Climate change from Forest to Corals
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Climate change from Forest to Corals

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    Climate change from Forest to Corals Climate change from Forest to Corals Presentation Transcript

    • Climate Change from Forest to Corals
      Group:
      Javier A. Montenegro G.
      Aaron Ouchi
      OktiyasMuzakyLuthfi
      MdKamruzzaman
      University of the Ryukyus
      2011
    • Climate Change
      Definition:
      Changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (water vapor, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs), that trap infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and cause the greenhouse effect. This effect is natural and helps to stabilize the climate on earth.
      Why?
      Consequences:
      Anthropogenic:
      - Fossil fuel combustion
      - Deforestation
      - Industrial processes
      Natural:
      - Plate tectonics
      - Volcanism
      - Ocean variability
      Large Scale:
      - Orbital variations
      - Solar output
      Capture Infrared Rad.
      Precipitation Patterns
      Air Temperature
      Sea Level
      Glacial Melting
    • Role of Forest
      Importance:
      • Photosynthesis binds CO2 and stores it in leaves, branches, trunks, roots and soils.
      • CO2 stored in forest ecosystems is calculated in 4,500gigatons.
      • > World Remaining Oil Stocks.
      • >Amount of Carbon in the Atmosphere.
      Deforestation:
      • Release the Sequestrated CO2.
      • Produce 15% of CO2 emission.
      • Lost of 13 million hectares/year.
    • Global Warming vs. Forest
      Sea Level Rise:
      • Salt water intrusion
      Habitat modification and lost
      Costal erosion
      Temperature Increase:
      • Longer hot seasons
      Susceptibility to diseases and pest
      Dry of wetlands (Swamp Forest)
      Changes in Rain Fall Patterns
      • Longer dry seasons
      Desertification
      Increase of fire risk
      • Increase of flood in rainy season
      Soil erosion
      Tear off of leaves
      Hamper of reproduction
    • CO2vs. CoralCalcification
      The way that corals create their
      calcium carbonate skeleton (CaCO3)
      Ca2+ + 2HCO3- CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
      Carbonate equilibrium equation:
      CO2+ H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+ ↔ CO32- + 2H+
      • HCO3- is the most common form in ocean pH
    • CO2vs. CoralCalcification
      Looking at the equations, one can induce:
      • Increases in atmospheric CO2 increases in oceanic HCO3-
      • Increase in calcification on the reef
      However, the pH is also lowered which causes dissolution of CaCO3.
      Image source: http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~sanpisa/OceanSed%20project/factorscontrolcarbonate.htm
    • CoralCalcification vs. Temperature
      • Light raise calcification rates by 3-5 times compared to dark (Gattuso et. al 1999).
      N. R. Bates et al.: Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef
      • When temperatures became too low abnormalities in growth are present (Omata et. al 2006).
      • Over 31˚C, calcification rate is greatly reduced and can eventually be overtaken by dissolution (Fujimura et al. 2008)
      H. Fujimura et al. / J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 70 (2008) 865–872
    • Climate Change vs. Coral Bleaching
      Definition:
      - The loss of color, arising from the partial to total elimination of the zooxanthellaepopulation or degradation of algal pigments.
      Why?
      Mechanisms:
      - Damage of Photosynthesisof zooxanthellae
      - Toxin  V. shiloi
      - Changes in proteins phosphorylation
      - Necrotic and Apoptotic pathway
      Stressors:
      - Elevated Temperature
      - Elevated Irradiance
      - Prolonged Darkness
      - Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd)
      - Pathogens (Vibrio shiloi)
      Symptoms:
      - Lost of Color.
      - Lost of zooxanthellae
      70 - 90%
    • What we can do?
      Social – Economical Importance
      http://coris.noaa.gov/activities/reef_managers_guide/
    • What Corals Are Doing?
      Bleach Adaptive Hypothesis
      “When environmental circumstances change, the loss of one or more kinds of zooxanthellaeis followed by formation of a new symbiotic consortium that are more suited survive in the new conditions.”
      Evidence (Kinzie III et al, 2001):
      New symbionts can be acquired when the alga concentrations are very low.
      Different Strains of Zooxanthellae exhibit different responses to temperature.
      Bleached Adults can acquire symbionts from the water column.
      Coral resistance to Vibrio shiloiinfection.
      Oculinapatagonica:
      Collected Before 2003
      Collected After 2003
    • Social-Economic Impact
      • 53% of countries have 80-100% of their population located within 100 km from a coast
      The Value of Coral Reefs (Cesar et al.2003).
      Martínez et al. 2007. The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance. Ecological economics 63:254–272
    • Summary
      The climatic change is a natural process that affects all the ecosystems in different ways. It is due to the direct influence of increased greenhouse gasses (CO2).
      GHG
      [CO2]
    • Thanks
      Gracias
      Terimakasih
      Mahalo