Preparing for Climate Change at the Local Level: Challenges and Opportunities

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  • Greenways, as linear corridors of green space, have the ability to protect our recreational, ecological, historical and cultural resources. However, these resources, such as rivers or abandoned railroads, are frequently the basis of greenway planning and tend to cross jurisdictional boundaries. Each of these jurisdictions can have a different set of policies and regulations, which can pose a challenge in regional greenway planning.
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • Add rec trails, areas in need of retro fit: industrial, residential, commercial. Add labels: “Industrial/Office Park” “Residential” “Urban Core” and mention
  • Move up before identification of areas Potential for increasing connectivity within corridors
  • keeper
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • The New England Greenway Vision Plan looks to over come these barriers that currently exist in multi-jurisdictional greenway planning. The Vision Plan was created in 1999 in coordination with the ASLA Centennial Celebration in Boston. Ten graduate students from this department and advisory boards in each state developed six state wide greenway plans and a regional greenway plan. As a result of the Vision Plan, the New England Greenway Consortium was created to provide a forum in which greenway planners and designers could share information on local and statewide planning strategies. Due to the efforts of the Consortium, regional greenway planners and designers are beginning to collaborate on a regional greenway system, although coordination on specific projects has been limited.
  • The New England Greenway Vision Plan looks to over come these barriers that currently exist in multi-jurisdictional greenway planning. The Vision Plan was created in 1999 in coordination with the ASLA Centennial Celebration in Boston. Ten graduate students from this department and advisory boards in each state developed six state wide greenway plans and a regional greenway plan. As a result of the Vision Plan, the New England Greenway Consortium was created to provide a forum in which greenway planners and designers could share information on local and statewide planning strategies. Due to the efforts of the Consortium, regional greenway planners and designers are beginning to collaborate on a regional greenway system, although coordination on specific projects has been limited.
  • The New England Greenway Vision Plan looks to over come these barriers that currently exist in multi-jurisdictional greenway planning. The Vision Plan was created in 1999 in coordination with the ASLA Centennial Celebration in Boston. Ten graduate students from this department and advisory boards in each state developed six state wide greenway plans and a regional greenway plan. As a result of the Vision Plan, the New England Greenway Consortium was created to provide a forum in which greenway planners and designers could share information on local and statewide planning strategies. Due to the efforts of the Consortium, regional greenway planners and designers are beginning to collaborate on a regional greenway system, although coordination on specific projects has been limited.
  • The New England Greenway Vision Plan looks to over come these barriers that currently exist in multi-jurisdictional greenway planning. The Vision Plan was created in 1999 in coordination with the ASLA Centennial Celebration in Boston. Ten graduate students from this department and advisory boards in each state developed six state wide greenway plans and a regional greenway plan. As a result of the Vision Plan, the New England Greenway Consortium was created to provide a forum in which greenway planners and designers could share information on local and statewide planning strategies. Due to the efforts of the Consortium, regional greenway planners and designers are beginning to collaborate on a regional greenway system, although coordination on specific projects has been limited.
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • Economic Benefits •         Most land use decisions are based on fiscal impact analyses and real estate market values rather than the natural capital and non-market benefits of ecosystem services and functions. Some examples of the financial benefits of a green infrastructure program in market values include: •        The filtering of pathogens and nutrients from runoff by forests and wetlands, reduces the need for water-treatment systems. In Massachusetts it was calculated that waste treatment provided by marshes is worth almost $250,000 per hectare per year; And phosphorus recycling is worth $95,000 per hectare per year •       Aesthetic values of natural features have positive impacts on nearby property values. Figures from Amherst, MA show that trees add about $6,800 to home values.
  • NRCC - Updates rainfall analysis Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the US, TP-40, National Weather Bureau, 1961 (≈ 20 years of record, 1938 – 1958 ) Also: NWS HYDRO-35, 1977: 5- to 60- Minute Precipitation Frequency for the Eastern and Central United States. Technical Paper 49, 1964. Two- to Ten- Day Precipitation for Return Periods of 2 to 100 years. New study includes rainfall events through 2008 NOAA’s National Weather Service Atlas 14 updates not yet available for New England and New York
  • This is for the 100-year, 24 hour duration design storm (1% chance of occurrence) Here, we’re seeing high increases, averaging 25 percent across the state Again, the Northeastern part of the state is seeing higher than average increases The 100 year event used for high risk structures and dams; also related to the 100 yr flood flows for FEMA maps.
