Abstracts: Building infrastructures for archives in a digital world
Building infrastructures for archives in adigital worldDate: 26 – 28 June 2013 Venue: Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2Note: Each session starts with a keynote which is marked like this:Table of contentsSESSION 1.1STRATEGIC ISSUES FOR ARCHIVES IN A DIGITAL WORLD 6Thomas Aigner (ICARUS, AT)International cooperation as a precondition for building infrastructures 6Daniel Jeller (ICARUS, AT)The digital age: opportunities to ensure access to our cultural heritage 6Boris Blažinić (Institute for quality and human resource development)How to raise visibility: archive’s hidden treasuries 6Herbert Wurster (Diocese of Passau, DE)Persistent-meta-data, the keeping of records and archival science 7SESSION 1.2OPEN DATA AND LICENSING 8Julia Fallon (IPR & Policiy Advisor Europeana)Open data and licensing (legal aspects, consequences for accessibility, economic aspects, copyright,creative commons etc.) 8Walter Scholger (Centre for Information Modelling in the Humanities Graz, AT)Archives and the digital turn: challenges, opportunities and possible solutions to Open Access, provision anduse of archival resources 8Martin Fries (Swiss Federal Archives, CH)Everything online? Dealing with data protection issues 9
Dorota Drzewiecka, Katarzyna Pepłowska (Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun, PL)Access to Polish archival material: legal dilemmas 10SESSION 1.3LINKING OF DATA – INTERDISCIPLINARY COOPERATION 11Jane Stevenson (Archives Hub, GB)A Licence to Thrill: the exciting potential of open data 11Eddy Put (State Archives Belgium, BE)Pleading the case for a flora of archives 12Francesca Di Donato (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, IT)Burckhardtsource.org. A semantic archive 12Damiana Luzzi (Digital Renaissance Foundation, IT), Irene Pedretti (Historical Archives of the PontificalGregorian University, Rome, IT)An ontology for APUG: problem, method and solution 12SESSION 1.4USERS OF ARCHIVISTIC CONTENT NOW AND IN THE FUTURE 14Stefano Vitali (Soprintendenza Archivistica per l’Emilia Romagna, IT)Archivists and users in the virtual searching room 14Stephane Gierts (Council of the European Union)Archival access and online archives of the Council of the European Union – Considering the user perspective14Steffen Hennicke (Berlin School of Library and Information Science, DE)Modelling the information needs of archival users 15Petra Links (NIOD – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, NL) & Reto Speck (NIOD, ResearchAssociate at Centre for e-Research, King’s College London, GB) Research infrastructures and archival inter-mediation 15SESSION 1.5BUILDING NEW PARTNERSHIPS 16Laura Gould (Lothian Health Services Archive, GB) & Gunivere Barlow (Carmichael Watson Project, GB)Small Scale, Big Change – the impact of social media 16Doreen Kelimes (City Archives Speyer, DE)The eastern and north-eastern European archives between digitisation, Web 2.0 and social media 16
Alexander Schatek (Topothek, AT)“Let the crowd work”. Creating a Virtual Archive by Local Units 17Peter Moser (Archives of Rural History, CH)Virtual archives: a new solution to old problems? 17Tom Cobbaert (Archief 2.0, NL)ArchiefWiki, the collaborative success of independent knowledge sharing 18SESSION 1.6ARCHIVAL CONTENT IN DIDACTIC PRACTICE 20Antonella Ambrosio (UNINA – Università degli Studi di NapoliFederico II, IT)Charters and digital archives in the didactic practice 20Hrvoje Stančić, Arian Rajh, Edvin Bursić (Department of Information and Communication Sciences,Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, HR)Archival education activities in the online environment 20Maria Gussarson Wijk (APEx, Swedish National Archives, SE)The Archives Portal Europe and its possible uses in the upper secondary school: the Swedish Global collegeexample 21Artur Dirmeier & Kathrin Pindl (Spitalarchiv Regensburg, DE)Spitalarchiv: didactic practice in a digital world 21SESSION 2.1ARCHIVAL METADATA AND STANDARDS FOR DIGITAL ARCHIVES 23Daniel Pitti (Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia, US)The emerging archival metadata landscape 23Karin Bredenberg (National Archives of Sweden, SE)Record creators: use of EAC-CPF in the Archives Portal Europe 23Kerstin Arnold (Technical Coordinator APEx, Federal Archives of Germany, DE)EAD revision and its effects on the Archives Portal Europe 24Maud Medves (CENDARI project, DE)EAG CENDARI: customising EAG for research purposes 24
SESSION 2.2BEST PRACTICE: IT’S TOOL TIME! 26Susanne Waidmann (Federal Archives of Germany, DE)The Archives Portal Europe: the adventure of presenting multicultural and multilingual information onarchival material, its creators and their repositories in just one tool 26Bastiaan Verhoef (APEx, Nationaal Archief, NL)The backend of the Archives Portal Europe: lessons learned and challenges waiting (provisional) 26Jochen Graf (University of Cologne, DE)Transcription, contextualization and peer review: the ‘Monasterium Collaborative Archives’ 27Eoghan Ó Carragáin (National Library of Ireland, IE), Luke OSullivan (Swansea Univesity Library, IE)Archival collections in Vufind 27SESSION 2.3BEST PRACTICE: FROM CARDBOARD BOXES TO EUROPEAN E-ARCHIVES 29Zoltán Szatucsek (National Archives of Hungary, HU)Search all, find more: access to the Archival Database Service in Hungary 29Maria Popkovacheva-Terzieva (Archives State Agency of Bulgaria, BG)Archives State Agency: attempts to popularize its digital holdings 29Peter Fleer (Swiss Federal Archives, CH)Interpretation of digital records 32John Cox (National University of Ireland, IE)The Abbey Theatre Archive Digitization Project: challenges and opportunities 33Grace Toland (Irish Traditional Music Archive, IE)The Irish Traditional Music Archive & The Inishowen Song Project 33SESSION 2.4BEST PRACTICE: SUSTAINING DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE LONG RUN 35Hrvoje Stančić, Arian Rajh (Department of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Humanitiesand Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, HR), Edvin Buršić (Financial Agency, HR)Using Archival Information Packages for production of sustainable archival collections of digitised records 35Giovanni Ciccaglioni (ICUU – Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities, IT)Digital cultural heritage and e-infrastructures 35Salvatore Vasallo (Instituti Centrale per gli Archivi, IT)The Archival Resource Catalogue within the Italian National Archival System 36
Armin Straube (German National Library, DE)Frameworks for digital preservation 37SESSION 2.5BEST PRACTICE: BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES ON A NATIONAL LEVEL 38Vlatka Lemić (Croatian State Archives, HR) 38Christina Wolf & Gerald Maier (State Archives Baden-Württemberg, DE)Building a German archives portal: development of a national platform for archival information within theGerman Digital Library 38István Kenyeres (Budapest City Archives, HU)Archives Portal Hungary: asolution for joint publication of databases and digitized archival materials 39Karol Krawczyk (Head Office of State Archives, PL)Holdings accessible online: the Polish experience 39Chezkie Kasnett (The National Library of Israel, IL)The historical archive reborn: approach and strategy for the Archive network 40SESSION 2.6BEST PRACTICE: BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES ON AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL 43Manfred Thaller, Jochen Graf, Sebastian Rose, Andre Streicher (University of Cologne, DE)Network(s) for Europe’s charters: a proven blueprint for an international infrastructure 43Gerold Ritter & Jonas Arnold (Archives Online, CH)Archives Online: real time searched in 13 archives without redundant data 43Henk Harmsen (DARIAH-EU)DARIAH: the adventure of building an infrastructure 44Anna Bohn & Aleksandra Pawłiczek (CENDARI project, DE)CENDARI: building up a research infrastructure on The First World War across borders 45
Session 1.1Strategic issues for archives in a digital worldThomas Aigner (ICARUS, AT)International cooperation as a precondition for building infrastructurestbaDaniel Jeller (ICARUS, AT)The digital age: opportunities to ensure access to our cultural heritageThe digitisation of archival material that started in the late 20th century is an important factor indetermining the manner in which we as a society will make use of the diverse documents stored inour public and private archives in the future. My presentation gives an overview of the effects thatthis new cultural practice has on how we perceive digitised historical material in relation to itsphysical counterpart and to describe the unique opportunities that arise out of these developmentsfor the archival world as a whole. I will show that the technological advantages in the fields of digitalimaging, data storage and data distribution provide archives with a wide array of possibilities inwhich they can improve how they can serve their users and at the same time ensure their importantrole as the societies long term memory and a crucial guardian of our combined cultural heritage.Boris Blažinić (Institute for quality and human resource development)How to raise visibility: archive’s hidden treasuriesIn the eyes of the beholder archives are usually seen as our historical memory or its guardians.Archives keep the rich and unique documentary heritage and make them available to the public.Information and evidence contained in the archives relate to the past and present life of our societyin many different ways and have potential to meet the needs and expectations of a wide variety ofusers. In this sense then, why are archives rather invisible to the public compared to other culturalinstitutions and centres? My presentation deals with general principles, strategies and techniques ofvisibility from the psychological perspective and how they can be used in archives to raise theirvisibility (that is become more attractive to the public).
