting on Measures against Global Warming (Voluntary submission and mandatory submission) 2. Green Buildings: A New Era - Enhancement of Tokyo Green Building Program - Introduction of energy efficiency performance standards - Introduction of reporting on energy efficiency performance assessments - Enhancement of Green Labeling Program for Apartment Buildings 3. Creating and Promoting Low-Carbon Business Models - Submission of Energy Performance Certificates - Creation of District Energy Program for Efficient Use - Certification System for High-Efficiency Household Water Heaters 4. Enhancing Programs to Promote the Tokyo Climate Change Strategy - 10-Year Project for a Carbon-Minus Tokyo - Collaboration with Wards and Municipalities in Tokyo - Establishment of the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Climate Change Actions 5. Sharing Innovative Policies with the World TOKYO – CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES
  • 5.
    • 1.Creating Sustainable Growth in Tokyo Through Climate Change Strategies
    • ※ Aim at achieving the 2020 emission reduction targets
    • 2. Transforming Tokyo into a Low-Carbon City
    • ※ Further accelerate and expand our activities to transform Tokyo into a low-carbon city
    • 3. Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on Tokyo
    • ※ In order to reduce the risks associated with climate change, and to undertake appropriate responses to climate change impacts
    • 4. Efforts at Tokyo Metropolitan Government Facilities
    • 5. Networking with Leading Companies, NGOs, and Experts
    • 6. Collaboration with Other Local Governments in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area and Nationwide
    • 7. Collaboration with Sub-National Governments Worldwide
    • ※ In order to contribute to enhanced climate change efforts globally by collaborating with other cities
    SOME STRATEGIES TOWARDS 2020
  • 6.
    • Building next-generation energy and social systems
    • Developing and diffusing innovative energy technologies
    • Realizing a low carbon energy demand structure
    • Industrial sector
    • ・ Enhancing the world’s most advanced energy efficiency through introducing the most advanced technologies for replacing equipment
    • ・ Enhancing the energy conservation law operations, commercializing innovative technologies and enhancing support for fuel conversion, etc.
    • Residential sector (i.e. households and offices)
    • . Making net-zero-energy houses available by 2020 and realizing net-zero-energy houses in average by 2030.
    • ・ Prevailing highly efficient water heaters to the amount of 80-90% of all family unit sin 2030
    • ・ Replacing 100% of lights with highly-efficient lights (including LED and organic EL lighting) on a flow basis by 2020and on a stock basis by 2030
    • Commercial sectors (i.e. offices)
    • Realizing net-zero-energy buildings in new public building by 2020
    • Introducing new integrated standards for energy consumption at all buildings for implementation in two years
    • Deepening strategic relationships with resource-rich countries through resource
    • Raising self-sufficiency ratio of strategic rare metals (including recycling and alternative materials development) to more than 50%
    • Enhancing development of domestic and overseas resources including methane hydrate and sea-floor hydrothermal deposits, etc.
    • Expanding the introduction of renewable energy (wind, middle-small size hydro, geothermal, and biomass in addition to photovoltaic )
    • Promoting nuclear power generation - Building 9 new or additional nuclear plants (with the overall plant capacity utilization rate at about 85%) by 2020 and more than 14(with the rate at about 90%) by 2030
    • Advanced utilization of fossil fuels by constructing new coal fossil power plants by the beginning of the 2020s. Also Spreading its advanced clean coal technologies overseas and promoting further technology development and demonstration domestically.
    • Building the world’s most advanced next-generation interactive grid network as early as possible in the 2020s
    (demand side) (supply side) TARGETS AND SPECIFIC MEASURES TO ACHIEVE THEM Reduce GHG emissions by 25% by 2020 in comparison to 2000 level Reduce a mere 10% from 2000 levels in overall Industrial and Commercial Sectors Reduce 20% in household sectors Renewable energy Targets Aim to heighten the % of renewable energy consumption of Tokyo up to 20% by 2020.
  • 7. This estimation is premised on considerable energy conservation, additional building (at least14 plants)and increased facility utilization rate (approx. 90%)of nuclear power plants based on ensured safety while acquiring understanding and trust of the public on installation location, etc., as well as introduction of renewable energy to the maximum extent. Stability of the power system needs be separately studied.  Coal-fired thermal power plants assume that, in response to commercialization, CCS will be provided together with all power plants when they are replaced. It should be noted that the estimate may change depending on future technological development and securing of CO2 storage locations, etc. Japan’s and Tokyo’s balance of primary energy supply and its future Source:Tepco 2010 Tokyo Japan Source: The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan 2010 Sector of conversion Renewable energy : Implementation offeed-in-tariff system(depending on institutional  Nuclear power :Building additional 14 plants, facility utilization rate 90%
  • 8. Japan’s total accumulated investment
  • 9. Conclusions
    • Tokyo as a megacity has the following to consider:
    • Its energy self-sufficiency ratio which is  less than 1%. There is a need to deepen cooperation with regions that have rich sources of renewable energy in order to increase its development and use of renewable energy sources.
