SNEAPA 2013 Thursday d1 3_30_scenario_climate_10-10-13-final
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SNEAPA 2013 Thursday d1 3_30_scenario_climate_10-10-13-final

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Scenario Planning for Climate Change

Scenario Planning for Climate Change

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  • This is a meeting of the Littlemarsh Stakeholder Committee. We are here as consultants: representative from state and regional government, and the environmental community; to provide information regarding climate change impacts and the development of strategies for your to consider prioritizing today.
  • Increased precipitationLeft: showing percentage increases in heavy precipitation (heaviest 1% of all events) from 1958 to 2007 for each US Region. Clear trends in the Northeast towards heavy precipitation. Right: the frequency of extreme storms from 1948 to 2011. Northeast has seen the greatest increase in the frequency of extreme storm events.
  • Improperly sized stream crossingsFloodingInfrastructure damage
  • Development adjacent to a rising sea level: rate of change in mean sea level rise in Boston Harbor is 2.63 mm/yr (approx. 1”/10 years) Coastal infrastructure & property damage - slumpingCoastal flooding
  • Public Health heat stress, allergies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, vector-borne diseases, extreme weather)Air quality (ambient and indoor)Vulnerable Populations (access to health services; particular sensitivity to above threats)
  • Development adjacent to coastal wetlands migration
  • Migration: methods to reduce greenhouse gasses to minimize climate change Adaptation: adapting your environment to accommodate for climate change impactsCircles: showing the differences between mitigation and adaptation measures, however also showing the critical land use options that serve as both mitigation and adaptation methods: Buildings: developing/redeveloping and retrofitting buildings to be more energy efficient (mitigation) as well as floodproofing buildings allowing for floodwaters to run through while keeping the dwelling/commercial areas sealed Green Infrastructure: creating/preserving networks of walking/cycling routes for commuting (car travel reduction) as well as implementing low impact stormwater management techniques to manage increasing floodwaters Water Conservation: Reducing water demands in all sectors - modifying industrial processes, employing water efficient agricultural technologies, using reclaimed water; as well as protecting valuable water resources and infrastructure from flood damage Smart Growth: ensuring that development/redevelopment occurs along public transit routes, as well as fostering innovative storm water design requirements and include these in site plan requirements.
  • Massachusetts’ forests are sequestering 12% of our annual carbon emissions. An acre of forest holds 85 tons of carbon
  • On left – repeated rebuilding of undersized culverts, on right, upgrading to a larger, open style crossing that can accommodate flood flows and debris.
  • On left – repeated rebuilding of undersized culverts, on right, upgrading to a larger, open style crossing that can accommodate flood flows and debris.
  • Washed out in October 2005 Flood, Dimensions 4.5 foot round culvert and 6.5 foot x 4 foot elliptical culvert.
  • Within just a few days after this Oct. 2005 survey, remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two merged with incoming continental cold fronts to produce torrential rains over interior New England. In Becket, with about 9-10 inches of rain falling, the Walker Brook crossing quickly became overwhelmed. A driver, unaware the stream crossing had failed, had to be rescued by the local volunteer fire department in the middle of the night.
  • Photos of River Continuity Training – note each year volunteers found this crossing to be undersized when compared to bankfull widthReplaced with three 4 foot round culverts in 2005 at cost of $60K+
  • Post Irene the stream crossing was replaced with two 5 foot round culverts at a cost of $70K+. Does the stream have the ability to move water, sediment and natural materials? How about allowing upstream access? What about the road, does it allow vehicular access? For how long?Estimated $300-$400k for clear bridge span
  • The Town spent more than $130 k in less than 6 years. The estimate for a crossing which will span the channel is $300-$400 k with an anticipated lifespan of 50+ years.
  • A channel spanning tree located upstream of this culvert prior to the storm was mobilized and easily passed through this crossing. Road remained open and passable.
  • Broad Meadows, Quincy before restoration on the left, after restoration on the right. Restoration included fill removal and re-grading.
  • Varying definitions for GI…however we view it as utilizing natural resources and replicating natural functions to provide multiple benefits: stormwater management, open and green spaces, habitat cooridors, flood protection, recreation, agriculture. Shown above: Green infrastructure approach helps keep corridors intact.