Herbert Wurster (Diocese of Passau, DE)Persistent-meta-data, the keeping of records and archival scienceArchival storage procedures are well established as far as the "originals" are concerned. But thetechnical development of the past century has brought several new technical ways of providingaccess to the records and of preserving them in another medium e. g. substitution microfilms. Eachnew medium has developed its own strategy of description, especially in the field of how to refer torecord groups and call numbers. New ways of archival description through database supportedarchival programmes have had similar results. As a consequence, the coherence between the variousnew media, the "original" sources and the information contained in established finding aids has oftenbeen broken. It is therefore necessary to reconsider the basic principles of archival science in orderto keep intact the usability of the wealth of information of traditional finding aids and to keep alivethe correlation i. e. the meta-identity between the "originals" records and meta-records for accessand substantial preservation.
Session 1.2Open data and licensingJulia Fallon (IPR & Policiy Advisor Europeana)Open data and licensing (legal aspects, consequences foraccessibility, economic aspects, copyright,creative commons etc.)Europeana brings together the digitized content of Europes galleries, libraries, museums, archivesand audiovisual collections. Currently Europeana gives integrated access to over 25 million books,films, paintings, museum objects and archival documents from some 2,200 content providers. Thecontent is drawn from every European member state and the interface is in 29 European languages.Europeana receives its main funding from the European Commission.Behind Europeana lies a series of framework and tools that enables the standardised, free and opensharing of metadata. Furthermore, supporting the core Europeana service are a number of projectsand initiatives that improve upon the basic service by focusing on industry, social or legal aspects ofmaking content available. For example Europeana is developing three pilot creative communitiesusing the principles of the commons to demonstrate the impact commons can have within anetwork, through to initiatives such as the Rights Labelling Campaign which aims to deliverimprovements in the presence and quality of metadata, specifically Licence information.All of this is made possible by the Europeana Licensing Framework - guiding the provision and use ofdata by both users and providers under the basic principles that metadata is provided under a CC0Licence. The Europeana framework will be presented along with an exploration of the issues ittackles, the services it enables, finding with a brief look to the future of the framework.More information can be found at http://www.europeana.eu/portalWalter Scholger (Centre for Information Modelling in the Humanities Graz, AT)Archives and the digital turn: challenges, opportunities and possible solutions toOpen Access, provision and use of archival resourcesArchives can draw on ample and rich experience regarding the access to their material and the termsof its use. Apart from well-established and proven procedures within the archives themselves, theycan rely on equally established legal terms and practices, with relatively small differences betweenEuropean countries.The current national and international legislature, however, primarily governs the access to and useof physical archival material in situ at the actual archive. The legislature regarding digital resources
access to our finding aids is a database where our holdings are indexed down to the level of adossier.The legal framework in Switzerland poses an extra challenge as not all available metadata can bepublished online. The Federal Act on Archiving and data protection laws prohibit the publication offinding aids when they contain “sensitive personal data“ and the records are still within their closureperiod. When designing and implementing www.swiss-archives.ch we had to address legal, technicaland organisational issues on the one hand, on the other hand a so-called Onsite Search has to bebuilt which can be accessed in our reading rooms only. This tool thus provides a database access toour entire finding aids and gives a complete overview of all records. My presentation describes thechallenges the Swiss Federal Archives had to face and the solutions chosen on our path to digitalaccess.Dorota Drzewiecka, Katarzyna Pepłowska (Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun,PL)Access to Polish archival material: legal dilemmasEnsuring friendly, continuous and safe access to information resources and the archival materialscollected in the archive, to every citizen at any time and in any place, is one of the basic tasks to becompleted in the Polish archives. Only recently have the Polish archives entered the digital era. Thatprocess creates new problems of legal nature to be solved by the archives. This presentation shallsummarise the results of our research on Polish state law regarding Open Access. Our legal analysiswill identify those areas that need to be amended especially now in the digital era. This is especiallyimportant since the archives as government agencies must respect regulation on personal dataprotection, copyright, intellectual property protection and other rights related to the protection ofprivacy. Knowledge of these legal restrictions is essential for the functioning of digital archives. Withthis in mind, it becomes obvious that any project related to digitisation of archives cannot violateindividual rights guaranteed.Since legal issues are complex and tedious, our presentation will focus on the practical side and istherefore based on case studies.
Session 1.3Linking of data – interdisciplinary cooperationJane Stevenson (Archives Hub, GB)A Licence to Thrill: the exciting potential of open dataOpen data is well and truly on the agenda, in the news and at the forefront of the informationenvironment. To open up data means to share, to exchange, to reuse. It means unlocking the powerof information. Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, is making it his mission, and hehas given inspiring presentations in support of the ‘Web of Data’. Linked Open Data has become amajor movement in favour of the open data agenda. But what does this mean for archivists andother information professionals? Have we really embraced open data, or are we still trying tocontrol, to drip-feed, to assume we know what people need and want? Are we inhibiting innovation?Are we making sure that we support and encourage the exciting possibilities for research that areopened up by the Web and by new technologies?The potential that open and reusable data gives us requires a leap of imagination, to embrace aworld where data flows freely. We may need to lose old assumptions about the role of the archivistand gain more understanding of the digital landscape. But there are legitimate concerns about opendata, particularly around intellectual property rights. So, we need to consider what can be open, howit can be made explicitly open, and what legitimate limitations we place upon it, either because ofcopyright or valuable income streams. What does Creative Commons provide? Where does freedomof information and data protection come into this? What about the importance of trust andintegrity? How do we balance our concerns against the business case that can be made for openingup our data? Is the distinction between data and metadata important?We need to be clear: open data is here, and both expectations and technology will continue to pushus in this direction. By doing nothing we simply fall behind. By taking appropriate measures to openup our data we raise the profile of archives. There is a compelling business case and there arepersuasive moral and ethical arguments. To move forwards we need to clarify what ‘open’ means,we need to understand the landscape we are working within, we need to work together, and weneed to understand what we can all do to ensure our resources are at the forefront of scholarshipand innovation. APEx and the Archives Portal Europe provide the perfect opportunity to moveforwards, to embrace open data and to work together to ensure that archives are central to theprogress of knowledge.
