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Presentation onRenewable Energy Technology and Green Economy Presented By: Dr Rhiddi Bir Singh Professor & Head Natural Resources & Products Development, Research Centre for Applied Science & Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal Organized By Asia Pacific Graduates Youth Forum on Green Energy The Small Earth Nepal (SEN)
Renewable Energy Resourcesand Technology The Renewable Energy Resources are not well defined. Renewable Energy Technologies are still to be defined with reference to the Bio- mass energy technology.
Current Energy Situation In NepalEnergy sector is next to the food commodity in the general public life.Energy Resources Consumption in Nepal – 2009.Total Energy Consumed 400.5064 million GJ 100.00 %Traditional Fuel 348.8694 million GJ 87.09 %Commercial Fuel 48.9023 million GJ 12.18 %Renewable Fuel 2.7347 million GJ 0.68 %
Total Energy Generated from theRenewable Resources 2009Nepal is survived by the renewable energy resources- mostly by biomass fuels.Traditional Biomass Fuels 348.8694 million GJ 84.98 %Electricity 8.1372 million GJ 2.03 %Renewable Fuels 2.7347 million GJ 0.68 % 359.7413 million GJ 87.69 %
Total Energy Generated from theNon-renewable Resources 2009Petroleum Products 33.0136 M GJ 9.82 %Coal 7.7515 M GJ 2.53 % 40.7651 M GJ 11.35 %
Necessity of Energy demand supply is round the clock.Major Energy Issue in Nepal is :Biomass Fuels vs. Rest of the Fuels
Contribution of Biomass BasedFuels in NepalWood Fuels and Forest Residues 311.1673 million GJ 77.69 %Agricultural Residues 14.4847 million TOE 3.66 %Cattle Dung 23.0174 million GJ 5.74 %Biogas 2.5931 million GJ 0.64 % 351.4525 million GJ 87.73 %
Contribution of non Bio-mass based fuels in NepalPetroleum Products 33.0136 million GJ 8.21 %Coal 7.7515 million GJ 1.93 %Electricity 8.1372 million GJ 2.03 %Micro-hydro & Solar 0.1416 million GJ 0.03 % 49.0439 million GJ 12.20 %
ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN RESIDENTIAL SECTOR—2008 / 09Fuel Type Energy Consumed Residential National Million GJ % Share % ShareTraditional 344.9562 96.69 86.13 Wood fuel 308.6043 86.51 77.05 Animal dung 23.017 6.45 5.74 Agri. Residue 13.3345 3.73 3.34Commercial 9.0613 2.53 2.25 Petroleum Products 0.1638 0.04 0.03 LPG 3.2014 0.89 0.79 SKO 2.1266 0.59 0.53 COAL 0.0351 0.009 0.008 ELECTRICITY 3.5343 0.99 0.88Renewables 2.7347 0.77 0.68 Gobar gas 2.5931 0.72 0.64 Microhydro 0.1360 0.04 0.03 Solar 0.0056 0.001 0.001 GRAND TOTAL 356.7522 100.00 89.07
Energy System in NepalThe energy generation / consumptionsystem cannot be distinguished into The Urban Energy System The Rural Energy System
The national energy consumption figure aregrossly classified under Residential Transportation Industrial Commercial Agricultural Sectors
Energy Data BaseRational energy data base considerationunder the rural / urban energy system is still to be worked out for - Rural / Urban Energy Supply - Renewable Energy System - Energy Economics
Rural – Urban Status of theNation About 83 % of the Nation’s total Population Reside under the Rural Infrastructure spread over the 3915 Village Development Committees. Only 17 % of the Population are Distributed Under the Urban Area. With in 58 Municipalties.
