Low Carbon Growth-State in Asia Pacific region and APN Strategy Madan Lall Shrestha Academician Nepal Academy of Science and TechnologyAsia Pacific Graduates Youth Forum on Green Economy 25-29 September 2012 Kathmandu, Nepal
Preparing next generation leadership in sustainability and engaging them in Rio+20 and UNFCCC processAn APN funded project• The Small Earth Nepal (SEN)• Asia Pacific Mountain Network (APMN) International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
"Low Carbon Green Growth"Copenhagen Accord/2: ….We should cooperate in achieving the peaking of global and national emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that the time frame for peaking will be longer in developing countries and bearing in mind that social and economic development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries and that a low-emission development strategy is indispensable to sustainable development.
Green GrowthA path of economic growth which usesnatural resources in a sustainable manner. Itis used globally to provide an alternativeconcept to standard economic growth
• Green growth strategies can help economies and societies become more resilient as they work to meet demands for food production, transport, housing, energy and water. Strategies can help mitigate the impacts of adverse shocks by reducing the intensity of resource consumption and environmental impacts, while alleviating pressure on commodity prices.
• The term green growth has been used to describe national or international strategies.• Green growth, as agreed at the fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific, is a strategy for achieving sustainable development.• It is focused on overhauling the economy in a way that synergizes economic growth and environmental protection, building a green economy in which investments in resource savings as well as sustainable management of natural capital are drivers of growth.
• Korea: In Korea green growth has become the national strategy model. Lee Myung Bak, the president of Korea, has embraced a vision of Low Carbon, Green Growth as the core of the Republic’s new vision on 60th anniversary of the founding of the nation.
1. National Strategy of Low-carbon Green Growth Vision Join the world’s top 7 green leaders by 2020 and the world’s top five by 2050 3 Strategies / 10 Policy Directions adaptation to 1. Effective GHG mitigation climate change 2. Reduced dependence on oil & enhanced energy independence & energy independence 3. Capacity building for adaptation to climate change 4. Development of green technology as a new growth engine creation of new growth 5. Greening of industries and promotion of green industry engines 6. Advancement of industrial structure 7. Establishment of the foundation for green economy improved quality of life 8. Creation of green land and transportation & enhanced national 9. Green revolution in life standing 10. Global leader in green growth 7
2. 10 Key Policy Directions 1. Effective GHG Reduction 2. Energy Independence Policy Priorities Policy Priorities Setting of national GHG mitigation target Innovation of energy efficiency and Implementation of GHG mitigation management of energy demand for each sector measures for each sector such as disclosure Promotion of new and renewable energy of information on carbon emissions and Increase of credibility of nuclear power and the carbon circulation & absorption share of nuclear power plants Main Goal Main Goal Energy Independence Setting of national long-term GHG (’50) 100% mitigation target (Nov. 2009) (’20) 50% (’09) 32%(e) 8
2. 10 Key Policy Directions 3. Strengthened Adaptation Capacity 4. Promotion of Green Technology Policy Priorities Policy Priorities Enhancement of climate monitoring and Strategic expansion of investment in green R&D prediction capacity Development & commercialization of 27 key Analysis of climate change vulnerability green technologies (secondary cell, LED, CCS, Securing and management of stable supply of low-emission vehicles, CC prediction, etc.) water resources Promotion of green IT Main Goal Main Goal Securing of water resources Increased share of investment in green tech. (’50) 22.2bil㎥ (’50) 30% (’20) 21.4bil㎥ (’20) 25% (’09) 18.6bil㎥ (’09) 16% 9
4. Examples of the Policies Carbon Labeling Green Production & Green Consumption Carbon labeling pilot project implemented (Jul. ’08~) - 10 products obtain certification: LG drum washers, Woongjin water purifiers, Kyung Dong gas boilers, etc. * carbon labeling: convert the amount of greenhouse gases generated from products through processes such as production, transportation, use and disposal into the amount of CO2 generated and attach labels that show the amount of CO2 onto products Carbon labeling implemented in full swing (Feb. ’09~) - Increase certified products (from 125 as of Feb. ’10) and provide incentives to participating businesses - An agreement on Strategic Program Fund (SPF) projects signed between the Korean and the British governments (Apr. ’09) and a mutual recognition agreement signed among certifying agencies (Nov. ’09) Certification of low-carbon products to be implemented (Mar. ’10~) - Standards for certification of low-carbon products established (Dec. ’09) 16
Statement by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama at the United Nations Summit on Climate Change (New York, 22 September 2009)2．Reduction targets“Based on the discussion in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I believe that the developed countries need to take the lead in emissions reduction efforts. It is my view that Japan should positively commit itself to setting a long- term reduction target. For its mid-term goal, Japan will aim to reduce its emissions by 25% by 2020, if compared to the 1990 level, consistent with what the science calls for in order to halt global warming.”“However, Japan‘s efforts alone cannot halt climate change, even if it sets an ambitious reduction target. It is imperative to establish a fair and effective international framework in which all major economies participate. The commitment of Japan to the world is premised on agreement on ambitious targets by all the major economies.