Eddy Put (State Archives Belgium, BE)Pleading the case for a flora of archivesThe opacity of formally described items is an old crux. Archivists are confronted with the limits ofaccessibility when they describe items in a purely formal way (accounts, sentencebooks, notarialdeeds etc.). This is especially the case in early modern serial archives. Traditional finding aids donthighlight these high-quality backbone series. ISAD(G) descriptive element Title (3.1.2), borrowedfrom library science, enforces the misunderstanding: users dont always have the archival intelligenceto understand the relationship between the archival item and its representation.Documentary form has been studied extensively. The authority lists on documentary forms used bynational archives are useful, but there is still a lot of work to do. A European ‘flora of archives’ or athesaurus of documentary forms is not only useful for archivists, but can be a very importantinstrument for researchers to recognize and assess document types, especially of the early modernperiod. The real challenge for the future of the archival profession is not only the opening of massivecontent, but also the creative unlocking of archival forms.Francesca Di Donato (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, IT)Burckhardtsource.org. A semantic archivehttp://www.burckhardtsource.org is a result of the ongoing ERC-Advanced Project “The EuropeanCorrespondence to Jacob Burckhardt” (June 2011-May 2014), which aims at making publiclyaccessible the critical edition of the letters to the Swiss scholar. The platform hosts the digitisedmanuscripts of the letters to Jacob Burckhardt from 1842 to 1897. The proposed presentation will befocused on the illustration of the website, which is built on Muruca (www.muruca.org), and on itsmore innovative features based on Linked data technologies, through which Burckhardtsource.org ismade interoperable with the Web of Data. An important part of the presentation will be devoted toPundit (www.thepund.it), a semantic annotator integrated within the platform, which enables usersto create structured data annotating web pages and to collect annotations in notebooks and sharethem with others, in order to create collaborative structured knowledge.Damiana Luzzi (Digital Renaissance Foundation, IT), Irene Pedretti (Historical Archivesof the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, IT)An ontology for APUG: problem, method and solutionHistorical Archives of the Pontifical Gregorian University (APUG) own a complex and heterogeneousdocumental material: manuscripts, printed texts noted by author or teacher, sometimes consideredhybrids printed-manuscript. The use of archival or library standards are not sufficient to express thiscomplexity. In addition to represent the physical structure, state of conservation and restoration, itwas necessary to bring out context and network of relationships among documents, agents,
activities, places, events and periods to reconstruct the history of education, models, subjects taughtand their evolution within the Roman College (Jesuits school) and influence in Europe and in theworld. We present the problem, how it was solved and the methodology used to create an OWLontology developed in a bottom-up approach: starting from the analysis of real data, using aniterative process, we have reached interoperability and alignment with international standards(CIDOC-CRM, EAC, EAD, EDM, FRBR-oo, etc.). Each class, property and instance is identified by URI touse as Linked Data.
Session 1.4Users of archivistic content now and in the futureStefano Vitali (Soprintendenza Archivistica perl’Emilia Romagna, IT)Archivists and users in the virtual searching roomThe advent of the Internet and the publication of finding aids and other research tools on the Webhave deeply changed the way in which archival institutions provide access to their holdings andcommunicate with their users. At the same time, users of archives have expanded and changed, bothfrom the point of view of their education and cultural background and of their research interests andpurposes.In a traditional environment, users became familiar with archival research strategies, procedures andtools mostly thanks to interviews and conversations with the reference archivists in the search room,today finding aids and digital reproductions of documents make their journey on the web, alone,without an archivist who can help users to understand their meaning and how to make use of them.How are archival institutions facing this new situation? How they can establish a better and moredirect connection with users of archives?The development of new types of search tools and the intelligent application of web 2.0 technologiescan help archivists to address the challenge of communicating with their users in the new virtualsearch rooms on the Web.Stephane Gierts (Council of the European Union)Archival access and online archives of the Council of the European Union –Considering the user perspectiveThe Council of the European Union has evolved recently from a provider of historical archivescontent in paper or microform format to a provider of digital content. This presentation will reflecton digital archives, the evolutions in archival research, archival requests and the users of theCouncils archives.A mass digitisation of the historical archives of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC),European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) until 1974has been executed during the last years.
Where researchers up to recently needed to consult the Councils historical archives on microforms,it is now possible to obtain the archives in digital format. This results in new possibilities foraccessibility, communication and enhanced searching & retrieval, to meet the expectations ofcontemporary users looking for archival collections.Steffen Hennicke (Berlin School of Library and Information Science, DE)Modelling the information needs of archival usersThe work presented originates from an ongoing dissertation project at the Berlin School of Libraryand Information Science. It gives empirical insight into the nature of written user enquiries in freetext to the German Federal Archives and investigates how patterns of enquiries can be reasonablyrepresented in an ontological model in order to produce adequate answers for the user. Existingarchival knowledge bases can be supplemented with such ontological models. The methodologicalapproach focuses on the interpretation of the enquiries in order to discover the implicit questionswith regard to a certain domain of discourse; in the scope of this work, the archival domain of recordkeeping and the historical domain of social history. The identified patterns are modelled in CIDOCCRM. The result of the analysis is an ontological model which represents enquiry patterns of differentabstraction levels to archives in the form of queries to this ontology. The presentation will discuss the“Documentation-Activity” pattern and its ontological representation. It is one of the first and mostprominent discoveries from the analysis so far. Concrete examples will show in what way this patternis able to answer a wide range of user enquiries.Petra Links (NIOD – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, NL) & RetoSpeck (NIOD, Research Associate at Centre for e-Research, King’s College London,GB)Research infrastructures and archival inter-mediationThe development of infrastructures is transforming the way archives operate and interact withresearchers. The European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) project - a trans-Europeanendeavour of 20 institutions to integrate descriptions of Holocaust-related sources in an online portal- is at the forefront of such developments, therefore providing us with glimpses of what the futurearchive in the digital world will look like.Our presentation will reflect on our experience of formulating user requirements for the EHRIproject, and particularly on interviews we undertook with user-facing archivists working at partnerinstitutions. We will argue that current discussions about infrastructure building in the humanitieslargely miss one vital aspect of archival research: the considerable amount to which archivistsmediate researchers access to material. Highlighting the importance of inter-mediation in current
research practices, we will show that a re-conceptualisation of the relationship between archivists,researchers and archives is one of the most important opportunities infrastructure building offers.Session 1.5Building new partnershipsLaura Gould (Lothian Health Services Archive, GB) & Gunivere Barlow (CarmichaelWatson Project, GB)Small Scale, Big Change – the impact of social mediaWorking within a small team, with limited resources, it is often all too easy for staff to focus on thejob in hand, achieving results but failing to publicise them. The introduction of Web 2.0 technologiesinto the working practices of small scale, specialist archives has transformed this, enabling easierpromotion, developing wider networks and adding value and expertise.Within the University of Edinburgh’s Centre for Research Collections there are a number of specialistarchives, run either as part of our core services or as one-off projects. Two of these, the LothianHealth Services Archive and the Carmichael Watson Project will discuss the techniques that they haveused and the impact that these have had, both in terms of raising awareness and how this haschanged they work and the people they work with.For Lothian Health Services Archive, the use of social media has not only built new audiences, butalso lasting partnerships with other archives, organisations and individuals. Through a crowd sourcinginitiative, the Carmichael Watson Project has mapped real world, contextual links onto the archiveof nineteenth century folklorist, Alexander Carmichael (1832-1912)."Doreen Kelimes (City Archives Speyer, DE)The eastern and north-eastern European archives between digitisation, Web 2.0 andsocial mediaThe transformation process in the late 1980s in Eastern Europe not only led to an opening of theborders, but also improved the gradual access to the archives in the eastern and north-easternEuropean countries. Besides that, a new phenomenon has been enriched the world: the invention ofthe World Wide Web.Today Web 2.0 and the social media open a new spectrum of public relations to the culturalinstitutions. This is a new possibility to communicate with the user. Many cultural institutions seizethe opportunity to present their collections digitally and carry out more and more projects.
