APHIS commissioned a study from the National Academy of Science’s National Research Council, published in 2002, which made 10 recommendations. One was: Plants native to the United States that are growing in other counties, such as in botanical gardens and arboretums, should be monitored to determine the species to which they are susceptible and to evaluate the potential for these species to arrive in the United States. The severity of the damage to native U.S. plants by pathogens, arthropods, and other taxa, and the abiotic and biotic forces that contribute actively to the damage, should be documented.
A few efforts have recently started. For more info on these, come to the session at BGCI!
Only 7% of fungi are known to science
We need to get a better handle on what could attack our plants, BEFORE it arrives! But non-native pests may not be misbehaving at home.
North American plants overseas are exposed to potential pests, altho natural enemies are still in place, so the info is more about susceptibility than about severity. Exotic plants in the US gardens might have brought a pest with them; OR they might warn us about US pests that we should not be sending abroad on our nursery stock.
APGA and NIFA received 650K to develop and implement training programs.
We need reciprocal agreements with gardens overseas, so they will watch their American accessions. This is KEY to success. There is a lot of support for the concept. BGCI grant.
Knowledge is power. Only through international collaboration can we stem the tide of invasive pests.
Botanic Gardens as Sentinels of Forest Health Britton
SENTINEL PLANT NETWORK Kerry Britton June 2010 National Plant Pathology Program Leader for R&D, USDA Forest Service
… to help PREVENT the next Chestnut Blight Dogwood Anthracnose Beech Bark Disease White Pine Blister Rust Butternut Canker European Larch Canker Port Orford Cedar Root Disease Eurasian Poplar Leaf Rust Phytophthora Root Rot Cryptodiaporthe Canker Sudden Oak Death
All of these diseases <ul><li>Were imported on nursery stock </li></ul><ul><li>Could not </li></ul><ul><li>be eradicated </li></ul><ul><li>by the time </li></ul><ul><li>they were </li></ul><ul><li>identified </li></ul>
National Research Council Recommendations “ Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests” 2002
CURRENT EFFORTS <ul><li>US/France & China </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland & Siberia </li></ul><ul><li>NZ B3 5 Year Pilot </li></ul>INRA Beijing planting ~400 trees Import issues Monthly survey
How would a Sentinel Plant Network complement existin g protections in the United States?
Current Q-37: <ul><li>Black list approach </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Some quarantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly “in situ” </li></ul></ul>
Proposed Revision Q37 <ul><li>Clean Stock production systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>New “NAPPRA” category of plants </li></ul><ul><li> “ Not Authorized Pending a Pest Risk Assessment” </li></ul><ul><li>Both assume knowledge of pests abroad </li></ul>