  • Can be done as retrofit (roadway) or as part of development/redevelopment…even in ultra urban areas as shown in upper right. Tree canopy = can intercept 760=4000 gallons/tree/year!MAPC – LID toolkit and will be developing a GI Guide for Urban Areas
  • Wetlands Bylaw: Must account for sea-level rise in the resource delineation Should allow for wetland expansion and migration, as necessary to accommodate higher tides and floodwaters Should consider performance standards for Land Subject to Coastal Storm FlowageRestoring existing wetlands should become a municipal planning and investment priority
  • INCENTIVES FOR GIFee Discount: reducing.impervious.area; municipality.reduces.the.feeDevelopment Incentives: during permiting process; zoning upgrades, expedited.permitting,Rebates & Installation Financing: tax.credits.or.reimbursements.to. property.owners.who.install.specific.prac-ticesAwards & Recognition Programs:. marketing.opportunities.and. public.outreach.for.exemplary.projects.. May.include.monetary.awards..
  • Chatham’s zoning bylaw designates “conservancy districts” = land in the town’s 100-year floodplain Goal = protect people, property, and resourcesProhibited:Filling or draining of landDischarging of hazardous substances, treated sewageConstruction of residential units or building of any structure in V and V1-30 ZonesConstruction of pipelines Actions that destroy natural vegetation, alter existing tidal flow, natural growth that prevents erosion Special Permit Allows Structures used in conjunction with a marina or boatyard or private boat launches and beachesdriveways or roadways of minimum legal length and widthsubmerged pipes or cables used for swimming pools or commercial fishing operations
  • NRPZ:Less roads, less stormwaterReduced clearing and gradingProtected wetlands, floodplains, water supplies, forests, farmland, etc.Provide green space and trails
  • NRPZ:Less roads, less stormwaterReduced clearing and gradingProtected wetlands, floodplains, water supplies, forests, farmland, etc.Provide green space and trails
  • TDR = A voluntary tool used to direct development away from environmentally sensitive “sending” areas and into “receiving” areas with the desire and capacity for more development. Left: Falmouth, MA TDR Program – sending area is “mapped recharge areas of coastal ponds and public drinking water supplies,” receiving area is Residential and Business Zones. Right: Raynham, MA – sending area is “special importance to remain in a natural state” receiving area is Residential Zones A & B.Steps:1. Designate sending & receiving areas2. Create a formula for allocating rights - simplest = make number of credits allocated to landowners in the sending area equal the number of potential building lots in the sending area3. Determine the value of a credit in the receiving area - be sure that more density is possible in the receiving zones than the number of generated credits will allow. RESOURCE: Woolrich Township, NJ Real Estate Market Analysis: http://www.woolwichtwp.org/index.php/departments/records-department/woolwich-tdr-plan4. Establish administrative/permitting procedures5. Draft Zoning Bylaw
  • Rolling EasementsAllows development to occur with the conscious recognition that land will be abandoned when the sea/riverine system rises enough to submerge it. Shown: a simple rolling easement zoning scheme, which: Splits the RE zone into two zones: rural estate protect (REP) and rural estate retreat (RER) Splits the RS zone into two zones: residential single-family protection (RSP) and residential single-family accommodation (RSA); Amends the zoning ordinance to add “shore protection structures” and “increases in land elevation grades” to the list of prohibited activities for zones A, OS, and RER. “recorded rolling easement” - landowner transfers property rights to conservation entity to enable shoreline/riverbank to migrate. Most common approach to establishing a rolling easement is to use one or more boundaries that are already established – should depend on the muni goal:If preserving intertidal habitat is the goal, a policy can prohibit structures seaward of the inland edge of the particular habitat (e.g. below spring high water). If the goal is to preserve both tidal wetlands and a 50-foot buffer along the wetlands, structures can be prohibited within 50 feet of the landward boundary of the tidal wetlands. If the goal is to avoid flood damages or preserve floodplains, a rolling easement policy can prohibit new or rebuilt structures in the 10-year (or any other frequency) floodplain. Three “degrees” of Rolling Easement Agreements:Easements, Conservation Easements, and Covenants: owner is precluded from interfering with natural shoreline migration. Defensible Estates and Future Interests in Land: Eg. a parcel that is one meter above mean high water will be transferred from the existing owner to conservation entity when sea level/river elevation rises ___ or certain flood conditions occur.Ambulatory Boundaries: as the shore retreats, boundaries migrate and the owner is precluded from interfering with the public access rights.