Especially the first projects based on the digitisation, for example the register of births, deaths andmarriages and the church records. The digitisation is also an opportunity to protect and to preservethe cultural assets.This new form of public relations with Web 2.0 and the social media give the institutions the chanceto present themselves nationally and internationally with the whole of their archival repertoire. Thisoverview presents a resume of the work of the archives in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland andtheir Web 2.0 activities.Alexander Schatek (Topothek, AT)“Let the crowd work”. Creating a Virtual Archive by Local UnitsWhat about historic material and historic knowledge besides Archives? How to mobilise it? How tofile and make the vast amount of content accessible?The answer is the local people themselves: persons interested in the history of their hometown andworking voluntarily. To encourage them to work means to invite them, structure their commitmentby giving them clear guidelines, tools to work with, a society for back up and, after all, appreciation:So the task is building up an organisation.The volunteers may work in workgroups, either gathered in a workspace or alone at home, but cross-linked with their colleagues. As soon as the structures of work are visible, there may be the invitationto a wider public: If real crowd sourcing or not is an exciting question! Probably with a core teamestablished, they may supervise the incoming content cumulated by the crowds’ help.The incoming data has to be examined using scientific aspects by scientific forces: To find contentwith supra-regional importance and to improve quality of tagging.One side of the New Partnership is thus identified. But who is the other? The local governments, thegovernments on a national, even European level to donate structures? Or will there be nopartnership at all, with the people working in open source structures that will generate a standard?Peter Moser (Archives of Rural History, CH)Virtual archives: a new solution to old problems?In many European countries whole sections of the civil society have no archival institution of theirown. Since public archives are seldom in a position to acquire, catalogue and make accessible the
relevant archival material of these sectors (education, health, agriculture etc.), their history relevantrecords are in danger of being lost beyond recall.As an alternative to the costly (and, therefore, unrealistic) establishment of specific archives,historians and archivists in Bern have established the virtual Archives of Rural History (ARH). The ARHhas safeguarded collections from 170 institutions and individuals to the extent of more than 1’500linear meters archival material (incl. photographs and films) since its foundation in 2002. As virtualarchives, the ARH do not store the catalogued archival records themselves, but deposit them inalready existing public archives or, alternatively, they are kept, after being catalogued, by the owner-creators themselves. In either case, the records are accessible to researchers for scientific purposes.Each collection is provided with its own catalogue or finding aid that functions as a key to identifyingthe individual items contained in the files of the collection. All catalogues are accessible online viathe database ‘Records of Rural History’ (www.agrararchiv.ch).This presentation will address three main points:a) the concept of virtual archives exemplified on the ARH,b) the relationship of virtual archives with the existing, non-virtual archives andc) the potential and limits of the concept of virtual archives in the sense of the ARH.Tom Cobbaert (Archief 2.0, BE)ArchiefWiki, the collaborative success of independent knowledge sharingArchiefWiki (www.archiefwiki.org), Dutch for Archives Wiki, is an initiative by the Dutch-Flemishonline community Archief 2.0 (www.archief20.org). Founded in 2007 it aims to digitise Dutchreference works into open content for archivists and archives users. By developing a digital point ofreference the founders and collaborators want to bring new life and update these "classics". Besidesthat it wants to promote the use of wikis as a tool in the archives sector.Since its foundation the wiki hosted two major projects: one bringing together all Dutch archivalterminology, found in historical and present day lexicons, as well in standards or archival laws; theother creating a map and detailed guide to all archives in the Netherlands. The data of the latter iscurrently made semantic and available for re-use, for example by APEx.Beside those two projects archivists use the wiki to collaborate on projects, standards andtranslations of ICA texts.
The presentation examines the advantages and disadvantages of using a wiki in collaborationbetween archivists.
Session 1.6Archival content in didactic practiceAntonella Ambrosio (UNINA – Università degli Studi di NapoliFederico II, IT)Charters and digital archives in the didactic practiceThe use of Virtual Libraries to read texts online, digital environments for distance learning andteaching, social networks for sharing and discussing resources – these are only a few of the manypossibilities which change the profession of teaching and its didactic methods. This applies also tothe historical disciplines where the massive presence of archives of digitised charters changes rapidlythe teaching experience.The learning environments designed with digital technologies and the portals providing digitisedcharters have certainly proved to be efficient and, at the same time, to be in accordance to thepsycho-pedagogic approach of constructivism. They offer broader possibilities of source retrieval,access to different points of view and unusual space for confrontation and reflection. Nevertheless,they manifest a set of problems which risks becoming significant especially with regards to e-learning. For example, today it is indispensable to reflect on the methodology for teaching studentsthe know-how to navigate the virtual universe of historical charters and on the promotionalstrategies for a correct understanding of the discipline in a de-contextualised milieu as the digitalone.This keynote intends to present the achievements, the trouble spots and the prospective solutionswith regard to the teaching methods for those historical disciplines using archival content, so as topresent the contributions of the conference session 3.3 and to emphasize the potentialities of theArchival Portal Europe in this field.Hrvoje Stančić, Arian Rajh, Edvin Bursić (Department ofInformation and Communication Sciences, Faculty ofHumanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, HR)Archival education activities in the online environmentThe authors investigate if and how modern archives are using online environment for raising theawareness of the importance of archival materials they preserve by creating online educationalcontent. Firstly, they explore content of different archival institutions and detect what onlineeducational activities they offer. They examine content on the web and on the social networks. Theauthors then analyse the structure of detected online archival educational content, classify thecontent according to the type of didactic materials, explore various didactic solutions and evaluatelevel of the interdisciplinary approach. They also examine if and how interactive and multimediasolutions are used for educational purposes. Further, the authors compare and analyse the quality
and innovativeness of online archival educational content. Based on the analytic approach, finallythey offer a vision of future development of archival educational activities in the online environmentMaria Gussarson Wijk (APEx, Swedish National Archives, SE)The Archives Portal Europe and its possible uses in the upper secondary school: theSwedish Global college exampleIn 2011 The Swedish parliament approved of a new education plan for upper secondary schools. In it,the importance of learning how to work with historical sources was emphasised. This has beenreceived with mixed feelings within the teachers’ corps, but unquestionably, the archives have seen agrowing interest in the use of their fonds for educational purposes. Two further objectives set in theplan are that students should learn how to use and benefit from new digital technology and alsolearn about the European Union and its importance to Sweden. The emphasis on historical sources,digital technology and the European Union suggests that the Archives Portal Europe could beregarded as a relevant and interesting pedagogical means for historical studies at this level.So how could upper secondary schools use the digital possibilities for archival studies provided by theArchives Portal Europe? And what are the limitations? Could anything be done to improve itspotential usefulness for this user-group, or even create new uses? The following presentation willdiscuss these questions departing from the Global College, an upper secondary school in Stockholm,Sweden.Artur Dirmeier & Kathrin Pindl (Spitalarchiv Regensburg, DE)Spitalarchiv: didactic practice in a digital worldCan a small archive prevail academically in a digital world? Regensburg´s Spitalarchiv serves – forbetter or worse – as a benchmark for the implementation of innovative didactic practice in anarchival environment.With its history of 800 years and its over 5.000 charters, 4.500 books of accounts, its chronicles, files,maps and pictures, the small but momentous Spitalarchiv holds more than a few high-profileresources for regional and international scholars and is gradually opening up for digitization and web2.0.Our paper thoroughly discusses collaboration between the Spitalarchiv and the University ofRegensburg as well as it presents a number of courses – for (under-) graduate, further education plussenior classes - under the aspects of best practice and evaluation. How to build network structures
within the academic world and beyond? How to detect worthwhile didactic strategies? How toinclude online resources in teaching? How to recruit young academics for content-related research?By applying statistical methods amongst others, we analyze various didactic concepts frompaleography exercises using digitized records to one “Spital App” project, thus providing valuableexperience for fellow institutions.