“Framework Law for Global Warming Countermeasures ” 12 Mar 2010 Cabinet Decision“New Growth Strategy” 30 Dec 2009 Cabinet Decision“Road Map forward 2020/2050” under process
+Basic Master Plan Framework Law + Action Plan 25% reduction of CO2 emission must NOT give a bad effect to the Japan’s economy and it’s future growth. Road Map 25% reduction of CO2 forward emission should contribute to creation of new environment- 2020/2050 related markets and new environment sector jobs. +World Leading Technology +Comprehensive Policy PackageNew Growth Strategy +Growth from Green Innovation
In addition to the global climate changeUrbanization
UNEP Green Economy Advisory ServicesUNEP Green Economy Advisory Services consist of policyadvice, technical assistance and capacity building that areprovided to governments in support of their national andregional initiatives to transform and revitalize theireconomies. The advisory services include:-Fostering multi-stakeholder dialogue andconsultation on green economy;-Delivering comprehensive Green EconomyAssessments that identify key opportunities andoptions for a green economy transition at countrylevel;
- Assisting countries in creating Indicators and Measurement Frameworks;- Identifying and facilitating Policy and Fiscal Instruments that enable and encourage investments in high potential green sectors, while assisting the “greening” of other sectors;- Supporting Centres of Excellence, enhancing local knowledge and building capacity;-
- Mainstreaming green economy into national development strategies and UN Development Assistance Framework; and- Forging partnerships and alliances with national, regional and global institutions.
Creating a more level policy-making playing field• Increase public awareness and the case for change. Greater visibility on the need for this transition can motivate voters and consumers - not just because of the costs but also the economic benefits generated by a Green Economy, such as new jobs and new markets. People will not adopt policies because they are green. They will do so when they believe it is in their interest.
• Promote new indicators that complement GDP. Planning agencies and finance ministries should adopt a more diverse and representative set of economic indicators that focus less exclusively on growth and track the pace and progress of development.• Open up government decision-making processes to the public and civil society. This would help ensure policies are accountable to the public and not to vested and well-connected interests.
WHAT IS APN?Inter-governmental Network to foster global change research inthe Asia-Pacific regionEstablished in ‘96 as a result of the ‘90 White House Conferenceon Science & Economics Research Related to Global Change22 Member countriesFull time Secretariat in Kobe, Japan since ’99Major activities Funding research projects (ARCP) Funding capacity building projects (CAPaBLE) Science-policy linkages
What do we mean by “Global Change”? The set of natural and human-induced changes in the Earth; in its physical and biological systems that, when aggregated, are significant at a global scale………. Global Change Research is research regarding global change and its implications for sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region
APN MEMBER COUNTRIESPacific Island Countries and Singapore are approved countries whose scientists areeligible to receive funding under APN awards.