    • As an earthquake and other climatic change disaster prone city, is it really safe to invest in Nuclear Energy ?
    • With a falling economy, a high deficit, an aging population, and declining investments in science and technology, are all the sustainable targets and commitments set by Japan and the city of Tokyo achievable?
  • 10. Tokyo’s Responsibility for Climate Change
    • Energy Security
    • Muhammad, Roy, Sudipta, Tomoko
  • 11. Present Situation
    • Citizens
    • Energy consumption per capita  
    • Tokyo: 69MJ/p , New York:178MJ/p, London:85MJ/p
    • Energy needs of the average household in Tokyo (FY2005)
    • air conditioner (24.9%), lighting (16,2%), refrigerator (15.5%),
    • television (9,9%), heating carpet (4.4%)
    • Companies
    • Manufacturing 10%, Commercial Buildings 36%, Citizens (residential) 27%, Transport 27% (Approx. 2005 CO2 emission figures for Tokyo area)
    • Tokyo Met. encouraged dynamic CO2 cuts – influenced other areas: Saitama, Kanagawa etc.
    • Voluntary cuts initially then, from April 2010, obligatory Cap & Trade.
    • Electric Power Company (TEPCO)
    • Japan has few resources of its own.
    • About 80% of resources are imported.
    • TEPCO energy output source ( including purchased power)
    • Nuclear power : 28 %, Hydroelectric power : 5%,
    • Geothermal/new energies : 0%, LNG/LPG : 45%,
    • Ca0l/Oil : 21%
    <TEPCO energy output by energy source> <The percentage of energy needs of    the household in Tokyo (FY2005) > Agency for Natural Resources and Energy TEPCO
  • 12. For the Future
    • Citizens
    • Reducing waste of energy: ex) Switching off gadgets when not in use
    • Reducing consumption of energy: ex) Spend time in the midst of nature with family and friends
    • Make choices: ex) Consider eco- labels while buying appliances
    • Companies
    • Making commercial Buildings more energy efficient.
    • BREEAM: http://www.breeam.org/
    • CASBEE: http://www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/english/overviewE.htm
    • Newly designed buildings have to conform – greater focus on existing buildings?
    • Electric Power Company (TEPCO)
    • Over the next ten years, TEPCO will invest 2.5 trillion yen in the development of electric power and distribution systems toward a low carbon society.
    • TEPCO ’ ll make ongoing efforts to expand the use of renewable energy.
    • TEPCO’s plan at FY 2019 about energy output by energy source
    • Nuclear power : about 50 %, Hydroelectric power : about 10%,
    • Geothermal/new energies : almost zero, LNG/LPG : 25%, C0al/Oil : 15%
    CO 2 emission intensity is expected to drop to around 0.28 kg-CO2 /kWh in FY2020 (reduction of more than 25% compared to that in FY1990)
  • 13. TEPCO's 2020 Vision Plan 1:Promoting high-efficiency, low-carbon thermal power generation
  • 14.
    • http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/annex_7_tokyo_1.pdf
    • http :// www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/attachement/shiryou3_jourei_071119.pdf
    • http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html
    • TEPCO Group Medium to Long-term Growth Declaration 2020 Vision September 13, 2010
    Reference
  • 15. Transportation in Tokyo
    • Now and hopes for tomorrow
  • 16.
    • Cars
      • eco option, zero emissions electric modelled cars
      • technological advances continue to reduce the cost and not pollute the air 
      • Aeon Group Mall   Japan’s first consumer ready charging stations for electric vehicles
      • Mandatory fuel efficiency targets apply to most categories of onroad vehicles, including passenger cars
      • Tokyo retrofit requirements effective  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Railways
    • Rail usage, 40 of transport
    • daily 18mil users/6.mil subway
    • Shinkansen, fastest, safest, cleaner than cars (16% Co2 of autos)
    • Hybrid trains-first in 1997, electric-motor diesel hybrid using rechargable batteries
    • Maglev 
    • Future
    • more hybrids/solar rail
    • tax incentives, point system using all inclusive passes
    Photo: the world's first hybrid train. Source: freefoto.com
  • 17.
    • Bicycles
      • Bicycle lanes
      • Bicycle parking – robotic high tech parking
      • E-bicycles
    • +Longer miles
    • +Heavier loads
    • +Enery usage: 15wh/mile
    • -Battery disposal
    •  
    Planes   Trend of Narita Airport: Passenger no. tripled since 1980 Cargo quadruple since 1980 But fuel consumption increased “only”  by 2.5   Expected double air travel demand till 2050   Evaluation of today's actions : High level of environment initiatives Eco-Airport Master Plan   Potential to improve:   Development of technologies Efficient Use of Airspace Efficient Plane capacities Optimizing routes and velocities Biokerosene               Alternative Domestic Transportation  
  • 18. Food Security / Food Transition for Tokyo
  • 19. Tokyo Food Security = Japan’s Food Security?