Session 2.1Archival metadata and standards for digital archivesDaniel Pitti (Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities,University of Virginia, US)The emerging archival metadata landscapeThe release of the International Council on Archives (ICA) International Standard ArchivalDescription–General (ISAD(G)) in 1993 signalled emerging professional interest and appreciation forthe importance of standards, and evidence of an emerging international professional identityfounded on them: shared principles and the foundation for common practice. This trend continuedwith the release of three additional ICA standards and revisions of two of them, and thedevelopment of EAD and EAC-CPF. Since 1993, the cultural heritage standards landscape andemergent technologies, in particular semantic technologies, have presented unprecedentedopportunities for cooperatively enhancing and integrating access to cultural heritage resources,including archival resources. In order to effectively address these opportunities, ICA has appointed anExperts Group on Archival Description mandated to develop a conceptual model for archivaldescription by 2016.Karin Bredenberg (National Archives of Sweden, SE)Record creators: use of EAC-CPF in the Archives Portal EuropeThe APEnet project successfully established a common profile for the use of the internationalarchival standard EAD (Encoded Archival Description) within the Archives Portal Europe network as abasis for central conversion, validation, indexing and presentation facilities.Work Package 4 of the APEx project has been with continuing this work by advancing the ArchivesPortal Europe specific standards & guidelines. As part of this work, Work Package 4 has beenadapting EAC-CPF (Encoded Archival Context – Corporate Bodies, Person, Families) by establishing aprofile for the use of this standard in the Archives Portal Europe. This presentation will focus on threeaspects of the work of WP4. These are:- The benefits of using EAC-CPF within the Archives Portal Europe- The work completed so far by WP4 in adapting and developing apeEAC-CPF for the ArchivesPortal Europe- The implementation of the standard within the Archives Portal Europe.
Kerstin Arnold (Technical Coordinator APEx, Federal Archives of Germany, DE)EAD revision and its effects on the Archives Portal EuropeThe Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is currently being revised and it is planned that the newversion is released by the end of 2013. With the APEx team being represented by several of its teammembers in the Technical Subcommittee on EAD (TS-EAD) as well as the Schema Development Team(SDT) at the Society of American Archivists (SAA), the project has been able to follow the discussionsso far, rather closely. By the 1stof May 2013 the commenting period for the alpha schema of the newEAD will have been completed and so the APEx Conference in Dublin will provide a good forum topresent and possibly discuss some of the major changes that are to be expected.As for the Archives Portal Europe and the implementation of EAD within its tools (based on theprofile for apeEAD), there will be various aspects to be taken into account ranging from contentdisplay via search facilities and data preparation processes to data management and interoperabilitytasks.Maud Medves (CENDARI project, DE)EAG CENDARI: customising EAG for research purposesCENDARI aims at building a virtual research environment integrating digital resources for research onmedieval and modern European history. The emphasis is on being an infrastructure of research(rather than for research) with a focus on end-users: historians.In this respect EAG CENDARI acts as an interface between two spheres, the archives’ world and theresearch world. It reflects the different objectives of these two communities in terms of sustainabilityand coverage on the one side, and in terms of precision and search for specific items on the other. Ifexhaustiveness is central for archives, it is not as crucial for the researchers and this observation ledto an EAG customisation that favours deepness instead of wide coverage. This impacted both theworkflow and the schema.The workflow was defined to involve as much as possible the researchers in the definition of thecustomisation. All major steps (functions and tools) were considered in this way: edition (xml editor,ODD specification1), versioning (Subversion), identification, preservation and visualisation (XTF2).1 See http://www.dh2012.uni-hamburg.de/conference/programme/abstracts/future-developments-for-tei-odd/2 http://xtf.cdlib.org/
The schema also reflects the researcher’s perspective, particularly the very reduced set of elementsand the importance of sourcing and referencing mechanisms.
Session 2.2Best practice: it’s tool time!Susanne Waidmann (Federal Archives of Germany, DE)The Archives Portal Europe: the adventure of presenting multicultural and multilingualinformation on archival material, its creators and their repositories in just one toolThe Archives Portal Europe (www.archivesportaleurope.net) is the main visible product of the APExproject. The users can access several types of “archival” information:- on archival material based on EAD, used in the Archives Portal Europe as apeEAD, developedin the APEnet project and further refined in the APEx project;- on archival repositories based on EAG 2012, which is the new version of EAG 0.2 developedin the APEx project in the 2012and in 2014- on creators of the archival information, based on EAC-CPF that will be used in the ArchivesPortal Europe as apeEAC-CPF.The search functionalities and result presentations – already implemented and planned – will bepresented combined with a closer look on some aspects of how the standards are used in the portaland of the multilingual services we can already offer.Bastiaan Verhoef (APEx, Nationaal Archief, NL)The backend of the Archives Portal Europe: lessons learned and challenges waiting(provisional)There are two main backend tools of the Archives Portal Europe: the Data Preparation Tool (DPT) andthe dashboard.The DPT is a stand-alone tool which allows content providers to undertake the most time andresource consuming actions locally and leave only secondary tasks for the online environment. Themost crucial functionalities of the DPT are the batch conversion and validation of data extracted fromcontent providers’ archival systems into the formats supported by the Archives Portal Europe.The dashboard is the central point of data upload to the Archives Portal Europe and further deliveryof data to Europeana. It serves three types of user groups: the central administrators that arecreating new users and managing their actions; the Country Managers that are coordinating theparticipating archival institutions in their respective countries; and the institution managers that areuploading and managing the data of their institutions.
The main functionalities of these tools will be presented, furthermore some aspects of thetechnology behind these tools and the tasks to be realised in the further project phases.Jochen Graf (University of Cologne, DE)Transcription, contextualization and peer review: the ‘Monasterium CollaborativeArchives’The Monasterium Collaborative Archive (MOM-CA) was originally designed to serve as thepresentation and Wiki platform for the digitised medieval charters of the European MonasteriumCommunity. For some years the MOM-CA platform now has further been used and developed byother archival projects, for example by the Virtual German Charter Network and by Itinera Nova.Within such cooperation projects the MOM-CA software turned into a more general archivalsoftware framework not only useful for medieval charters but also for different kinds of archivalsources and also for quite different user communities. The presentation will deliver insight into threecollaborative systems which are part of the Monasterium software: the Import Environment for theweb-based and automatic upload of archival charter collections into the Monasterium database, theeasy to use Transcription Tools of Itinera Nova and the newly developed Collection Environment,which allows users to create and publish their own charter collections in a Google Drive-likeenvironment. All these platforms and tools rely on open metadata standards. Also, the quality ofpublished content is generally ensured by peer review mechanisms. Therefore, the presentation willpoint out that the aforesaid ‘Monasterium Collaborative Archives’ could be seen as potential contentproviders for Archive Portals Europe.Eoghan Ó Carragáin (National Library of Ireland, IE), Luke OSullivan (SwanseaUnivesity Library, IE)Archival collections in VufindOriginally “designed and developed for libraries by libraries”, the open-source Vufind project hasmatured into a flexible discovery interface capable of indexing and presenting all sorts of data from awide variety of systems. Recently, developers from the National Library of Ireland, SwanseaUniversity, Villanova University, and the National Library of Finland collaborated to enhance howVufind handles hierarchical collections such as those found in archival management systems anddigital repositories. With the release of version 1.4 in January 2013, Vufind now has built-in supportfor the display of complex hierarchies, and tools are available to help with indexing different data-sources, including EAD.This paper will outline some of the motivations for incorporating archival collections into Vufind andthe challenges encountered. We will demo the new archival features and review some of the
technical and design choices made by Vufind developers. Finally, we will discuss how otherinstitutions may avail of Vufind to bring their archives to the web, especially those that need topresent archival records alongside data from other sources.
Session 2.3Best practice: from cardboard boxes to European e-archivesZoltán Szatucsek (National Archives of Hungary, HU)Search all, find more: access to the Archival Database Service in HungaryThe DatabasesOnline project of the National Archives of Hungary started in 2010 when the growingamount of digital content led to both technical and intellectual insustainability.The consolidation involved the two major challenges of standardization and secure archiving, whilethe most attractive outcome was online access. Federated and field search provide flexible searchoptions for 27 databases of medieval parchments, conscriptions, birth registers and modern records.The paper focuses on the new development cycle, closed this March with the release of 1.3 version.Beside new features, the main purpose was to react to the integration of 20 regional archives intothe NAH organization, bringing 158 new datasets into the system. Since then with its wealth andunique content DatabasesOnline became the largest archival service in Hungary. The presentationshows how the APEX partner NAH exploited the experiences of the international archival communityand how we use this service to provide data for APE. The final section of the paper deals with useracceptance. Google Analytics and Search Field Analytics tools are used for planning furtherdevelopment according to users requests.Maria Popkovacheva-Terzieva (Archives State Agency of Bulgaria, BG)Archives State Agency: attempts to popularize its digital holdingsI. The initial question for the Bulgarian archives is who the end-users of our archival heritageare.Scholars, academic, scientists, students, in brief all those who work in academia and doresearch use the archives anyhow, they are familiar visitors of our reading rooms.However, it seems to us, equally important, if not more important, to bridge the gapbetween the archives and the non-expert user, the one who does not spend much time onacademic work and is generally unaware of what the archives stand for and what materialsthey contain. The general public holds a large diversity of interests and views, and so thearchives have to be creative in devising ways with which to capture their attention and evenspur their curiosity to explore on their own what the archives hold. Creativity and modern-speak is vital, especially when we keep in mind the plethora of information channels thatcurrently saturate the public space.