FINANCIAL RESOURCESThe APN is sponsored by the governments of: Japan (Ministry of the Environment and Hyogo Prefecture) New Zealand (Ministry for the Environment) Republic of Korea (Ministry of Environment) United States of America (National Science Foundation, US Global Change Research Program)
MISSIONThe APN supports investigations that will:
Supporting regional cooperation in global change research on issues particularly relevant to the region Strengthening appropriate interactions among scientists and policy-makers, and providing scientific APN input to policy decision-making and scientific knowledge to the publicGOALS Improving the scientific and technical capabilities of nations in the region, including the transfer of know-how and technology Cooperating with other global change networks and organisations
Evaluation of Projects underAPN-funded projects the ARCP and overall had very CAPaBLE good success in Programmesterms of meeting the five goals stated in the APN Second Strategic Phase (2005-2010).
Increased membership and further developed the APN Framework document Initiated Country Reports submission which have been used to streamline and plan the APN’s strategies Established Southeast and South Asia Sub-Regional Committees that improved the flow of information among members of the APN at the sub- regional level and strengthened collaboration with key partners
Engaged at numerous international fora organised by the global change community and other institutions including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties and Meeting of the Parties (COP/MOP) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and also in a number of outreach activities Devised Communications and Resources Development Strategies Completed the review process of all three APN agendas based on the strategies outlined in the 2nd Strategic Plan and formulated the 3rd Strategic Plan
COMMUNICATIONS and DEVELOPMENT c) strategically b) effectively disseminate the communicate the results and outputs outcomes of the of its activities to the projects it supports; global change community; and APN recognises that effective communication is crucial to the success of any organisation and has been working hard to strengthen the d) enhance implementation of its Communication communicationsa) demonstrate its Strategy to… among the APN work within and organs and with theoutside the region; wider global change community.
Strategies for communications and recent developments Continue to produce and improve the information materials translated in vernacular language of member countries and various communication tools Develop special publications: synthesis reports, book, policy-relevant document Attract favourable media attention and increase visibility through news/press releases and pro- active communication with editors at the newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations and/or television networks in APN member countries
ContributorsEditors:Michael J MANTONLance HEATHJames SALINGERLinda Anne STEVENSONContributing Authors:Wenjie DONG (China)Lance HEATH (Australia)Srikantha HERATH (Japan)Kanayathu KOSHY (Malaysia)Won-Tae KWON (Republic of Korea)Rodel LASCO (Philippines)AILIKUN (China)Michael J MANTON (Chairperson,Australia)James SALINGER (New Zealand)Madan Lall SHRESTHA (Nepal)Linda Anne STEVENSON (Japan)
APN New Focused Activity on Low Carbon Initiatives FY2012/2013 to FY2014/2015 Budget US$300,000 (April 2012/March 2013) Components (TBD)1) Regional-base research activities (in line with ARCP): approx. 50% of available funds • Competitive joint research activities within the Asia-Pacific region • Conducted by at least three member countries, two of which are developing countries • Thematic criteria Research to develop/deepen components of integrated assessment models Research on low-carbon development pathways and scenarios in a regional scale Cross-cutting research on low carbon development including studies on traditional knowledge in the region 2) Capacity building activities (in line with CAPaBLE): approx. 30% of available funds • Scientific capacity development activities within the Asia-Pacific region • Conducted in at least one developing member country • Thematic criteria Training workshops to develop capacity of scientists for formulating low carbon scenarios and pathways Dialogues between researchers and national/local policy makers in developing member countries Development of educational tool-kits on law carbon development (possible to shift to joint research activities) 3) Networking/Communication activities: approx. 20% of available funds • Networking events co-organized by APN and LoCARNetNote: As for ARCP and CAPaBLE, refer to the 2012 Calls for Proposals in the APN Website, http://www.apn-gcr.org/
APN Low Carbon Initiatives / Schedule (TBD) Tuesday 10th July: Launch Call for “Expressions of interest” with respect to proposals for 1) regional research and 2) capacity building projects 21st September : Deadline of “Expressions of interest (Review of Expression of interest. Then ask proponents who pass the review for submitting full proposals) Friday 19th October 2012: Deadline of submission of full proposals (Review of full proposals) 30th October to mid-November: Recommendations by experts representing APN (i.e., Scientific Planning Group (SPG) and Capacity Development Committee) By December 2012: Endorsement of funded projects by APN Steering Committee and announcement of the results From January 2013: Contract of funded projects with APN Secretariat