    • Food self-sufficiency is a key component of food security
    • Tokyo’s food self-sufficiency is < 1%
    • Relies on surrounding areas for food production
      • Chiba and Ibaraki produce a lot of food (#2 and 3 ag producers in Japan)…but not enough.
    • Tokyo = about ¼ of Japan’s population
      • All of Japan as a breadbasket?
  • 20. But Japan’s Food Security…
    • … is not very good.
    • Between 1960 and 2005
      • the share of agricultural output in GDP dropped from 9 per cent to 1 per cent
      • agricultural land dropped from 6.09 million hectares to 4.63 million hectares
      • food self-sufficiency ratio from 79 per cent to 41 per cent (counted by calories*)
    • Japan is one of the world’s largest food importers and has the largest agricultural import/export imbalance in the world.
    *Using food calories as a food self-sufficiency metric may be debatable. That there has been a large drop between 1960 – 2005, however, is not.
  • 21. Is this bad?
    • What’s wrong with Tokyo importing most of its food?
    • Is shipping from Hokkaido to Tokyo really that much better than shipping from California to Hokkaido?
    • … too precarious. A major disruption in global food production could cause big problems.
      • And even if Japan could buy all the food it needed, that would be food unavailable to other countries, e.g. developing countries, that might then starve.
  • 22. Japanese Agricultural Current Status and Issues 1
    • In addition to shrinking farmland…
    • Ageing farmers, shrinking rural population
      • Same period – percent of farmers over 65 years old jumped from 10% to 60%
        • Result: increasing amount of formerly cultivated land going fallow
  • 23. Japanese Agricultural Current Status and Issues 2
    • Small farm size
      • 2-3 ha on average (economies of scale difficult)
    • Many part-time farmers (more than full-time)
      • Between 1960-2005, 32.1%  61.7%
    • Most own their own equipment
      • Rate of farm equipment ownership one of the highest in the world
    •  All of these mean agricultural production in Japan is quite expensive.
  • 24. Japanese Agricultural Current Status and Issues 3
    • History of dubious government meddling
      • Subsidies encouraging part-time farmers to keep “working” their fields rather than lending land to larger scale full-time farmers (who could then produce for less and be more competitive)
      • JA requirements
        • Excessive uniformity not accounting for local differences
        • Overuse of agrichemicals
        • Historic overproduction of certain individual crops (e.g. rice at the expense of balanced vegetables)
        • The (not-so-green) “Green Revolution” is fading in Japan but JA not catching up quickly enough.
  • 25. Japanese Agriculture Looming Developments
    • Free trade with N.A. and others?
      • Can Japanese ag compete with global ag without protectionist tariffs? Or will it break the system? (And is breaking the system good or bad?)
    • DPJ changes in farmer subsidies
      • Now the Japanese gov’t gives direct payments to all farmers including part-timers. Good? Bad?
  • 26. Japanese Agriculture Future Solutions?
    • More farming
      • people to the farms (especially young people)
        • chicken and egg problem
        • Positive developments: growing interest in organic ag, transition towns, local consumption, renting personal garden plots, etc.
    • Better farming
      • Closed-Loop/Organic/Permaculture
        • Overcoming JA
  • 27. Let’s not forget livestock (Issues)
    • Japanese meat and dairy consumption has been rising for decades
    • Domestic production
      • Pork = okay; chicken/eggs/dairy = some; beef = very little
    • BUT…almost all animal feed is imported.
      • Therefore livestock in Japan isn’t food creation, it’s just food conversion, and doesn’t count towards self-sufficiency.
  • 28. Let’s not forget livestock (Solutions)
    • Better closed-loop livestock farming. No more CAFOs (factory farms), no more
      • See example of Polyface.
    • Occasionally heard suggestion:
      • …eat more fish?
        • …BAD PLAN.
  • 29. What about fish and Japan anyway?
    • Japan is the 2 nd biggest consumer of ocean products in the world
      • 582 million tonnes per year (behind China at 694 million tonnes…but China has 10x Japan’s population…)
    • Japan is by far the #1 consumer of sea resources per capita (70+ kg per person per year)
      • That much fish consumption does not indicate a domestic resource; it is a global one.
        • Mining a global resource =/= food security. FALSE SOLUTION.
      • Global fishing catch is in rapid decline. Japan needs to be more responsible.
      • Unsustainable preference for top-level predators (tuna, salmon, swordfish, etc.) compounds the issue.
