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Eradicating introduced and invasive species
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Eradicating introduced and invasive species

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  • vbvbvbb
  • 2000-Once observations of declined populations made, more surveys and research conducted. 2006- Upon confirmation of declining population, many consultations made with locals, village chiefs and district community. The operation itself was followed by a community-led programme to prevent rats reinvading the islands. Notification- all crabs on and near the islands will be toxic for a period and were ban for taking. Period of ban made longer than strictly neccessary to ensure no harmful effects and to significantly benefit local coconut crab populations. Inclusion- community member were able to assist in the operation 2000 Decline noticed. Research conducted  2006 Consultations conducted i.e whether it was feasible etc.  2008 aerial operation being planned  2009 execution of operation  2010 and ongoing moitoring.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Nola Talaepa and Moeumu Uili National University of Samoa
    • 2. 1.0 INTRODUCTION:
      • SAMOA
      • - an independent developing state
      • - total land area approx. 2935 sq.km
      • - population of approx. 165,000 people
      • - high species endemism over 30% of it’s
      • total biodiversity
    • 3. Plants - 500 species of nature flowering plants - 220 species of ferns - 25% of the plants are endemic to Samoa - 500 or so species of plants been introduced - Today, half of the plants are exotic
    • 4. Mammals Terrestial: 13 species - 3 are native: 2 flying foxes- Samoan Flying fox, Tongan or White necked Flying fox, small insectivorous bat – Sheath-tailed bat. - introduced species: * Polynesian rat ( Rattus exulans ) * Pigs and dogs * cattle, horses, goats, cats * 2 more species of rats ( R. norvegicus and R. rattus ) * house mouse
    • 5. - 14 were recorded as “ rare or endangered” Reptiles - 2 species of turtle: green turtle and the hawksbill Marine: 991 species - 890 inhabit shallow water or reefs - 56 in deeper water - 45 are pelagic
    • 6. Marine: - several whale species - 1 dolphin: spinner dolphin - Humpback whale and Sperm whale believed to bred here Birds - 35 species land birds - 21 sea and shore birds (8 of the land birds are endemic) (4 introduced species)
    • 7. WHY SO SERIOUS? The effects of alien invasive species on biodiversity have been described as ‘immense, insidious and usually irreversible’ (IUCN, 2000)
    • 8. MYNA Birds
      • Native to Asia
      • Known as ‘Farmer’s friend’ in India, even kept as pets (www.nzbirds.com)
    • 9.  
    • 10. Pet or Pest?
      • Top 100 most invasive species (IUCN, 2000)
      • Large dispersion pattern globally
          • South Africa
          • Hawaii
          • New Zealand
          • Australia and...
          • Samoa
      www.indianmynaaction.org.au
    • 11. Myna- not so minor in Samoa
      • Jungle Myna ( Acridotheres fuscus) & Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis)
      • Invasion pathway in Samoa disputed.
      • First noticed in early 1980’s
      • MAF primary suspect to have deliberately introduced as a biological control for Cattle ticks
    • 12. Get a move on...
      • Early 1980’s- possible introduction
      • 2004- Invasiveness only just realised c 2004. First discussions began on how to address the issue.
      • 2005- Proposal prepared, sent to SPREP for financial aid.
      • 2006- Government of Samoa forwards strong arguments to act on myna bird problem.
      • 2008- Cabinet proclaimed approval of the proposal to fund implementation of the Myna Control Project
    • 13. Finally...
      • MNRE assigned as leading arm of MCP
      • Government grants MNRE $SAT250,000
      • Just completed 5 th phase in Nov, 2009
      • 5,903 mynas recorded to have been killed during all 5 phases (July 2009, Nov 2009, Apr 2010, June 2010 & Nov 2010)
    • 14.  
    • 15. On the other hand...
      • Aleipata Offshore Islands:
      • > 2 of 4 islands identified as Key Biodiversity Areas
          • Nu’utele Island & Nu’ulua Island
          • Host large population of Friendly Ground Dove (Tua’imeo), which are threatened
      • Restoration urgently called for
          • Only mammalian pest known to be present was the Pacific/Polynesian Rat ( Rattus exulans ).
          • Also, Yellow Crazy Ant ( Anoplolepis gracillipes) present, also known to feed on turtle and bird hatchlings.
    • 16. Benefit species: Friendly ground dove Tooth-billed pigeon Seabirds Land snails Lizards Forest flora
    • 17. AIREP 2009
      • Aleipata Islands Rat Eradication Project
      • Birds caught and transferred to aviary in Upolu (main Island)
      • Pestoff Rodent Bait 20R distributed containing the toxin brodifacoum
    • 18. Post-AIREP
      • Monthly monitoring
          • Victor trap
          • Bait stations
          • Wax tags
          • Tomahawk traps
      • Enhanced FGD population, as well as other fauna
      • Forest regeneration
      • Opportunity created to tranlocate threatened species from the main island
      • Zero mice found!
      • No mice = chance for seedling growth
    • 19. Pre- AIREP operation...
      • Thoroughly researched- similar operations beforehand studied
      • Consultation workshops- beginning from 2006
      • Extra precautions- e.g. bait dyed green to further prevent bird ingestion; helicopter used even though expensive; birds captured and taken to aviary
      • Notification- e.g. coconut crabs: publicised visitors not to eat the crabs. Warnings were placed for conservative length of time
      • Inclusion- community members recruited
    • 20. Lessons learnt
      • Need to prevent- tighten BIOSECURITY
      • IMMEDIATE action
      • Thorough research and planning
        • Refer to past operations, consultations with necessary stakeholders
      • Publicity & Awareness programmes
    • 21.
      • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
      • TOFA SOIFUA