II. A way to go about achieving this is to adequately select what to digitise according to setcriteria. Currently, the Bulgarian Archives hold about 100 linear kilometres of documents. It isneither possible given our current capabilities, nor necessary, for us to digitise all recordsthat we preserve – some sort of a minimal description of what we hold will suffice. Hence,similar to the policy of all other archives, for enriching our digital archive we proceed bydigitising the documents that merit the greatest interest of the non-expert users and areespecially unique and valuable.III. This year so far we have completed the digitisation of three collections for a total of 200 000digital imagesIV. Protocols and Decisions of the former Bulgarian Communist PartyV. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Balkan Wars we digitised lists that contain thenames of the 48 000 soldiers, who died. This was done in order to commemorate not onlylarge scale events, but the ordinary nameless heroes of the wars. On the site, we haveprovided general information and pictures of the war, but the list with the three names ofthe soldiers searchable by a variety of indicators is crucial. In this way, we believe, textbookinformation regarding the wars is deepened through personal and familial history. In order tofurther stimulate engagement with this type of history, the site also allows the users todigitise and submit digital material about the war.VI. Our third collection is made up of around 8000 digital images of some of the more interestingPolice Files of Famous Persons from before 1944.VII. These three collections have been quite a success because:a. They prescribe a certain move from national to family history - we received quite afew letters, stating the gratitude and the pleasant experiences of the users workingwith the sitesb. We have had numerous visits and media publications regarding the collectionsVIII) With this in mind, we move onto a discussion of supply-side motivation – in other words doesthe Bulgarian archive have an agenda for digitisation? What are the current goals that thearchives are trying to fulfil when reaching out to the non-expert user?1) We would like to gain visibility and highlight the importance of the archives for thefunctioning of the modern nation-state. In proceeding forward, individuals,institutions and states work within an inherited framework and contours set out by
the political economic and cultural developments that preceded them. In that sense,we believe that an important objective of the archives is to emphasise theimportance of knowing the past and of being aware of it, to give rise to a certainsense of historicity.2) Another objective of the archives is to become a player in the education arena.Documents contain a raw, unmediated truth that can lead to the solution of manydisagreements or the fostering of agreements, once one knows how to use them.Working with primary sources has an intrinsic value and the archives are trying tocultivate it. The archives contain materials for what seems like an infinite number oftopics and we can provide expertise on numerous subjects once we have earned andbeen granted a place at the table.3) The third objective is to raise the national conscience not in terms of someheadstrong adherence to national symbols and rhetoric, but in terms of a sense ofbelonging to a community of citizens. Hence, we have resorted to various means andinitiatives that help us reach out to the general non-expert user in a modern, evenentertaining, way.IX) This year, we have a new web-site – it actually won an award for the best State Administrationweb-site of the Year 2012. The web-site gives access to our digital archive – it contains findingaids and thematic collections. Other initiatives that further enhance our commitment in thisarea include:- Facebook – during the past year, 700 new users have signed up to our page; a new“Document of the week” can now be found on our page.- Wikipedia – inspired by the experience of the US archives, we launched acooperation project with Wikipedia. Wikipedians receive help from archivists insearching records and information with which to deepen and enlarge their articles.We see our efforts in this area as enhancing the global spread of knowledge since somany people use Wikipedia.- Working on a Crowd-sourcing InitiativeX) International Projects1) APEX – we are a content-provider in the Archival Portal Europe where we plan tocontribute to the portal our finding aids, our Politburo Protocols, a topic relevant tocurrent political affairs, and images of some of our most important masterpieces
2) World War I – we have organised an initiative via ICARUS that plans to digitisedocuments on WWI and show how the wars affected the ordinary people, the women,the children, etc. We are planning to use a variety of ways through which to exhibit thematerials amongst which a web-site and a digital exhibition. We will know if we receivefunding for this project early next year.3) Visual Archive of South-Eastern Europe, which is to be launched in the fall of 2013 ismeant to show the daily lives of European cities in the beginning of the 20thcenturythrough the photography of a famous Bulgarian family – Karastoyanovi.4) Finally, top-notch among our efforts to popularize the Bulgarian digital archival heritageis an aggressive media campaign which currently sees us cooperating with all majormedia.XI) Finally I would like to address some areas in which we think we can improve our efforts topopularise our digital holdings.- We believe that the educational arena is where we can further strengthen our input. Webelieve we are lagging in Europeana mainly because there is a lack of national financing fordigitisation and this is because digitisation is not seen as a priority.-Peter Fleer (Swiss Federal Archives, CH)Interpretation of digital recordsContrary to analogue documents, which ordinarily serve as their own user interface, digitaldocuments cannot be read instantaneously. They require software programmes to be displayed andinterpreted, which become, therefore, part of the auxiliary sciences of history of the 21st century.According to Bruno Latour, the drawing together and the mobilization of inscriptions (documents,data etc.) are the most important elements of the production of knowledge. As a result, “classicalarchives” are inextricably linked with the scientific production of new knowledge through thearchiving of digital documents. These facts have to be taken into consideration when developinginfrastructure for archives in the digital age.The presentation focuses on three dimensions of turning digital information into knowledge. Firstly,it provides insight into the experiences archives made with the interpretation of digital records,secondly, it explores the recent practices and tendencies of interpreting digital documents withinDigital Humanities (data mining, distant reading, crowd sourcing, thick mapping etc.), and, thirdly, itdiscusses the actual and future requirements within the humanities and the social sciencesconcerning the elaborate exploitation of digital archival data. Against this backdrop, the presentation
evaluates the possibilities of the Swiss Federal Archives of making available concrete tools toresearchers.John Cox (National University of Ireland, IE)The Abbey Theatre Archive Digitization Project:challenges and opportunitiesNational University of Ireland, Galway, and the Abbey Theatre entered in 2012 a partnership todigitise the archive of the Abbey Theatre (http://www.nuigalway.ie/abbey-digital-archive-partnership/). This is the largest theatre archive digitisation ever undertaken, and will open up a newera of scholarship for Irish theatre internationally. The Abbey Theatre holds one of the world’s mostsignificant archival collections, running to almost 2 million pages. The digitisation process is inprogress on the NUI Galway campus in the James Hardiman Library.Managing the digitisation project presents a range of challenges, including the scale of the operation,the diversity of formats and media, development of optimal workflows and technologies for speed ofthroughout, quality control, restricted access materials and digital rights management. There are alsovery exciting opportunities in terms of developing partnerships with academic communities, placingarchives at the centre of a major digital humanities initiative. This project has the potential toredefine the nature of research into the history of Irish drama and Irish writing and to develop newroles for archivists.The proposed paper will outline the challenges and opportunities arising from the Abbey TheatreArchive Digitisation Project and their wider significance for digital archives.Grace Toland (Irish Traditional Music Archive, IE)The Irish Traditional Music Archive & The Inishowen Song ProjectIn 2008 the Irish Traditional Music Archive (ITMA) began publishing digitised materials on its website.Digitisation and web publishing provide the archive with a means of giving world wide access to aselection of its extensive sound, print, video, still image & manuscript collections.To-date the ITMA Digital Library contains 3,839 digital items – sound, print, images, videos &interactive music scores - with accompanying metadata, PDFs (where possible) and brief contextualessays. ITMA’s digital metadata is harvested regularly by Europeana and made available via theeuropeana.eu portal
