Wim Maartens
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  • 1. Building blocks for a consistent, safe and quality hatchery diet
  • 2. Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow out ponds
    common sense:
    children must be fed well to become healthy adults.
    The diet of top athletes is worked out to the outmost details
  • 3. Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow out
    Consumer chooses the cheapest food
    Traders look for cheaper supply from food processors
    Food processors want cheaper shrimp/ fish from the farmer
    Pressure from farmers to supply cheaper larvae
    reaction from hatchery operators to reduce costs
    Feed producers respond by offering cheaper diets
  • 4. Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow out
    Pressure on feed producers to reduce quality in order to maintain margin
    • The diets have found fast and easy acceptance by vannamei producers as they are not picky when it comes to eating
    • 5. These diets have found also entrance in monodon hatcheries
  • Healthy and well fed larval shrimp and fish will perform better in the grow out
    • In monodon hatcheries in Thailand and the Philippines, survival by using low cost feeding protocols dropped below 50%
    • 6. For vannamei in Thailand it has been noticed that cheaper post larvae kept on a low cost feeding protocol grow slower and have lower survivals in the grow out ponds.
    • 7. Hatcheries are switching back to cost efficient feeding protocols
    • 8. Professional Thai farmers demand proof from vannamei hatcheries that post larvae have been fed with quality diets
    • 9. In the long run, cost efficiency farming is better than low cost farming
  • Building blocks for a quality diet?
    Right ingredients and feed formulation
    Right feed processing technology
    Right operational procedures
  • 10. Feed formulation: Least Cost Formulation
    Set nutritional requirements for the formula
    Analyze incoming raw materials on required parameters: e.g. variability of protein content of fish meals
    Update cost of raw materials
    Compute the least cost formula with the available raw materials
    • cost efficient and consistent
    fixed formulations lead to inconsistent feeds
  • 11. Feed formulation
    Must be based on nutritional requirements of the targeted aquatic animal and its life stage
    Too much of one nutrient
    Not enough of another
    • How can it be cost efficient?
    Still requires more investigation
    endless amount of species in aquaculture
  • 12. Feed formulation
    Look beyond the label
    There is more to a formulation than the right protein, lipid, fiber and moisture levels
    • essential lipids
    • 13. digestible proteins with the right amino acids
    • 14. vitamins, minerals
    • 15.
  • Feed formulation
  • 16. Feed formulation
    INVE’s standard for larval prawns
  • 17. Feed formulation: ingredients
    Ingredients that are safe for the food chain
    GMO free, free of melanine, low in heavy metals
    Ingredients that are attractive and palatable for prawns/fish
    • Use of fresh marine ingredients opposed to marine meals
    Ingredients that contain the right nutrients and are digestible by the targeted specie
  • 18. Feed formulation: safe for the food chain?
    Max Cadmium EU standard
  • 19. Feed processing technology
    Needs to facilitate feeding in farm
    Long shelflife
    Provide all nutritional requirements in one particle
    Easy to apply
    Needs to produce a water stable particle with the right size and buoyancy
    Every particle not eaten by the animal is a loss and deteriorates water quality
    Needs to protect the quality of the ingredients and feed
    • Heat treatment could damage valuable components
  • Feed processing technology: size matters
    WASTE
    Every particle not eaten by the animal is a loss and deteriorates water quality
  • 20. Feed processing technology: size matters
    Specialized tumbling sieves to remove dust form the diets
  • 21. Feed processing technology:
    Fresh is the Best
    Challenge of using fresh ingredients
    Formula contains 70% of fresh ingredients
    Fresh ingredients contain 90% water
    We need to use 7 kg of fresh ingredients per kg of dry product and remove at least 6 kg of water without damaging the quality of the fresh ingredients
    • Suitable technology:
    • 22. spraydrying
    • 23. Refractance window drying
  • Spray drying
    Soup with ingredients
    Hot air at 180’C
    Powdered feed at 80’C
  • 24. Refractance Window Drying
    Soup with ingredients
    80’C
    95’C
  • 25. Operational procedures: quality…every time
    Quality needs to be defined
    Quality needs to be monitored
    Quality needs to recorded
    Quality needs to be improved
    Even the best operational system will cover not all risk
    In case there is a problem: good operational procedures provide for fast and focused action
  • 26. Good Manufacturing Practices
    20 procedures to assure that youreceive quality, consistent and safe diets every time
  • 27. Good Manufacturing Practice: Working Procedures
  • 28. Good Manufacturing Practice: in line controls
    moisture
    thickness
    density
  • 29. Good Manufacturing Practice: lab controls
  • 30. Good Manufacturing Practices: traceability
    Be ready for Worst Case Scenario
    Customer finds problem with finished product A
    Only recall from customers that received affected lots
    Lot number of all finished goods that used that lot as an ingredient
    Lot number of finished product A
    Lot number of all SMP’s that used that lot as an ingredient
    Lot number of all SMP’s used to produce A
    Lot number of all RM’s used to produce A
    RM’s X with lot number Y caused problem
  • 31. Building blocks for a cost efficient diet?
    Right feed formulation
    Right feed processing technology
    Right operational procedures
    Quality
    Safety
    Consistency
  • 32. Thank you