Pollinators in the Garden: Forging Partnerships for Native Insect Conservation BlackPresentation Transcript
Photo: Steve Hendrix Pollinator Conservation: Opportunities for Public Gardens Scott Hoffman Black Executive Director The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation The Xerces Society is an international nonprofit that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. 4828 SE Hawthorne Boulevard Portland, OR 97215 503-232 6639 www.xerces.org Photo: Larry Orzak
The Xerces Society Conservation, policy, advocacy, education, and research for invertebrates and their habitat. Photos: Paul Jepson; Matthew Shepherd; Heidi Ballard
Pollinators provide a fundamental ecosystem service that enables plants to produce fruits and seeds.
Over 70% of flowering plants require a pollinator to move pollen
35% of crops plants
$20 billion/year of U.S. crops
One in three mouthfuls of food
Importance of Pollinators Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb
Importance of Pollinators Fruits and seeds are a major part of the diet of about 25% of birds, and of many mammals Photo: NRCS
Photo: Dawn Nichols/iStockphoto Importance of Pollinators Pollinators and the diverse insects associated with good pollinator habitat are food for wildlife
European honey bee is the principal crop pollinator.
Disease, pests, and low honey prices have lead to:
50% decline in managed hives since 1950
70-100% decline in feral colonies
Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bees
In recent years, a third or more of honey bee hives have been lost.
Photos: Dennis Briggs Recognize Habitat: Solitary Bees Mining bee ( Andrena sp.); a year in its underground nest as egg, larva, and pupa before emerging to spend a few weeks as an adult.
Photo: Matthew Shepherd. Drawings: Stephen, Bohart, and Torchio, 1967 Pollinator Habitat: Ground Nesting
Roughly 70% of native bee species nest underground.
Resemble ant-nests from above ground
Nest chambers are lined with waxy glandular secretions
Conserve sandy soil, bare ground
Approximately 30% of native species nest in hollow plant stems, or old beetle borer holes.
Nest tunnel partitions constructed of mud, leaf pieces, or sawdust
Conserve snags, brush piles
Photos: Edward S. Ross; Mike Carter; Matthew Shepherd Pollinator Habitat: Tunnel Nesting
Photos: Elaine Evans
North America has ~45 species of bumble bees .
Social colonies founded by a single queen
Colonies last only one season
Nest may contain 100-300 workers
Commercial production implicated in decline of wild bumble bees
Pollinator Habitat: Bumble bees
Some native bees in decline: Four sister species of bumble bees Native Bees in Decline Yellowbanded Franklin’s Rusty patched Western Photos: Jodi DeLong; Peter L. Schroeder; Johanna James-Heinz; Derrick Ditchburn
Native Bees in Decline
Pollinator Conservation Provide floral resources. Provide for nesting sites. Avoid pesticides. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University; bugwood.org
Pollinator Habitat: Foraging Needs Photos: Elaine Haug/NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan/NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
Pollinator Habitat: Nesting needs Photos: Matthew Shepherd; Eric Mader; Sydney A. Cameron Bumble bees (social) Tunnel-nesting bees (solitary) Ground-nesting bees (solitary)
Pollinator Habitat: Butterflies
Safe place to pupate
Nectar to drink as adults
Photo: Dana Ross
Pesticide use causes significant damage to pollinator insect populations.
Avoid using pesticides
If you do use pesticides:
Minimize their use
Read guidance carefully
Read How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides
But be warned: even when bee caution labels are followed there is limited protection for many native bees
Pollinator Habitat: Pesticides
Photo: Rollin Coville Opportunities for Public Gardens Education and outreach Demonstration sites Propagation of native plants Research
Building connections between pollinators and local food systems Master gardeners, native plant societies, urban planners, land managers, and agency staff Photo: Matthew Shepherd Opportunities: Education and Outreach
Opportunities: Demonstration Sites 4-6 blooming species for each season Clump plantings Warm-season bunch grasses At least 45% forbs Photo: Jessa Guisse
Photo: Eric Eldrige/NRCS Opportunities: Plant Propagation Focus on high-value species not currently commercially available Research and documentation of species with unknown propagation requirements Butterfly host plants Xerces/Monarch Joint Venture Milkweed Seed Increase Project
Photo: Logan Lauvray Opportunities: Research Plant-pollinator relationships Propagation requirements of rare species Restoration of habitats
Pollinator Conservation Resource Center
Region-specific information from Extension services, USDA, and other sources
Xerces Society Resources
Native Plant Producer Directory:
For partnership info with Xerces, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Xerces Society Resources
Xerces Society Resources
Speakers Pollinator scientists Photo: Paul Jepson Xerces Society Resources