Climate Change from Forest to Corals<br />Group:<br />Javier A. Montenegro G.<br />Aaron Ouchi<br />OktiyasMuzakyLuthfi<br />MdKamruzzaman<br />University of the Ryukyus<br />2011<br />
Climate Change <br />Definition: <br />Changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (water vapor, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs), that trap infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and cause the greenhouse effect. This effect is natural and helps to stabilize the climate on earth. <br />Why?<br />Consequences: <br />Anthropogenic:<br />- Fossil fuel combustion<br />- Deforestation<br />- Industrial processes <br />Natural:<br />- Plate tectonics<br />- Volcanism<br />- Ocean variability<br />Large Scale:<br />- Orbital variations<br />- Solar output<br />Capture Infrared Rad.<br /> Precipitation Patterns<br />Air Temperature<br />Sea Level<br />Glacial Melting<br />
Role of Forest<br />Importance:<br /><ul><li>Photosynthesis binds CO2 and stores it in leaves, branches, trunks, roots and soils.
CO2 stored in forest ecosystems is calculated in 4,500gigatons.
Lost of 13 million hectares/year.</li></li></ul><li>Global Warming vs. Forest<br />Sea Level Rise: <br /><ul><li>Salt water intrusion</li></ul>Habitat modification and lost<br />Costal erosion <br />Temperature Increase: <br /><ul><li>Longer hot seasons</li></ul>Susceptibility to diseases and pest <br />Dry of wetlands (Swamp Forest)<br />Changes in Rain Fall Patterns <br /><ul><li>Longer dry seasons</li></ul>Desertification<br />Increase of fire risk<br /><ul><li>Increase of flood in rainy season</li></ul>Soil erosion<br />Tear off of leaves<br />Hamper of reproduction<br />
CO2vs. CoralCalcification<br />The way that corals create their <br />calcium carbonate skeleton (CaCO3)<br /> Ca2+ + 2HCO3- CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O<br />Carbonate equilibrium equation:<br />CO2+ H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+ ↔ CO32- + 2H+<br /><ul><li>HCO3- is the most common form in ocean pH</li></li></ul><li>CO2vs. CoralCalcification<br />Looking at the equations, one can induce:<br /><ul><li>Increases in atmospheric CO2 increases in oceanic HCO3-
Increase in calcification on the reef</li></ul>However, the pH is also lowered which causes dissolution of CaCO3.<br />Image source: http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~sanpisa/OceanSed%20project/factorscontrolcarbonate.htm<br />
CoralCalcification vs. Temperature<br /><ul><li>Light raise calcification rates by 3-5 times compared to dark (Gattuso et. al 1999).</li></ul>N. R. Bates et al.: Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef<br /><ul><li>When temperatures became too low abnormalities in growth are present (Omata et. al 2006).
Over 31˚C, calcification rate is greatly reduced and can eventually be overtaken by dissolution (Fujimura et al. 2008)</li></ul>H. Fujimura et al. / J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 70 (2008) 865–872<br />
Climate Change vs. Coral Bleaching<br />Definition:<br />- The loss of color, arising from the partial to total elimination of the zooxanthellaepopulation or degradation of algal pigments.<br />Why?<br />Mechanisms:<br />- Damage of Photosynthesisof zooxanthellae<br />- Toxin V. shiloi<br />- Changes in proteins phosphorylation<br />- Necrotic and Apoptotic pathway <br />Stressors:<br />- Elevated Temperature<br />- Elevated Irradiance<br />- Prolonged Darkness<br />- Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd)<br />- Pathogens (Vibrio shiloi)<br />Symptoms:<br />- Lost of Color.<br />- Lost of zooxanthellae<br /> 70 - 90%<br />
What we can do?<br />Social – Economical Importance <br />http://coris.noaa.gov/activities/reef_managers_guide/<br />
What Corals Are Doing?<br />Bleach Adaptive Hypothesis<br />“When environmental circumstances change, the loss of one or more kinds of zooxanthellaeis followed by formation of a new symbiotic consortium that are more suited survive in the new conditions.” <br />Evidence (Kinzie III et al, 2001):<br />New symbionts can be acquired when the alga concentrations are very low.<br />Different Strains of Zooxanthellae exhibit different responses to temperature.<br />Bleached Adults can acquire symbionts from the water column. <br />Coral resistance to Vibrio shiloiinfection.<br />Oculinapatagonica:<br />Collected Before 2003<br /> Collected After 2003<br />
Social-Economic Impact<br /><ul><li>53% of countries have 80-100% of their population located within 100 km from a coast</li></ul>The Value of Coral Reefs (Cesar et al.2003).<br />Martínez et al. 2007. The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance. Ecological economics 63:254–272<br />
Summary<br />The climatic change is a natural process that affects all the ecosystems in different ways. It is due to the direct influence of increased greenhouse gasses (CO2).<br />GHG<br />[CO2]<br />