In 2011, a local Donegal development organisation, the Inishowen Traditional Singers’ Circle (ITSC)approached ITMA with a proposal to use its Digital Library to host local audio & video field recordingsof traditional singers and accompanying material. With Leader funding The Inishowen Song Project(ISP) was completed in March 2013. The ISP microsite now gives free searchable access to 524 audiorecordings, 75 videos; images/info on 157 singers and downloadable PDFs of 599 songs.My presentation will give:- Overview of ITMA’s Digital Library- Case study on the Inishowen Song Project – its structure, content & potential as a resourcelocally & internationally. The presentation will give the opportunity to hear and see Irishtraditional singers from Donegal
Session 2.4Best practice: sustaining digital infrastructures in the longrunHrvoje Stančić, Arian Rajh (Department of Informationand Communication Sciences, Faculty of Humanities andSocial Sciences, University of Zagreb, HR), Edvin Buršić(Financial Agency, HR)Using Archival Information Packages for production of sustainablearchival collections of digitised recordsThe authors investigate the ways of creation of Archival Information Packages (AIPs) based on ISO14721:2012 and the benefits of AIPs for sustainable preservation of digitised materials. They use theexample of large scale digitisation (more than 8M images) of analogue medicinal productdocumentation, consisting of applications submitted by medicinal products’ marketing authorisationholders (dossiers) and other documentation created by national competent authority in regulatoryprocesses, which are being structured as AIP for importing in an enterprise content managementsystem. Digital packages consist of ISO 19005 compatible content files (searchable PDF/A) and XMLindex files consisting of 45 metadata elements. Index files are being created by using structuredmetadata schemes extracted from various databases (archival database and main business registry)and semi automatically edited. Based on the research analysis the authors offer a general scenariofor preparing digitised materials for long term preservation.Giovanni Ciccaglioni (ICUU – Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities, IT)Digital cultural heritage and e-infrastructuresThe DCH-RP Project: Towards an Open Science Infrastructures for Digital Cultural Heritage in 2020DCH-RP Digital Cultural Heritage Roadmap for Preservation is a coordination action led by the ItalianMinistry for Cultural Heritage and Activities – ICCU, supported by EC FP7 e-InfrastructuresProgramme, and launched to look at best practice for preservation standards in use (www.dch-rp.eu/).It started in October 2012 and builds upon the knowledge generated by the DC-NET ERA-NET and theINDICATE, two pioneer projects for Digital Cultural Heritage (DCH) e-infrastructures where many ofthe DCH-RP partners participate. The consortium involves 13 partners from EU countries, CulturalInstitutions and e-Infrastructures Providers, and will move to external partners from Europe andother countries.The project aims to harmonise data storage and preservation policies in the digital cultural heritagesector; to progress a dialogue and integration among institutions, e-Infrastructures, research and
private organisations; to identify models for the governance, sustainability and maintenance of theintegrated infrastructure for digital preservation of cultural content. DCH-RP is not dealing with theactual digitisation process, nor with the developments of advanced access and interactiontechnologies, which are covered by national and regional programs and ICT R&D initiativesrespectively.The main outcome of the project is to validate a roadmap for the implementation of preservation e-infrastructures for Digital Cultural Heritage. The consortium is organising a number of Proof ofConcepts, where cultural institutions and e-infrastructure providers will experiment with the actualuse of grid and cloud services to store digital culture resources i. e. digital assets (data plus metadata)produced by institutions involved in the various field of Cultural Heritage, archives, libraries,museums.DCH-RP has an impact on different areas: on European and national CH programmes, on CHinstitutions, experts and professionals, on e-Infrastructures and on the general public. It is targetingthree main types of user communities, namely, content providers, policy makers and programowners, end users accessing the resulting DCH infrastructures to access data that content providersmake available for subsequent research. In this way DCH-RP is establishing collaborative links withthe DCH community to give information on the project and, above all, on the use of e-Infrastructuresfor the long and short term preservation of Digital Cultural Heritage.Salvatore Vasallo (Instituti Centrale per gli Archivi, IT)The Archival Resource Catalogue within the Italian National Archival SystemThe Italian archival organisation is diversified and complex. The state archives alone represent ascattered network of 103 archival institutions. In addition, there are the archives of municipalities,provinces, regions and many other public institutions, as well as private archives.The Catalogo delle Risorse archivistiche (Archival Resource Catalog) or CAT, within the SistemaArchivistico Nazionale (Italian National Archival System) or SAN, is an aggregator of information anddigital reproductions, coming from all this variety of sources.The presentation will describe the architecture and the data model of the CAT and the import andupdate procedures of the archival data and the digital objects that are managed through thecombination of EAD, EAC-CPF, METS schemas.Both manual import and data harvesting based on the OAI-PMH protocol are used for populating thesystem. The data is then processed through a dashboard (Ontoir), meant to validate the files and also
verify the integrity of the relationships between the entity described (archival aggregations, creators,custodians, finding aids, digital objects).The presentation will depict also some of the challenges generated by such an approach, along withsome of the alternative solutions to be experimented in the future for enhancing the access and datasharing as, for example, the use of linked data or alternatives based on an approach borrowed byDistributed Concurrent Versions System (DVCS).Armin Straube (German National Library, DE)Frameworks for digital preservationBuilding and maintaining trusted digital repositories is a major task for archives in the digital world.Since 2004, nestor, the German network for digital preservation supports cultural heritageinstitutions embarking on this endeavour. Now, standards and recommendations for thepreservation of images and textual media are in place. The work on technical aspects goes on, nestorworking groups are looking into the preservation of websites, software and audiovisual media.The key challenge for cultural heritage institutions however, is to build a sustainable institutionalframework for digital preservation. In 2013 nestor working groups will publish guides on costcalculation and on drafting institutional policies.A new nestor service is the certification of digital repositories in the form of an extended self-evaluation. The process is designed to check and improve existing digital repositories. The criteriacatalogue is based on DIN 31644 and is available in both German and English.
Session 2.5Best practice: building infrastructures on a national levelVlatka Lemić (Croatian State Archives, HR)TbaChristina Wolf & Gerald Maier (State Archives Baden-Württemberg, DE)Building a German archives portal: development of a national platform for archivalinformation within the German Digital LibraryPresenting archival material on the internet is an important way for archives to gain attention in thedigital age. One central portal which offers access to all kinds of archival content from variousarchives can bring a significant added value to both users and institutions. A major step towards thisdirection is the development of a German Archives Portal (Archivportal-D) 3, a platform for whicharchives situated in Germany can provide information and which aims at becoming the central accesspoint for users interested in archival material.The German Archives Portal is being built as a specific view on the German Digital Library (DeutscheDigitale Bibliothek, DDB)4, the central, overall platform for cultural and scientific information fromlibraries, archives, museums and other cultural heritage institutions in Germany and nationalaggregator for Europeana. The German Archives Portal will offer access to archival content within theDDB in a way that refers to the particular requirements for a professional presentation and researchconcerning archival material. The German Research Foundation funds its realisation within a projectwhich started in autumn 2012. It is carried out by the State Archives of Baden-Wuerttemberg, FIZKarlsruhe – Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure and other skilled archival institutions.Thanks to the planned development of interfaces to other archival information systems like theArchives Portal Europe, the German Archives Portal will be connected with and integrated into theworld of digital archival services.This presentation will give an insight into the activities and prospects of the German Archives Portaland the German Digital Library, also addressing the definition of a standard for data delivery basedon EAD.3 www.archivportal-d.de (in German).4 www.deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de.