  • Abandoned beach house in Northern California awaiting tear-down. BuyOut:extend use buyout programs for properties threatened by climate change prioritize for acquisition of vulnerable properties with high natural resource valueprioritize for acquisition of lands with potential to serve as flood or erosion buffers and corridors for migrating beaches and wetlands.
  • In 2005, the highest court in MA affirmed authority of municipalities to regulate or even prevent residential or other high risk development in flood-prone areas without financial compensation as long as the land was not rendered entirely valueless
  • Natural Resource Protection: Improved zoning/compact development to protect natural defensesRegulatory Changes: strengthen Wetland/Stormwater/Floodplain Bylaws

SNEAPA 2013 Thursday d1 3_30_scenario_climate_10-10-13-final SNEAPA 2013 Thursday d1 3_30_scenario_climate_10-10-13-final Presentation Transcript

  • Littlemarsh Climate Stakeholders Meeting Vandana Rao, PhD., Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs E. Heidi Ricci, Mass Audubon - Shaping the Future of Your Community Program Julie Conroy AICP, Metropolitan Area Planning Council
  • Vandana Rao, PhD., Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs
  • Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge of this generation, with potentially profound effects on the economy, public health, water resources, infrastructure, coastal resources, energy demand, natural features, and recreation HUMAN INFLUENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IS CLEAR! It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid20th century! - IPCC-WG1, 2013
  • Change in Average Surface Temperature
  • Draft National Climate Assessment Northeast  Heat waves, coastal flooding due to SLR, and river flooding due to more extreme precipitation events will challenge to the region’s environmental, social, and economic systems.  Infrastructure will be increasingly compromised by sea level rise and coastal flooding, and intense precipitation events.  Agriculture and ecosystems will be increasingly stressed by climate-related hazards, including higher temperatures, sea level rise and coastal flooding, and more extreme precipitation events.
  • Massachusetts Observed Annual Average Temperature
  • Source: Draft National Climate Assessment
  • Flooding Source: U.S. Global Change Research Program Source: When It Rains It Pours, Envi. America, 2012
  • Increased Precipitation
  • Transportation Impacts Photo by J. Kopera Source: Stephen Mabee
  • Sea Level Rise
  • Development Damage
  • Infrastructure
  • Heat Source: Boston Housing Authority Source: Birmingham News Heat-related Illness Source: Chartered Institute of Environmental Health
  • Loss of Development Buffer
  • Adaptation ADAPTATION means increasing resiliency and reducing vulnerability of our natural and built systems, and better preparing our response capabilities Source: Penney, 2008
  • Need to Think of - PLANNING & LAND USE!  New Development  Existing Development  Through long-term Planning, Regulation & Assistance KEY SECTORS  Natural Resources and Habitat  Human Health and Welfare  Key Infrastructure  Local Economy  Government  Land Use and Planning  Coastal Zone and Oceans Key Concepts
  • What is MA Doing? • GWSA Implementation – Mitigation & Adaptation Subcommittees • EEA Adaptation Subcommittee • Agency representation from DCR, DEP, DFG, DAR, DOER, MassDOT (MBTA, Highways, MassPort), DPU, CZM, MassGIS • Federal Partners: USGS, EPA • Regional Partners: MAPC, NEIWPCC • Other: TNC, CLF, Mass Audubon, UMass Boston, UNH, UMass Amherst • EEA Workplan • Update on the latest science • Develop climate change scenarios • Incorporate review of climate change effects into MEPA • Develop a Data and Information Tools Workshops • Prioritize strategies to protect infrastructure & human life Cross Agency Plan •
  • E. Heidi Ricci, Mass Audubon - Shaping the Future of Your Community Program hricci@massaudubon.org www.massaudubon.org/shapingthefuture
  • Protect and Restore Nature’s Defenses • Floodplains, wetlands, stream corridors, upland buffers • Natural landscapes absorb rainfall during storm events, decreasing flooding, and filter the air and water. • Compact development and land conservation keeps forested and natural (carbon absorbing) lands intact • Trees provide shade, reduce heat islands • Priority Protection Areas • Priority Development Areas