Rural Renewable EnergyTechnologies in NepalRecognized, Developed and Implemented RETsare Limited Under # The Physical Energy Resources Micro Hydro Power Solar Power # The Biomass Energy Resources Biogas (Dung Gas)
Energy Resources Harnessed,Developed and Utilized in Nepal Biomass Resources (Traditional fuels ) Wood fuel Cattle dung Agricultural residues Commercial fuels Petroleum products Coal Electricity
The current status of renewableenergy in Nepal Renewable fuels Bio gas Micro hydro Solar PV
Energy Resources Still to beDeveloped and Utilized Wind power Geothermal power Liquid Bio-fuels Other Non Dung Based Biogas
Renewable biofuel resources processedout of selective biomass type Biobriquette ( Solid fuel ) Densified biomass briquette ( Non carbonized ) Carbonized biomass briquette. Biofuels ( Liquid fuel ) Bio-hydrocarbon oil: to be promoted for the substitution of Kerosene oil. Bio-ethanol: to be promoted for the substitution of Motor Spirit ( Petrol ) Bio-diesel: to be promoted for the substitution of High Speed Diesel.
Biogas Generation Required Biogas ( Gaseous fuel ) Residential waste biogas Night Soil based biogas Agro-forestry waste biogas Land fill biogas Rural waste / Sewerage biogas Industrial Biogas
Green Energy Technology Biomass fed power plant for electricity generation. Biomass gasification: Thermo-chemical conversion for electricity as well as for thermal applications. Biomass gasification: Bio-chemical Conversion for thermal as well as the electricity generation.
Limitations of Current Movement of RenewableEnergy Technologies under the Alternative EnergyDevelopment and Promotion. There is no separate identified government institution devoted to research, development and innovation regarding the renewable energy technologies. Only dung gas plant, micro-hydro power and solar power system are in the implementation phase. The primary motivational theme of these RETs is basically meant for residential supply of the energy generated.
Insignificantly minor enterprise may have entered into the income generation activity very limitedly within the scarce surplus energy resource in the rural arena. It is still largely unattended to assess, evaluate and provide rationally conclusive remarks on and about the income generation scheme through the medium of Appropriate Renewable Rural Energy Technologies, which assist in Poverty Alleviation through the lively hood development in Nepal. The existing status of the Rural Energy Technologies do not permit the User’s to earn enough economic achievement on sustainable
Renewable Rural Energy Technologies that are inPopular Demand Under the Non-domestic Sector. Off grid access to the Electricity Required for Lighting Cooking / Heating Beating Spinning Dyeing Weaving Cutting Stitching Processing Drying Motor / Wheel Operation Grinding / Expelling Cooling / Refrigerating Pressuring / Calendaring And Others
Renewable Rural Energy Technology to Generate Electricity isAvailable for Development Through the Application of1.Solid Biomass fuel / Liquid Bio-fuels / Gaseous Bio-fuels.2.Hydro Power Plant3.Solar Power Plant4 Wind Power Plant5. Geothermal Power Plant
Whatever the choice of Energy Resource if Appropriate Renewable Rural Energy Technology is Developed and Implemented Beyond the Sphere of Residential Energy Generation / Consumption Platform it will definitely provide Economic incentive to the Professional Rural Employee provided that it is Efficiently and Sustainably run and managed.
Basic Requirement of RuralDevelopment for Poverty Alleviation Rural Poverty Alleviation Rural TourismAppropriate Renewable Rural / TraditionalEnergy Technology TechnologyRural Energy System Rural Resource/ Skill System
Renewable Energy Technologies and theirLinkages to Poverty Alleviation in Nepal Prevailing Infrastructure Background in the Energy Sector .• Nepal is one among the lowest energy- consuming nation (15 GJ).• About 87 % of the total energy share come from the traditional biomass resources.• Traditional fuel resources are renewable energy resources that do not generate renewable energy in Nepal.• Traditional energy system are almost totally non-monetized energy resources in Nepal .
• Commercial fossil fuel resources are cent percent monetized energy system in Nepal.• Fossil fuels are 100 % imported, costly, dirty and environmentally unfriendly.• Current generation of renewable energy is lesser than 1 % (0.6 %).• Renewable energy is about 50 % subsidized and 50 % monetized in Nepal.
