9/9 FRI 9:30 | Planning & the LGBT Community in Florida 2

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Petra Doan

In recent years, Richard Florida (Creative Cities) has highlighted the link between tolerance and a city’s ability to attract and retain the highly skilled and creative workforce that is required for high
technology industries to thrive. Florida finds that the presence of a visible LGBT population is an excellent indicator of tolerance. Yet most planners and planning documents look the other way
when it comes to acknowledging the presence of sexual and gender minorities within their cities. This session explores some of the critical issues surrounding planning for and with the LGBT
community in the 21st century.

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9/9 FRI 9:30 | Planning & the LGBT Community in Florida 2

  1. 1. Planning for LGBT Communities in Intermediate Cities: What Planners Should Know About Granola Neighborhoods Petra Doan Florida State University
  2. 2. LGBT Presence in Large Cities <ul><li>Evolution of queer neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Castells, 1983; Lauria and Knopp 1985, Knopp 1990, Forest 1995; Bouthillette 1994, 1997; Ward 2003; Nash 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesbians are less visible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adler & Brenner 1993; Valentine, 1995; Rothenburg 1995; Forsyth 1997, Podmore 2001, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gentrification & cosmopolitan enclaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rushbrook 2002; Binnie 2004 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Richard Florida’s Creative Cities <ul><li>Creative cities as places that thrive on diversity and generate high technology </li></ul><ul><li>Best predictors of high technology cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gay index = presence of gay couples (lesbians added later) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign born </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later he calls this a bohemian index </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Is there life outside the gay “village”? <ul><li>Dispersion of LGBT Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see Doan and Higgins, 2011. “The Demise of Queer Space? Resurgent Gentrification and LGBT Neighborhoods,” JPER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where are LGBT people going and what does this mean for planning? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding Life Beyond the Gay Village <ul><li>How might we characterize such places? </li></ul><ul><li>Queer Friendly Neighborhoods (QFNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorman-Murray and Waitt, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is queer friendly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse places where LGBT people feel welcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active anti-homophobia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-central neighborhoods of larger cities </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller cities and towns </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two tiered data collection <ul><li>Mail-out questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowball sample to LGBT groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>127 respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow-up face to face interviews with 19 residents of most concentrated gay and lesbian neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about safety and discrimination as well as housing location </li></ul>
  7. 7. LGBT Experiences elsewhere 3 Cities in US SW   Nationwide random sample   Tallahassee Sample   Gay men Gay men Lesbians LGBT men LGBT women Overt verbal harassment 37% 63% 54.50% 37% 53% Discrimination In housing or employment 11.20% 17.40% 16.30% 20% 17% Physical violence 4.80% 24.90% 7.10% 16% 13%             Sample size 1248 241 152 51 76 Source: Huebner et al (2004) Herek (2009) Tallahassee LGBT Survey, 2006
  8. 8. Men’s and Women’s Gender Type Number of Respondents 15 10 5 0 Ultra femme Real Queen Ultra butch Macho man
  9. 9. Overt Hostility and Men Pearson Chi Square = 3.980 signif. = 0.046 Males only Total More macho Less Macho Experienced overt hostility in Tallahassee ? no Count 24 8 32 Expected Count 21.3 10.7 32.0 yes Count 10 9 19 Expected Count 12.7 6.3 19.0 Total Count 34 17 51
  10. 10. Employment Discrimination and Men Pearson Chi Square = 4.945 signif. = 0.026 Males Only Total More Macho Less Macho Experienced job discrimination in Tallahassee ? no Count 30 11 41 Expected Count 27.3 13.7 41.0 yes Count 4 6 10 Expected Count 6.7 3.3 10.0 Total Count 34 17 51
  11. 11. Physical harassment & women Pearson Chi Square = 4.133 signif. = 0.042 Women only Total Femme < 5 Butch >=5 Has respondent ever experienced physical harassment? no Count 47 16 63 Expected Count 43.9 19.1 63.0 yes Count 6 7 13 Expected Count 9.1 3.9 13.0 Total Count 53 23 76
  12. 12. Residential location
  13. 13. Identifying LGBT areas in Tallahassee <ul><li>LGBT in every census tract </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration in Indian Head Acres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A granola neighborhood? (QFN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning cereal with whole grains, some nuts, and a sprinkling of fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse, progressive politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Safe” places for those who are different </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Census tract 3.02
  15. 15. Same sex partners <ul><li>Census 2000 for Census tract 3.02 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial concentration of gays & lesbians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 male-male households </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 female-female households </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location quotients: tract has higher concentration than the county </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M-M HHs = 1.19 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F-F HHs = 2.69 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Food Co-op: Granola source?
  17. 17. Progressive Politics
  18. 18. Environmental activism
  19. 19. Yard Art
  20. 20. Eco-friendly front yards (vegetables and butterflies)
  21. 21. Interview Question: Queer Safety Symbols in Area Symbols of Safety Orientation LGBT Hetero Rainbow flags 0 1 PDA 1 1 Two mommies (non-traditional family) 1 2 Diverse – Good progressive people 0 4 Gaydar – aware of other LGBT 3 0 None 1 7
  22. 22. Converted carports is a local lesbian rite of passage
  23. 23. Community Center with Monthly Lesbian Potlucks
  24. 24. Are QFNs Important? <ul><li>Given concerns with safety – clear need for non-discrimination ordinance </li></ul><ul><li>Tallahassee = Florida with a southern accent </li></ul><ul><li>What role for QFNs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of votes? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Anti-Discrimination Ordinance <ul><li>Anti-discrimination ordinance as one way of making anti-homophobic statement </li></ul><ul><li>2010 Human Rights Ordinance (HRO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing, Public Accommodations, and Employment in business with > 5 empl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive of sexual orientation and gender identity and appearance </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Citizen Positions on Leon HRO at two public hearings District of citizen April 27 May 11 Pro Con % Pro Pro Con % Pro 1 7 0 100 10 0 100 2 1 1 50 3 2 60 3 10 7 59 18 5 78 4 5 5 50 6 7 46 5 24 6 80 39 3 93 Not given 1 1 2 2 Not from Leon 0 1 2 0 TOTAL 48 21 69 70 19 79
  27. 27. HRO Votes and Results District May Vote for HRO November election Comments 1 Aye Re-elected Changed position to support 2 Nay Term not up Referendum 3 Aye Unopposed Modest support 4 Nay Term not up Referendum 5 Aye Lost in primary Leader for HRO At large 1 Aye Term not up Support HRO At large 2 Aye Lost Leader for HRO
  28. 28. Arguments by the Opposition <ul><li>Not a single court case of discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Costs to small business </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle choice not condition of birth </li></ul><ul><li>Moral outrage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s next bestiality? Urophilia? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men in the women’s rest room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sword of Government used to punish any who object to homosexuality </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Vehement Angry Retribution <ul><ul><ul><li>It is NOT sexual orientation – it is sexual abomination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>God will punish those who support homosexuality and transgender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We the voters will punish those who vote in favor at the ballot box </li></ul><ul><li>This isn’t over </li></ul>
  30. 30. Next Steps? <ul><li>Planners need to recognize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid nature of LGBT community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephemeral nature of many neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing vulnerability of LGBT pop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to question basic assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is a family? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is a HH’s Need for infrastructure and services (schools, health care, parks, etc.)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of creating just and inclusive cities and neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Queerying Planning <ul><li>Shameless self promotion </li></ul><ul><li>13 chapters by well known planners and geographers </li></ul>
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