Weed risk assessment for botanical garden plant introductions:balancing the risks and benefits of ex situ conservation<br ...
Cultivation of food (ca. 12,000 BC)<br />Cultivation of ornamental plants (1400 BC?)<br />What are gardens for?<br />Histo...
International Research and Conservation Fieldwork<br />Paraguay<br />Panama<br />Trinidad and Tobago<br />
Cycas micronesica<br />Asian cycad scale arrived in Guam: 2003<br />As of 2007, less than 25% of C. micronesica population...
Corypha taliera<br />
Conservation through Cultivation<br />Propagation of rare species ex situ can contribute substantially to conservation eff...
What are the risks of ex situ conservation introductions and other managed relocations (MR)?<br />May behave as an invasiv...
Example of an endangered species that has become problematic ex situ<br />Monterey pine (Pinus radiata):<br />	A rare decl...
Botanical garden introductions<br />14 species of exotic mangroves introduced to <br />Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (...
Botanical garden introductions<br />One escaped:   <br />Lumnitzera racemosa<br />	-showing weedy tendencies <br />	(Forqu...
Another barely persisted, but is not a problem:Bruguiera gymnorhizza<br />http://www.efloras.org/gallery_image.aspx?flora_...
Can we predict which species are a real risk?<br />A priori approach:<br />Not native = too risky<br />Automatically “guil...
Why Managed Relocations (MR)?<br />In situ conservation not always feasible<br />Climate change may make this the only cho...
What is a weed?<br />A “weed” does not exist objectively<br />Concept of a weed flows from a combination of:<br />Biologic...
Australian WRA<br />49 Questions:<br />Climate/distribution<br />Domestication<br />Weed elsewhere<br />Undesirable traits...
Sample Questions: Reproduction<br />6.01 Evidence of substantial reproduction failure in the native habitat<br />6.02 Prod...
General Applicability<br />Tested in New Zealand, Hawaii, Pacific Islands, Czech Republic, Bonin Islands, Florida<br />Acr...
Casuarina vs. Gymnostoma:Pacific island WRA<br />Casuarina equisetifolia: score = 21, High Risk<br />Casuarina glauca: sco...
Gymnostoma papuanum in Hawaii<br />Photo by Dr. J.B. Friday<br />
Gymnostoma australianum<br />http://swampythings.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/gymnostoma-australiana-11.jpg<br />http://www...
Testing the WRA for Managed Relocations in Botanical Gardens<br />Data from ex situ introduced species in botanical garden...
Using the WRA for Botanic Garden Introductions<br />Conservation species (22 spp.) <br />Ex situ conservation from Caribbe...
Implementing the WRA<br />Species evaluated using Florida WRA, risk scores calculated (1<not a problem, 1-6 evaluate furth...
Weed risk scores<br />T test<br />Unequal variances<br />p = 0.018<br />
Diospyros maritimaa high-scoring horticultural introduction species<br />Collected by David Fairchild from El Templo Islan...
Highest scoring:  Sesbania punicea<br />
Examples   of low scoring species<br />Croton fishlockii, Endemic to St. John Island (The US Virgin Islands)<br />Buxus va...
Using the WRA for Garden Introductions<br />Scores of conservation species varied significantly less than horticultural in...
General recommendation<br />We recommend implementation of the Modified<br />Australia Weed Risk Assessment Protocol as<br...
Acknowledgements<br />Staff of FTBG (Mary Collins and Marilyn Griffiths) and MBC (Arantza Strader) are acknowledged for th...
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Horticulture and Garden Operations Mini Series: A Discriminating Palette to Fill Your Canvas: Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) for Botanic Garden Decision-Making

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Horticulture and Garden Operations Mini Series: A Discriminating Palette to Fill Your Canvas: Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) for Botanic Garden Decision-Making

