 Intro Pathogenic Prokaryotes Prokaryotes in research and technology
   Although one may think the amount of    harmful prokaryotes is higher than the    amount beneficial prokaryotes, it is...
 Prokaryotes cause about half of all  human diseases There are many diseases caused by  prokaryotes    › Tuberculosis   ...
Lyme disease
 Illness producing poisons are classified as  exotoxins and endotoxins Exotoxins are proteins secreted by  eukaryotes   ...
   So how have humans slowed the    reproduction of prokaryotic diseases?    › Antibiotics    › Better sanitation habits
 Improvements in sanitation and  antibiotics has reduced the threat of  pathogenic prokaryotes. However, resistance to t...
 Horizontal gene transfer turns normally  harmless prokaryotes to fatal pathogens. E.Coli for example is harmless, but s...
   Prokaryotes are the principal agents in    bioremediation.    › Bioremediation is the use of organisms to      remove ...
Figure 27.17
 Prokaryotes are used in mining. Through genetic engineering, humans can  now modify prokaryotes to produce  vitamins, a...
Chapter 27.5
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Chapter 27.5

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Chapter 27.5

  1. 1.  Intro Pathogenic Prokaryotes Prokaryotes in research and technology
  2. 2.  Although one may think the amount of harmful prokaryotes is higher than the amount beneficial prokaryotes, it is actually the opposite.
  3. 3.  Prokaryotes cause about half of all human diseases There are many diseases caused by prokaryotes › Tuberculosis › Diarrheal diseases › Lyme disease (caused by parasites)
  4. 4. Lyme disease
  5. 5.  Illness producing poisons are classified as exotoxins and endotoxins Exotoxins are proteins secreted by eukaryotes › Can produce a disease even if the prokaryotes that manufacture them are not present Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria › Only released when the bacteria die and their cell walls break down
  6. 6.  So how have humans slowed the reproduction of prokaryotic diseases? › Antibiotics › Better sanitation habits
  7. 7.  Improvements in sanitation and antibiotics has reduced the threat of pathogenic prokaryotes. However, resistance to the antibiotics are becoming more likely because of the fast reproduction of prokaryotes.
  8. 8.  Horizontal gene transfer turns normally harmless prokaryotes to fatal pathogens. E.Coli for example is harmless, but strains that cause bloody diarrhea emerged. O157:H7 causes 75,000 infections per year often from contaminated beef. › It was compared to K-12 and 1,387 out of 5,416 genes have no counterpart in K-12.
  9. 9.  Prokaryotes are the principal agents in bioremediation. › Bioremediation is the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air, or water. › Bioremediation also breaks down radioactive waste and cleans up oils spills.
  10. 10. Figure 27.17
  11. 11.  Prokaryotes are used in mining. Through genetic engineering, humans can now modify prokaryotes to produce vitamins, antibiotics, and hormones. Craig Venter – one of the leaders of the Human Genome Project.

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