  • Projected SLR could result in coastal migration of wetlands exceeding 100 feet. Coastal structures (roads, buildings, etc) will prevent inland migration of wetlands resulting in wetland losses. Projected SLR will also influence water table conditions and freshwater wetlands inland at distances in excess of 1 mile from tidal waters.
  • Heidi: here’s the link to the NYTimes article about Norfolk: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/science/earth/26norfolk.html
  • HEIDI: Here’s the link to the full report: http://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_climate_change.pdf
  • Insurance companies may act before local governments do, making development in high risk zones unaffordable?

Transcript

  • 1. Preparing for Climate Change at the Local Level: Challenges and Opportunities Elisabeth M. Hamin, PhD , Associate Professor, Regional Planning, Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning, University of Massachusetts/Amherst Robert L. Ryan, ASLA , PhD, Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning, University of Massachusetts/Amherst E. Heidi Ricci , Senior Policy Analyst, Mass Audubon
  • 2. Preparing for Climate Change at the Local Level: Challenges and Opportunities Elisabeth M. Hamin – Barriers and Opportunities for CC Adaptation Robert L. Ryan - Green Infrastructure: Planning for Sustainability and Adapting to CC E. Heidi Ricci - Planning and Zoning for CC Adaptation
  • 3. Preparing for Climate Change at the Local Level: Challenges and Opportunities Elisabeth M. Hamin, PhD Associate Professor, Regional Planning University of Massachusetts/Amherst [email_address] Ana C. G. Mesquita – Doctoral Candidate [email_address] Funded in part by the Massachusetts chapter of the APA Small Grants program
  • 4.
    • Pilot project overview
    • Map
    • Preliminary findings--barriers and needs
    • Opportunities to mainstream CC adaptation
    Talk overview
  • 5.  
  • 6. n = 21
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • We've got to convince the town manager, then the Board of Selectmen… then we take it to the public.
    • Principal barrier? The political will in resolving to do things.
    • How do you engage the political process to get something effective done?
    Principal Barrier to Address CC POLITICAL
  • 9.
    • The biggest obstacle would be to go through the proper legal process to put policies into place. And, of course, funding.
    • The state, the federal government should present the regulation, sort of a standard template, and then local communities present another layer.
    • Staff is a biggest barrier for small towns and lack of interest in the part of management. There's still a lack of belief in CC.
    Principal Barrier to Address CC POLITICAL + Other: 14%
  • 10.
    • Getting people to know it’s a real problem. Producing enough data that people would understand and believe.
    • We need the technical information to generate the political support. The most useful thing would be some modeling to show what’s our best guess, what’s the worse case, what’s the best case, what do we expect in 50 or 100 years… with that we could sell the idea very easily.
    Principal Barrier to Address CC TECHNICAL+OTHER
  • 11.
    • “ I know the data is out there. I know the sources. I just haven't got the time to research them all or do anything with them. It’s a political problem that there’s no support for the staff to do it. It’s not a priority for them to worry about it. ”
    • “ It's an allocation of resources and political will. Unfortunately, after something catastrophic happens one time it gets your attention and things get done.”
    • “ It's not that we're not trying to institute this regulatory process here. It's just that politically it's very difficult to deal with.”
    What Planners Need to Start to Address CC POLITICAL SUPPORT: 8
  • 12.
    • “ We need a scientific study that we can put out to the public and say "here, we just don't think that this is a problem, we know that it's a problem.”
    • “ Producing enough data that people would understand and believe. I’d rather having real numbers to show people because I think people have misconceptions: “Is it really happening?”, “I don’t know…” You know, people don’t believe in CC. I think it’s important to show maps, digital mapping, things like that that carry the most weight…”
    • “ Educating people and official municipals are the first steps.”
    What Planners Need to Start to Address CC INFORMATION: 7
  • 13.
    • People need to have a better sense of what their timeframe is, what is likely to happen. Without any kind of mandate from the state or federal government to adopt regulations, put those things in local plans, I think CC will be the last thing that communities will be looking at because they have other urgent concerns like budget, the capital projects, roadway maintenance
    • State should present the regulation… a standard template to do something at the local level in Massachusetts.”