The Inexhaustible Resource Potential, Development Opportunity, and on Demand Business Prospects Provide the Attractive Future for the Development of Renewable Energy Resources by Applying Appropriate Technology in Nepal.
In case these locally available primary as well as processed energy resources could be well developed and appropriately used under the RETs in the rural energy system in Nepal, the following linkages could be established to promote the poverty Alleviation through the Lively hood Development in Nepal.
Abundant locally available natural energy resources will be assessed, developed and consumed periodically for better and improved life style. Traditional fuel resources as well as traditional energy will be phased out from the national energy data bank. Moneytization of the biomass based energy resources will be chanallized for further energy and economic development in Nepal.
Rural people will have a rational awareness on and about the endogenous energy development, environmental safety, health benefit and economic incentive. Dependable and reliable energy security system will be developed. Unsustainable traditional energy system can be turned to sustainable energy only by applying the RETs.
Negative economic, health and environmental impacts persisted in the use of fossil fuels can be mitigated only through the mobilization of the appropriate RETs. Selection, development and implementation of the specified location based appropriate RETs is the basic need of sustainable energy development in Nepal. Rural employment generation opportunity will be created through the implementation of the RETs.
The development and implementation of RETs can provide a series of value added chain right from the source of origin up to the end use device / appliances. Besides, the energy resource the health and environmental impacts assessment of the RET in operation could provide additional benefits out of the CER based CDM project.
EMERGING ISSUES OF BIO-MASS RELATEDRENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENTThe only government organization devoted to therenewable energy development program in Nepal isthe Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC),under the Ministry of Environment, which undertakecurrent developmental activities on-Micro-hydro power generation-Solar power generationAmong the physical energy resources and of all thebio-energy resources only-Bio-gas energy generation (domestic)-Improved cooking stoves promotion.
Energy Application in Higher Educational InstitutionsEnergy used are Average Energy Efficiency- Electricity > 80 %- LPG 50-60 %- Kerosene / Petrol / Diesel 30-40 %- Wood fuel / Other Biomass 6-10 % (TCS)
The Alternative Substitution AvailableBiogas fuel 50-60 %Liquid Bio-fuels 40-45 %NICS 20-32 %*Renewable Energy Resources-Electricity : Solar / Micro-hydro / Wind & Biomass fuels.-Resources available and accessible.-Major Constraints: Instrument Set, Economic Scale, High Initial Investment, Financial Subsidy Inappropriate.
Lighting / Cooking / Heating / Generators System Use of CFL Application of WLEDs / LEDs Biomass Fuel System - Discard the TCS and Mud based ICS. - Application of NICS. The Load shedding Generator Operation. Replaced by Suitable RETs System. Switch of Feedstock Fuels to Biomass / Bio- fuels / Biogas Fuel System.
Energy Efficiency Fuel Resources. End Use Appliances. Operational System.Increase of Energy Efficiency Induce the Energy, Environmental and Economic Impacts Positively.-Less quantity of fuel use generate more useful energy delivery.-Carbon based fuel reduces the net emission factor by minimizing the flue gas components. - Carbon Particles - Carbon Monoxides - Unburnt Hydrocarbons
Energy Efficiency - Poly-aromatic Hydrocarbons. - Particulate Matters PM 10-2.5 And Increase the Net Carbon Dioxide Emission. But still the Energy Saver, Environmental friendly and Economically beneficial. Green Economic Development can only be achieved by promoting the Green Energy Technologies.