  • Protect Floodplains and Upland Buffers
  • Rivers erode and deposit. Give them room to move! Scour on the outside of meander bends Deposition on inside of bends Source: Carrie Banks, MA Division of Ecological Restoration
  • Keep Development Out of Floodplains
  • Protect Built Environment AND Natural Systems
  • Case Study: Walker Brook, Becket 10/06/05 Source: Carrie Banks, MA Division of Ecological Restoration
  • Intense Precipitation
  • Culverts Washed-out & Replaced W/ Same (Undersized)! 6/30/2011
  • Post Irene
  • Replacement Culverts
  • Estimated Crossing Lifespan and Costs 10 years Cost of Two Replacements in 6 years: $130k Estimate for Stream Crossing Span: 10 years 10 years 10 years $300-400k 10 years 10 + years
  • Bronson Brook During and Post Irene
  • Wetland Restoration & Dam Removal Source: MA Fish & Game Div. of Ecological Restoration
  • Natural Buffers: Green Infrastructure Source: Green Infrastructure Center
  • Green Infrastructure Source: City of Portland, Environmental Services
  • Julie Conroy, AICP,- Metropolitan Area Planning Council
  • Local Codes & Regulations Do They Discourage or Promote LID? Do they Agree/Conflict with Each Other?  Wetland Regulations  Stormwater Regulations  Zoning Bylaw and Site Plan Review  Subdivision Rules and Regulations EPA’s Water Quality Scorecard: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/ 2009_1208_wq_scorecard.pdf
  • Wetlands Resources: • http://www.co.lancaster.pa.us/toolbox/ • http://www.town.duxbury.ma.us/public_ documents/DuxburyMA_Conservation
  • LID / GI/ Stormwater Bylaws  Credits for use of LID/GI  General Permit for Certain Activities  Engineering Review Fees  Stormwater Drainage Fee / Utility & Enterprise Fund
  • Zoning/Site Plan Review  Relax Parking Requirements  Utilize Right-of-Way & Reduce Setbacks  Permit use of Open Drainage Systems  Credits for On-site Retention, Infiltration, Evapo-transpiration Incentives: • Fee Discount • Development Incentives • Rebates & Installation Financing • Awards & Recognition Programs
  • Zoning in High Hazard Areas
  • Natural Resource Protection Zoning Single Family: Open Space Reserved = 0 Conservation: OSR 50% Cluster: OSR 30% NRPZ: OSR 80%
  • What Would NRPZ Look Like? 100 Acre Wooded, Pre-Dvlp. 2-Acre Zoning, Conventional (34 Lots, No Protection) NRPZ (14 lots, 75% Protect.) Resources: http://www.co.lancaster.pa.us/toolbox/
  • Transfer of Development Rights Yes It Can Be Done! Receiving area = lot w/in Residential A or B – w/ municipal water& sewer
  • Rolling Easements Source: Georgetown Law; Harrison Inst. For Public Law
  • Retreat/By-Outs $ Federal Emergency Management Agency $ Presidential Declaration $ Local Flood Control (e.g. King County Flood Control District: http://www.kingcounty. gov/environment/water andland/flooding/buyou t.aspx) Source: flicr user swirlspace Ocean Beach, San Francisco Planned Retreat: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=OixVjHrcWM8
  • What are MA Communities Doing? • Chatham – zoning bylaw prohibits new residential units in mapped floodplains - designates ‘conservancy districts’ for land in 100-year floodplain; designates uses as permitted, needing special permit or are altogether prohibited • Cape Cod Commission – model floodplain district bylaw prohibiting new development in V, no public infrastructure in V and A zones • Boston – updating their hazard mitigation plan, looking into updating wetlands ordinance - all accommodating for CC • Cambridge – vulnerability assessment • Reducing Storm Risk in Developed Areas w FEMA $: Quincy & Scituate help property owners elevate homes/utilities; covers 75% of cost
  • Climate Stakeholders Meeting October 17, 2013
  • Town Stats
  • Roles  Planning Board  Conservation Commission  Board of Selectmen  Emergency Management  Department of Public Works  Business Community  Residents
  • Options for the Committee to Consider  Prioritize and Improve Existing Infrastructure (Culverts, dams, Water supply and Treatment)  Wetlands/Floodplain Bylaws/Ordinances  GI/LID/Stormwater Regulations  Zoning: NRPZ, TDR, Rolling Easements  Retreat and Voluntary Buy-outs
  • Meeting Outcomes 1. Decide Which Adaptation Measures to Focus on 2. Prioritize Short-Term and Long-Term Actions 3. Establish Action Items for Committee
  • Questions? Vandana Rao, MA EEA 617-626-1248 vandanarao@state.ma.us Heidi Ricci, MassAudubon 781-259-2172 hricci@massaudubon.org Julie Conroy, MAPC 617-933-0749 jconroy@mapc.org THANK YOU!