    What Planners Need to Start to Address CC STATE DIRECTION: 2
  • 14.
    • OPTION 1: Alternative framing
      • Hazard planning with climate ‘variability’
      • Healthy city policies
      • Smart growth
      • Green infrastructure
    • OPTION 2: Explicit CC
      • Begin with climate forecasts
      • Change engineering standards, floodplain locations, etc
    Mainstreaming Adaptation
  • 15. Choosing Policies
    • First do ‘no regrets actions’
    • Next judge policies on
      • Flexibility -- can change as conditions change
      • Supports long-term transformative adaptation/bigger climate changes
      • Service to those who are most vulnerable
  • 16.
    • Identify the likely worst now
    • Put in place no regrets and flexible policies
    • Upgrade to stronger policies if/as climate changes
    Phasing adaptation policies
  • 17. Green Infrastructure: Planning for Sustainability and Adapting to Climate Change Robert L. Ryan, ASLA, PhD Professor Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning University of Massachusetts, Amherst October 20, 2011
  • 18. Outline
    • Climate adaptation as part of broader planning agenda.
    • Increased precipitation, as well as temperature extremes
    • Definitions and benefits of green infrastructure
    • Green infrastructure examples
    Multiple-objectives Charles River, Cambridge, MA
  • 19. introduction Boston’s Emerald Necklace Blackstone River Bikeway Source: Commonwealth Connections, MA DEM Green Infrastructure: Interconnected network of natural areas and other open spaces that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions, sustains clean air and water, and provides a wide array of benefits to people and wildlife… in short, our natural life-support systems. (Benedict and McMahon, 2006, p. 1)
  • 20. Existing Main Street- Entrance to Town of Orange, MA Landscape Architecture, Undergraduate Studio, Spring, 2008
  • 21. Turning Streets into Green Infrastructure Connections Source: Russell Stott Bio-swale to collect/ clean stormwater; lower peak stormflows.
  • 22. Building the Case for Green Infrastructure: Sustainability and the three “E”’s
    • Ecology
      • Clean water, air, habitats.
      • Alternative transportation.
      • Climate change.
    • Equity (Social, Cultural)
      • Human health and well-being.
      • Equal access to green space.
    • Economy
      • Economic redevelopment.
      • Economic vitality, competiveness.
      • Cost effective alternative.
    Arc-of-Innovation LARP Studio- 2007 N.West, S. Raposa, D. Elvin, J. Calcina
  • 23. Social equity and green infrastructure
    • Builds stronger communities
      • Builds stronger communities*.
      • Reduces violence/ crime*.
    • Improves learning
      • Children with ADHD (Kuo and Faber-Taylor, 2004).
      • Nature walks and proof reading (Hartig et al., 1991).
    • Promotes physical activity
      • Provide safe places for recreation and commuting.
    *(Sullivan and Kuo, 1996; University of Illinois- Champaign-Urbana)
  • 24. Economic Benefits of Greenways and Green Infrastructure
    • Green streets to manage stormwater
    • - 3-6x more effective than conventional methods.
    • - Portland invested $8 million saved $250 million in hard infrastructure costs.
    • (Source: Fisk et al., 2011)
    • Wastewater Assimilation by streams and wetlands
    • Waste treatment $247,000 ha/yr
    • Phosphorus recycling $95,000 ha/yr
    • Reduced energy demands (NYC Green Infrastructure Plan):
    • - 1 acre of vegetation creates $8,522 annual energy savings, $1,044 air quality, $4,725 in increased property values.
      • (Source: Fisk et al., 2011)
  • 25. Green Infrastructure Plan for Arc-of-Innovation, MetroWest Corridor
    • Rapidly growing- High tech. corridor
    • Resource issues- limited drinking water.
    • Lack of affordable housing.
    • Limited recreation opportunities.
    Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning Studio- 2007 Grad. Students: N.West, S. Raposa, D. Elvin, J. Calcina Client: MetroWest Partnership- Economic Development Organization
  • 26.  
  • 27. Proposed Hub & Links
    • Critical Resources:
    • Open Space
    • Trails & Greenways
    • Water
    • Habitat
    • Cultural & Scenic
  • 28. Town of Marlborough Key Regional Green Infrastructure Concerns Sudbury Reservoir Lake Williams Millham Protection of public drinking water supplies
  • 29. Marlborough Corridors and Hubs Bay Circuit Trail Mass. Central/Wayside Rail Trail Assabet River Rail Trail
  • 30. Potential Hub and Corridor Enhancements
  • 31.