Oleoresin tapping from Pine forestOleoresin Tapping from the Pine Tree
Oleoresin Distillation Unit Distillation Unit for Bio-hydrocarbon Oil
Lab.Processing of Oleoresin Lab Process Setup Raw Oleoresin Pine Oleoresin
Processed Oleoresin to Rosin Rs 50 per Kg Rosin
Bio-fuel in Stove Institutional Stove Domestic Stove showing the flame
POTENTIAL OF LIQUID BIO-FUELS- Nepal is rich in Natural Resources with about 40 % of the total land area occupied by the Forest & Shrub land. Forest Resource Survey Data States that 27 Districts possess 345557 Hectare Pine Forest Area with 51.86 million Pine Population This Pine Population can yield 59000 Metric Tons of oleoresin 10620 Metric Tons of Turpentine Oil / Hydrocarbon Oil can be distilled out. This is equivalent to about 12349 KL of oil.
POTENTIAL OF BIOHYDROCARBON OIL Industrial Production of Turpentine Oil 12Private & Government Production Units are Tapping 59000 Metric Tons of Oleoresin every year from 345557 hectares of Pine Forest Area. Yield of Hydrocarbon Oil is 61800 KL Many other Pine Forest areas are still to be assessed for the Oleoresin Production. Current resources in the 27 districts of Nepal Pine forest area 345557 hectares No of pine stems 51.86 million Annual production 59000 MT Biohydrocarbon oil 12349 KL which is 3.2% of SKO volume Consumption of kerosene oil in 2003 386533 KL
Financial Analysis of the Biohydrocarbon Oil production Cost of production of hydrocarbon oil Cost of production 47.55Cost of production, NRs/litre 50 of bio- 38.64 hydrocarbon 40 oil per liter 30 from 20 Tamagadhi 10 unit is less than 0 Koteshwor unit Tamagadhi unit Koteshwor unit. Factories
Comparision of fuel efficiency in Common Stove Stove Efficiency 43.00% 41.95% 42.00% 41.00% Efficiency, % 40.00% 39.00% 38.40% 38.00% 37.00% 36.00% Kerosene oil Hydrocarbon oil Samlpe
Comparision of benefit per batch The gross Benefit per batch benefit of Tamagadhi Benefit per batch, 12710 unit is 15000 higher than 10000 5496 Koteshwor Nrs 5000 unit for the production 0 of Koteshwor unit Tamagadhi unit hydrocarbon oil. Factories
Comparision of benefit per year Every Year the benefit 4000000 3660480 3500000 Benefit, Nrs/year 3000000 2500000 2000000 1582272 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Koteshwor unit Tamagadhi unit Factories
PROSPECTS OF LIQUID BIO-FUELS- SUBSTITUTION OFCOMMERCIAL FUELS Since the worldwide petroleum crisis of 1973 many developed & developing countries have adopted the generation and application of the renewable fuels. Production and application of the bio-diesel was initiated from early 80s. Fuel application of bio-hydrocarbon oil may be suitable only for a country like Nepal, where the cost of cooking / lighting oil can be as high as US $ 2 per liter.in remote rural area.
Digester of Biogas Plant- 1800Cubic Meter Kerosene oil, diesel and motor spirit altogether makes over 85 % of the total petroleum products that is imported. If can be worked out practically even the partial substitution of 5-10 % of their volume can result a significant economic and environmental impact. Prospects of liquid bio-fuel development are strategically important to the country, which is rich in bio-resources and extremely poor in fossil fuel resources.
Head of Biogas Plant- Dr. R.B.Singh
Shree Ram Sugar Mills Pvt. Ltd.It was established in 2049/4/15. It is situated inMahammadpur, Garuda VDC-6 of Rautahat district.The factory is 200 meters east of the highway linkingwith Chandranigahpur, the point of E-W highway. Thefactory has been currently producing sugar and rectifiedspirit as main products. The major by-products areorganic fertilizer from Effluent Treatment Plant,Molasses and Bagasses. The size of the ETP plant is2160m3 in this industry.