  • 30. What about fish and Japan anyway? (Developments, possible solutions)
    • Bad: Refusal to join global bans on bluefin tuna, whaling, etc. indicates unwilling to address a serious issue
      •  resistance to inevitable necessary change in status quo habits
      • Public knowledge of sustainability of various catches is poor.
    • Good: Recent movements to eat seasonal, sustainably caught local fish
      • … but not a large enough percentage of consumption yet
    • ???: Aquaculture (i.e. fish farming)
      • CAFOs of the sea are OFTEN A FALSE SOLUTION (feed sourced from wild fish, king corn/soy, overuse of antibiotics, paracitides, etc.)
      • Consult GAPI (Global Aquaculture Performance Index) http://web.uvic.ca/~gapi/index.html to check sustainability
        • Japan’s fish farms score worse than the global average.
        • BTW, don’t listen to anyone who tells you tuna farming is a solution to anything.
  • 31. Waste: Tokyo’s hidden resource?
    • Incredible amounts of food are simply wasted in the system
      • Tokyo: 30% of household waste is food  6000 tons a day, enough to feed 4.5 million people.
      • Japan: total food waste per year is 19 million tons, of which 9 million hasn’t even passed expiration date yet.
    • Example causes:
      • Unsold fresh or pre-prepared foods in supermarket / conbini
        • (Also a huge source of packaging waste)
        • Future Solution(s): Accept frozen as fresh for fish and meats
        • Future Solution(?): Slow down, cook more
      • Agricultural produce or fish deemed too ugly to sell
        • Reflects disconnect with actual natural growing things
        • Future solution(?): Sell via discounts and campaigns. Rebuild connection via organics/new farming movements, consumer education.
      • No doggy bags at restaurants. Japanese restaurants throw away 31% of the food they prepare
        • Future solution: Cultural change – emergence of “My Doggy Baggu”? (only half-joke)
      • Buying in bulk and being unable to use before expiration dates
    • Possible solutions
        • More home delivery systems? (Bonus: internet based, can easily be used to increase consumer education, put spotlight on eco-friendly solutions)
        • Reuse
  • 32. Waste: Tokyo’s hidden resource?
    • Reducing Waste
      • Accept frozen as fresh for fish and meats
      • Slow down, eat less prepared food, cook more
      • Add “Mai Doggy Baggu” to mai-baggu?
      • Educate consumers and sell “ugly” produce via discounts and campaigns.
      • More home delivery systems? (Bonus: internet based, can easily be used to increase consumer education, put spotlight on eco-friendly solutions)
      • Repurpose unconsumed food for public good:
        • Tokyo NPO Second Harvest gathers food that would be discarded by corporations and restaurants to feed people lacking food security in Tokyo (single parent households, marginalized elderly, the homeless…)
      • Etc.
  • 33. Waste: Tokyo’s hidden resource?
    • Recycling Waste:
      • Instead of using more resources to get rid of waste, why not harvest it? Can and bottle recycling rate is very high. Why not recycle more things?
      • Currently Tokyo burns much of its garbage for energy. Is the best possible solution? Especially given other known agriculture issues…
      • Compost/fertilizer
        • Petrochemical fertilizers facing peak oil need an alternative. A closed loop alternative.
      • Animal feed
        • Supplement imports – e.g. trial programs are underway in place like Chiba to turn leftover food to pig feed
      • Recycle specific things like cooking oils for biofuels and other purposes
        • Lots of Japanese municipalities have successfully begun food oil recycling programs. Why not tokyo?
    • … Speaking of waste and compost, in the Edo Period, nearly all human waste was taken out to the fields as fertilizer (“night soil”). Why not do it again?
        • (Very important for phosphate reclamation among others.)
  • 34. Wild Card – Urban Farming
    • If megacities like Tokyo could produce some of their own food, that would help a lot.
      • Looking down from Tokyo Tower, a lot of unused space is visible on roofs… That’s a lot of sunlight potential.
        • Some for solar energy production, some for for production?
    • Tokyo has seen many urban farming ideas
      • Some are working well: e.g. Ginza beekeeping http://www.japanfs.org/en/mailmagazine/newsletter/pages/029489.html
    • Problem:
      • Most urban farming ideas focus on attempting clever solutions or developing technologies that are more in the realm of NASA (and require nuclear reactors to power them effectively) – see Pasona underground Urban Farm à FALSE SOLUTION http://www.japantrends.com/tokyos-eco-office-pasona-urban-farm/
      • Real solution? Actually just do it, using existing technologies. Greenhouses, multi-layering, effective composting of ambient food waste. Even aquaponics (“hydroponics” + “aquaculture”). See example of Growing Power, Inc. in Milwaukee/Chicago: http://growingpower.org/
  • 35. Wild Card –Urban Farming The Good
  • 36. Wild Card – Urban Farming The Bad* *…this is a NASA project, not a food security project.
  • 37. Wild Card – Urban Farming The Actually Achievable