    • Industrial/Commercial Hub Areas
    • Watershed protection
    • Water conservation
    • Stormwater management
    • Corridor connections
    • Improved recreation
  • 32. Low Impact Development
    • Vegetated swales
    • Infiltration trenches
    • Permeable paving
    • Green roofs
    • Rainwater harvesting
    • Site design
    Development or retrofit designed to maintain, mimic or replicate the natural hydrology of a site . Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
  • 33. Ipswich River Watershed: Green Infrastructure Demonstration Projects
    • Population: 130,000.
    • Water supply: 330,000
    • River runs dry in summer
    • Lawn irrigation, basin transfer
    • Ecological/ human impacts
    • EPA/ DCR demonstrations
    Source: http://www.mass.gov/dcr/watersupply/ipswichriver/watershed.htm Source: Homeowner’s Guide to Rain Garden Maintenance (MA DCR)
  • 34. Ecological importance of stream and wetlands to allow infiltration of rain and stormwater Paving and buildings leads to increased flooding and decreases in groundwater available for drinking water
  • 35. Source: MA DCR http://www.mass.gov/dcr/watersupply/ipswichriver/downloads/Silver%20Lake%20Poster.pdf
  • 36. Creating Greener Parking Lots Porous paving and infiltration swale at Silver Lake Beach, Wilmington, MA (Source: Zimmerman et al., 2010) Porous pavers Porous asphalt Bio-retention cell
  • 37. Partridgeberry Place, Ipswich, MA: OSRD Subdivision with green infrastructure features (Source: Fitsek et al., 2010) Source: MA DCR http://www.mass.gov/dcr/watersupply/ipswichriver/demo1-lid.htm
  • 38.
    • Conclusion
    • Climate change requires an approach that achieves multiple community objectives.
    • Look for innovative opportunities for:
    • environmental protection.
    • economic development.
    • equity- human well-being.
    Source: Leah Bamberger, Fairmont Greenway Plan, Dorchester, MA. (LARP 609, Fall, 2010)
  • 39.
    • References
    • Benedict, Mark and McMahon, Edward. 2006. Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities. Washington, DC: Island Press.
    • Citizen Planner Training Collaborative, Umass Extension, Model Bylaw web-page-http://www.umass.edu/masscptc/examplebylaws.html.
    • Fitsik, R. L. et al. 2010. Effectiveness of Environmentally Sensitive Site Design and LID on Stormwater Runoff Patterns: A study from the Partridgeberry Place subdivision in Ipswich, MA. Stormwater: The Journal of Surface Water Quality Professionals , 11 (5) (July-Aug)., 5 p.
    • Foster, J et al., 2011. Value Of Green Infrastructure For Urban Climate Adaptation. Center for Clean Air Policy: Washington, DC.
    • Green Infrastructure Tool Kit : 495/MetroWest Partnership http://www.495partnership.org/assets/documents/GITFinal%202008.pdf
    • Zimmerman, M.J. et al., 2010. Effects of low-impact-development (LID) practices on streamflow, runoff quantity, and runoff quality in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts—A Summary of field and modeling studies: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1361, 40 p.
    • OTHER RESOURCES: EPA Website, MA DCR Websites.