TRADITIONAL COOK STOVE Disadvantages: Low efficiency (6- 10 %) Produced smokeTraditional clay mud wood stays in the kitchenstove for cooking food Utensils and clothes are blackened by soot Risk of fire Iron tripod hazards to children stove (6-10 %) Stoves needs Dr. R.B.SinghTraditional clay mud wood blowing regularlystove for animal feeding
EXAMPLES OF OTHER APPLICATION OF BIOMASS FUELDr. R. B. Singh Rakshi making Potteries (Dr. R.B.Singh)
IMPROVED COOK STOVESAdvantages: Higher efficiency (12-20%) No smoke in the kitchen Utensils are comparatively less darkened by soot Normally no need to blow the fire Minimum risk of fire and burning of children Health condition of users is improved Water can be heated by attaching the boiler around the chimneyDisadvantages:• The baffle inside ICS has to be repaired frequently to maintain shape and size to make ICS operate efficiently• The chimney should be cleaned off soot every 2 - 3 months• ICS have low space heating efficiency• Demands frequent repair and maintenance works. (Dr. R. B. Singh)
ROCKET STOVE (EE 18-21 %) RICE HUSK STOVEBAYUPANKHI CHULO ( EE 24-32 %) SOURCE: DR. R.B.Singh (3 JULY 2005)
INSTITUTIONAL ICS Advantages: Constructed from local materials Efficiency: 15-20% Saves up to 30-35% of fuel wood Operation is easy and convenient Normally no need to blow air into it Work place is smoke free and neatUse of institutional ICS:• Hospitals, hostel, barracks, tea shop and restaurants• Wool dyeing, oil seed roasting for oil extraction, confectionaries, Lapsi candy processing, Khuwa processingSource: AEPC/CRT-N
INSTITUTIONAL METALL IC STOVES ATNAMCHE BAZARSpace Heatingand Cooking inHotel. (Dr. R. B.Singh)_
COMPRESSION BRIQUETTING - BEEHIVE OR HONEY COMB BRIQUETTEFUEL Carbonized material (from biomass residue) mixed with some binder (normally clay) is compressed in a die which is like a beehive or honey comb. This technology is introduced by RECAST, being promoted in the rural areas by NGOs and Research Centers. The technology consists of carbonizing unit, die for compression briquetting and the stoves for burning these briquettes. Uses: cooking, space heating (limited use) Cost: Rs 20-25/kg Heat Value: 18 MJ/kg
SCREW PRESS BRIQUETTING Briquetting materials Electric motor Feeder Muff with heater Screw extruder Uses: Households, Institutions, Industries. Cost: Rs 15/kg Net Heating Value : 16-18 MJ/kgSource: Rice husk Briquetting – Mhaipi Briquette Udyog P. Ltd Nawalparasi
ROLLER PRESS DENSIFICATION/BRIQUETTING Donor Supported Pilot Project. Uses: Barbeque, Space Heating, and Cooking. Not Yet Marketed. Source: Biobriquetting – KMTNC/IHC/NESS project Dhapasi, 2000-2003 (not working)VSBK
DIRTY AND CLEAN FUELS Cattle Dung Agri- CE biomass O Wood, MM briquette FI Kerosene,S O biofuels RS Biogas,I T LPGON ElectricityS Non-commercial fuels Commercial fuels Energy Effeciency
GASIFIER STOVES: AIT ModelInstitutional Gasifier Stove IGS2 developed at AIT Commercial Gasifier Stove CGS3 developed at(5.5 kW; 25% efficiency with woodchips) – AIT (11.5 kW; 31% efficiency with woodchips)adapted by RONAST Tested by Dr. R.B.Singh
Major problem faced in the EnergyEfficient Devices - Limited Choice of Energy Resources Harnessing System. - Very limited RDI and Implementation activities on the RETs utilizing the locally available RE resources in the country. - Very limited planned program implemented by the only govt. organization working on the Alternative/Renewable Energy & Technology (AEPC). - - AEPC is about 90 % funded by donor countries. - The primary concern of the AEPC is the rural energy sector of the nation that is strictly segregated within the premise of the residential requirement service. Thank You