István Kenyeres (Budapest City Archives, HU)Archives Portal Hungary: asolution for joint publication of databases and digitizedarchival materialsThe creation of the Archives Portal Hungary (APH) (www.archivportal.hu) was supported by theHungarian Ministry of Education and Culture in 2009. The Ministry charged the Budapest CityArchives with the realisation of the project. The portal provides access to up-to-date information onboth archival material and archival institutions to visitors and publishes a joint database integrating23 Hungarian archival institutions. These are represented on the portal through parts of their archivalmaterial (maps, documents, files etc.) available for online search. The presentation focuses on onespecific function of the portal: the Joint Archival Database. The aim of the project was not to createnew digital content, but to collate the available records of the collaborating institutions into onesystem and to publish them online on the portal. At present APH contains more than 1,8 Millionrecords and 3 Million images of 10 different sub-databases with the same frame system:1. Integrated Archival Database – which unifies descriptive records on highlydiffering archival files and documents, many of them linked to digital images2. Database of fonds and sub-fonds – basic information on the archival material3. Cadastral maps of the counties – with georeferenced maps and an onlinegazetteer database4. Digitised documents of the Communist Party (searchable PDF format)5. Archival publications (searchable PDF format)6. Archontology and Name Directories.Moreover, APH also provides access to 4 databases of the Hungarian National Archives (medievalcharters, plans, feudal conscription, royal books). Each of the sub-databases (integrated database,fonds and subfonds, cadastral maps – settlements names, documents of the communist party,archival publications, archontology and name directories) has its own search engine. The unifiedsearch engine enables combined and easy search of the complete Joint Database with one click. Thepresentation aims at addressing the methodological features of the project and the collaboration ofthe archives represented in the portal.Karol Krawczyk (Head Office of State Archives, PL)Holdings accessible online: the Polish experienceThe presentation will describe the following: Archival Information Systems used by Polish archives to manage finding aids and theirpresentation on the internet as well as experience of Polish archives in making availabledigitised archival records on the internet.
The process which has already started of building single Integrated Archival InformationSystem for all the archives in Poland to manage all information about Polish archivesholdings and to make it fully accessible online. The internet portals which users can use for finding digitised archival records presentlyavailable and to discuss the main portal www.szukajwarchiwach.pl which will be the placefrom which all digitised archival records from all archival institutions in Poland will beaccessible. The future plans for developing portal www.szukajwarchiwach.pl e.g. including Web 2.0services and functionalities which meet the requirements of different groups of users. The process of preparing and delivering Polish data to the Archive Portal Europe which weused so far in APEnet project and the process which we shall be using in APEx project.Chezkie Kasnett (The National Library of Israel, IL)The historical archive reborn: approach and strategyfor the Archive networkThe Israel Heritage Archive Network is a national cultural heritage project to include over 400historical archives into an online public network.Case: Many historical archives are unknown and inaccessible to the public and thus there exists a realdanger of losing historically valuable material.Objectives:a. A platform for archives to improve the quality of and access to their collections.b. Provide public access to valuable national material c. Provide a framework and infrastructurefor long-term digital preservation of records and digital objectsValue:a. Create shared controlled vocabularies.b. Semantic processing of metadata and OCR.
c. Federated searchd. Achieve a range and depth of results never before possible.Project challenges:1. Archivesa. different/lack of standards of metadatab. organisations vary greatly in both size and structurec. poor physical state of archives and their holdingsd. hesitance of archives in participatinge. enormous quantity of data2. Technologya. difficulty in controlling and managing the informationb. long-term digital preservationc. standardisation and unification of the datad. creating a usable, intuitive, engaging website aimed at different user groups3. The processa. dealing with numerous languages in the datab. creating multilingual website and application interfacesc. working with many agents in the execution of the projectd. funding and bureaucracye. lack of standards and unified methodology.
Solution:Core strategy factors:1. Securing necessary funding.2. Building a team of experts.3. Creating a framework for Long-term Digital Preservation4. Copyright and legal aspects5. Employ standards.6. Implement a KIS (Keep It Simple) approach.7. Learn from other projects.8. Involve the archives and the public.9. Create a win-win situation for the maximal participation.
Session 2.6Best practice: building infrastructures on an internationallevelManfred Thaller, Jochen Graf, Sebastian Rose, Andre Streicher (University of Cologne,DE)Network(s) for Europe’s charters: a proven blueprint for an international infrastructureSince the beginning of the project in 2002 the site http://www.monasterium.net/ has developed intoone of the largest collaborations for medieval source material. It was started by Thomas Aigner ofthe Episcopal archive at St. Pölten, originally to make the charters of monastic archives of Austriaavailable in digital form. In the meantime it has grown into an international effort bringing togetheraround 80 archives from a dozen European countries, carried onwards by the non-profit organizationhttp://www.icar-us.eu/. Between them, the archives have made ca. 250.000 medieval chartersavailable, all in the form of digital facsimiles, many of them connected to edited texts. The digitalenvironment contains a WYSIWIG XML editor for collaborative editing, graphical tools forpalaeography and various other components, including a tutorial system to teach the handling of theonline archive as well as diplomatic as such. This software environment has in the meantimeproduced spin-off projects which deal with similar corpora elsewhere.This presentation deals with the software side of the project, emphasising particularly the designissues surrounding support for ten-language multilingualism.Gerold Ritter & Jonas Arnold (Archives Online, CH)Archives Online: real time searched in 13 archives without redundant dataThe Project "Archives Online"Since summer 2010 the trilingual archive portal "Archives Online" (www.archivesonline.org) providesparallel full-text search in the databases of currently 13 affiliated archives. The search queries aretransmitted to the databases in real time as SRU (Search/Retrieve via URL) requests. The databasesreturn their 50 most relevant hits containing 6 ISAD(G) data elements. The hits are aggregated anddisplayed in Archives Online as a sortable link list and can be filtered by years and archives.This approach allows fast distributed searches, avoids redundant data storage and data maintenanceand guarantees access to the most up-to-date data of every archive at very low maintenance costs.
The presentation by Dr. Gerold Ritter, director of "Archives Online" will present the portal and itstechnical architecture. Jonas Arnold, head IT of the Archives of Contemporary History at the ETHZurich will describe the solution from the point of view of participating archives and of its end-users.Henk Harmsen (DARIAH-EU)DARIAH: the adventure of building an infrastructureDARIAH, the Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities, aims to enhance andsupport digitally enabled research and teaching across the humanities and arts. DARIAH will develop,maintain and operate an infrastructure in support of ICT-based research practices and supportresearchers in using ICT-enabled methods to analyse and interpret digital resources.DARIAH emerged as a Research Infrastructure on the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on ResearchInfrastructures) Roadmap in 2006.DARIAH is on its way to becoming a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). ThisEuropean legal entity will facilitate the long-term sustainability of DARIAH.DARIAH is an integrating activity bringing together the state-of-the-art digital arts and humanitiesactivities of its member countries. DARIAH will operate through its European-wide network of VirtualCompetency Centres (VCCs). Each VCC is centred on a specific area of expertise. VCCs are cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional and international:• VCC e-Infrastructure will establish a shared technology platform for Arts and Humanitiesresearch• VCC Research and Education Liaison will expose and share researchers knowledge,methodologies and expertise• VCC Scholarly Content Management will facilitate the exposure and sharing of scholarlycontent (research data)• VCC Advocacy, Impact and Outreach will interface with key influencers in and for the Arts andHumanities
Anna Bohn & Aleksandra Pawłiczek (CENDARI project, DE)CENDARI: building up a research infrastructure on The First World War acrossbordersThe memory of the First World War is saved in archival records in archives, museums and librariesworldwide. As a result of war and political changes, many records have been lost, fragmented,dispersed or relocated. CENDARI is building up an Archive Directory and Archival Research Guides togive access to archival holdings relevant for the First World War and to create a linked dataenvironment for the eHumanities. The CENDARI digital infrastructure will enable source research,gathering and linking information about archival material on the First World War in many differentinstitutions and countries. Special attention is given to East Europe and South East Europe and to"hidden archives".The transnational and interdisciplinary approach is promoted by linking multilingual sourcematerial of different media types (written sources, moving images, images and sound) fromcountries affected by the war. CENDARI also provides researchers with a virtualinfrastructure and with digital tools which allow users to generate content, annotations,visualisations and customisations of their own research outcomes. To ensure partnershipwith the research community, CENDARI cooperates with the project “1914-1918-online.International Encyclopaedia of the First World War”.