  1. 1. Weed risk assessment for botanical garden plant introductions:balancing the risks and benefits of ex situ conservation<br />Hong Liu:<br />Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden<br />Florida International University<br />Chad Husby: <br />Montgomery Botanical Center<br />Sarah Reichard: <br />University of Washington<br />
  2. 2. Cultivation of food (ca. 12,000 BC)<br />Cultivation of ornamental plants (1400 BC?)<br />What are gardens for?<br />Historically:<br />
  3. 3. International Research and Conservation Fieldwork<br />Paraguay<br />Panama<br />Trinidad and Tobago<br />
  4. 4. Cycas micronesica<br />Asian cycad scale arrived in Guam: 2003<br />As of 2007, less than 25% of C. micronesica population is left<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Corypha taliera<br />
  7. 7. Conservation through Cultivation<br />Propagation of rare species ex situ can contribute substantially to conservation efforts<br />Exchange of horticultural expertise and technology from such efforts can greatly enhance both in situ and ex situ conservation<br />but…should we be cautious about introducing and propagating some rare species ex situ? <br />
  8. 8. What are the risks of ex situ conservation introductions and other managed relocations (MR)?<br />May behave as an invasive species or introduce associated pests or pathogens <br /> (Ricciardi and Simberloff, 2008)<br />
  9. 9. Example of an endangered species that has become problematic ex situ<br />Monterey pine (Pinus radiata):<br /> A rare declining species<br /> - 3 small California coastal populations <br /> - 2 island populations in Mexico<br />Very popular plantation and landscape species<br />Naturalized and invasive in southern hemisphere and northern California<br />http://www.craigpine.co.nz/Seedlings.jpg<br />
  10. 10. Botanical garden introductions<br />14 species of exotic mangroves introduced to <br />Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (1940s-1980s)<br /> Most were hard to grow over the long term<br /> - often the case with plant introductions<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/edgley_cesar/3366002009/sizes/l/<br />
  11. 11. Botanical garden introductions<br />One escaped: <br />Lumnitzera racemosa<br /> -showing weedy tendencies <br /> (Forquerean et al. 2009)<br />http://ecobird.tncg.gov.tw/ecobird/warehouse/B00/971021030.jpg<br />
  12. 12. Another barely persisted, but is not a problem:Bruguiera gymnorhizza<br />http://www.efloras.org/gallery_image.aspx?flora_id=600&gallery_id=1091&image_id=1476<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilmare77/3224619063/sizes/l/<br />
  13. 13. Can we predict which species are a real risk?<br />A priori approach:<br />Not native = too risky<br />Automatically “guilty” based on geographic origin location during a recent period of earth’s history<br />Data driven approach<br />Weed Risk Assessment<br />Give species a multifaceted hearing – no a priori condemnation based on geographic origin<br />Photo by Mike Bush<br />
  14. 14. Why Managed Relocations (MR)?<br />In situ conservation not always feasible<br />Climate change may make this the only choice for many rare species<br />Other types of habitat destruction and degradation – e.g. .deforestation, flooding, pollution<br />
  15. 15. What is a weed?<br />A “weed” does not exist objectively<br />Concept of a weed flows from a combination of:<br />Biological characteristics<br />Ecological context<br />History<br />Human context<br />
  16. 16. Australian WRA<br />49 Questions:<br />Climate/distribution<br />Domestication<br />Weed elsewhere<br />Undesirable traits for humans<br />Plant type<br />Reproduction<br />Dispersal<br />Persistence attributes<br /><1 = not a pest<br />1-6 evaluate further<br />> 6 = a pest<br />
  17. 17. Sample Questions: Reproduction<br />6.01 Evidence of substantial reproduction failure in the native habitat<br />6.02 Produces viable seed<br />6.03 Hybridizes naturally<br />6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic<br />6.05 Require specialist pollinators<br />6.06 Reproduction by vegetatative fragmentation<br />6.07 Minimum generative time (years)<br />
  18. 18. General Applicability<br />Tested in New Zealand, Hawaii, Pacific Islands, Czech Republic, Bonin Islands, Florida<br />Across sites<br />90% accurate in predicting invaders, <br />70% accurate with non-invaders<br />Gordon et al. 2008<br />
  19. 19. Casuarina vs. Gymnostoma:Pacific island WRA<br />Casuarina equisetifolia: score = 21, High Risk<br />Casuarina glauca: score = 20, High Risk<br />Casuarina cunninghamiana: score = 12, High Risk<br />Gymnostoma papuanum: score = 0, Low Risk<br />
  20. 20. Gymnostoma papuanum in Hawaii<br />Photo by Dr. J.B. Friday<br />
  21. 21. Gymnostoma australianum<br />http://swampythings.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/gymnostoma-australiana-11.jpg<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/tony_rodd/3719761173/<br />
  22. 22. Testing the WRA for Managed Relocations in Botanical Gardens<br />Data from ex situ introduced species in botanical gardens: <br />Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG)<br />Montgomery Botanic Center (MBC)<br />Address two questions:<br />Do threatened species have lower weed risk than non-threatened horticulturally introduced species?<br />Can the WRA pick out the high risk species among the FTBG introductions?<br />
  23. 23. Using the WRA for Botanic Garden Introductions<br />Conservation species (22 spp.) <br />Ex situ conservation from Caribbean, tropical America, Asia, etc. <br />General horticultural species (22 spp.)<br />Sale species promoted by FTBG to the general gardening public from 1955-1979 <br />Matched with ex situ conservation species by habit <br /> (e.g., tree/shrub, palm, etc.)<br />
  24. 24. Implementing the WRA<br />Species evaluated using Florida WRA, risk scores calculated (1<not a problem, 1-6 evaluate further, >6 a problem)<br />Data from FTBG/MBC records, internet and published sources, and field observations<br />3 evaluators, then checked for consistency<br />
  25. 25. Weed risk scores<br />T test<br />Unequal variances<br />p = 0.018<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Diospyros maritimaa high-scoring horticultural introduction species<br />Collected by David Fairchild from El Templo Island, Philippines <br /> Introduced into the Fairchild Garden in 1940 after Cheng-Ho Expedition<br />Seedlings found recently in Matheson Hammock park, next to the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden<br />Photo by Edward Beckwith<br />Photo by Dr. Carl Lewis<br />
  28. 28. Highest scoring: Sesbania punicea<br />
  29. 29. Examples of low scoring species<br />Croton fishlockii, Endemic to St. John Island (The US Virgin Islands)<br />Buxus vahlii, Endemic to <br />Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands (U.K.) - Anegada<br />
  30. 30. Using the WRA for Garden Introductions<br />Scores of conservation species varied significantly less than horticultural introduction species<br />The conservation scores were substantially lower than the cut off point determining non-invasiveness<br />Scores for both groups were low <br />
  31. 31. General recommendation<br />We recommend implementation of the Modified<br />Australia Weed Risk Assessment Protocol as<br />one of the tools to evaluate managed relocation <br />Candidates:<br />…especially when there is prior concern or uncertainty about the risks posed by a plant species<br />
  32. 32. Acknowledgements<br />Staff of FTBG (Mary Collins and Marilyn Griffiths) and MBC (Arantza Strader) are acknowledged for their help in providing data on the evaluated species.<br />Jason Downing (Florida International University) helped with scoring, supported by Montgomery Botanical Center fellowship<br />

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