  • 40. E. Heidi Ricci, Senior Policy Analyst Mass Audubon 208 South Great Road Lincoln, MA 01773 www.massaudubon.orgshapingthefuture [email_address] 781-259-2172 Planning and Zoning for Climate Change Adaptation
  • 41. Impacts to Plan For: Sea Level Rise
  • 42. Recent and Predicted Sea Level Rise Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 43. 4-foot compliance without sea level rise, but only 2-foot with sea level rise Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 44. Source: U.S. Global Change Research Program (www.globalchange.gov) Impacts to Plan For: Increased Frequency and Severity of Storms and Droughts Extreme Precipitation in New York & New England www.precip.net An Interactive Web Tool for Extreme Precipitation Analysis & Monitoring Existing data shows that the methods typically used to calculate storms are already inadequate – even without predicted future changes
  • 45. 100-year – 24-hour Design Storm Comparison Source: www.precip.net County TP-40 Rainfall (inches) NRCC Rainfall (inches) Percent Change Barnstable 7.1 8.2 16 % Berkshire 6.4 7.6 19 % Bristol 7.0 8.6 22 % Dukes 7.2 8.3 15 % Essex 6.4 8.8 38 % Franklin 6.2 7.4 19 % Hampden 6.5 8.0 23 % Hampshire 6.4 7.6 19 % Middlesex 6.4 8.5 33 % Plymouth 6.9 8.7 26 % Worcester 6.4 8.2 29 %
  • 46. Impacts to Plan For: Increased Frequency and Severity of Storms and Droughts “ Pawtuxet, Blackstone Rivers cause much flooding” ( Providence Journal 3/16/10 ) “ A powerful weekend northeaster that brought record amounts of rain from Maryland to New England dumped more rain on soggy Rhode Island Monday, causing the Pawtuxet and Blackstone rivers to overflow. “ “ Flooding hampers W. Warwick, Warwick treatment plants” ( Providence Journal , 3/31/10)
  • 47. Planning Responses
      • Locally map areas vulnerable to flooding
      • Analyze likely increases in groundwater levels
      • Map river corridors within which river systems can move and function
      • Evaluate and map infrastructure vulnerabilities
      • Plan for areas of retreat
      • Reinforce essential infrastructure that can’t be moved
  • 48. Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 49. Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 50. Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 51. Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 52. Planning Responses I mage Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 53. Planning Responses Image Credit: Horsley Witten
  • 54. Planning Responses: Norfolk, VA Image credit: “Front-Line City in Virginia Tackles Rise in Sea” -- NYTimes, 11/26/2010
    • City built on filled-in marsh
    • Surrounded by water on 3 sides
    • Sea level rise 14.5 inches since 1930
    • Raising the roadway 18 inches to address flooding
    • Turning parks back into wetlands
  • 55. Planning Responses: New York City PlaNYC 2030: “ Increase the resilience of our communities, natural systems, & infrastructure to climate risks”
  • 56. Zoning Tools: New Development
    • Protect Green Infrastructure with conservation subdivision design (Open Space Residential Design / Natural Resource Protection Zoning)
    OSRD provisions promote design flexibility related to minimum lot size, setbacks and frontage, and can help protect green infrastructure and optimize the use of space in a new development
  • 57. Zoning Tools: New Development
      • Local floodplain and wetland buffer zone protections above and beyond federal/state rules
      • Require use of Low Impact Development
      • Require maximum retention of natural vegetation in developments, and planting of native trees, shrubs and groundcovers to absorb stormwater, provide shade, and minimize need for irrigation of grass
  • 58. Regulatory Tools: High Risk Zones
    • Prohibit new development in highest risk areas (local floodplain and buffer regulations)
    • Planned retreat? - Encourage relocation; prohibit rebuilding following disaster
    • Overcoming political and financial challenges?
      • Risks to public safety, property, and infrastructure of doing nothing
      • Costs of repeated rebuilding in high risk locations
      • Need data, programs at all levels of government to support such approaches
      • Funding?
  • 59. Voluntary and Municipal Programs
    • Encourage LID retrofitting, promote rain gardens, etc.
    • Promote water conservation and efficiency, e.g. appliance rebate programs
    Rain garden, Broad Meadow Brook Wildlife Sanctuary, Worcester, MA
    • Move or reinforce/protect key infrastructure
    • Replace undersized culverts
    • Remove obsolete dams
  • 60.
      • Avoid property and infrastructure damage and public safety threats
      • Protect water supplies
      • Prevent flood damage, protect flood-prone areas
      • Natural areas add to property values and community character
      • Forests and urban trees store greenhouse gases, and provide clean air, water and habitat
      • No regrets approaches – choose actions that have benefits regardless of climate change
    Benefits & Cost Effectiveness
  • 61. Resources
    • Minimize new impervious surfaces
    • Encourage LID in local subdivision rules and regulations
    www.apa-ma.org/resources/publications/nrb-guidebook
  • 62. Resources and Grants
    • EPA – www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/
    • ICLEI – http://www.iclei.org/ Changing Climate, Changing Communities: Guide and Workbook for Municipal Climate Adaptation
    • NRCC – www.precip.net
    • CZM – Stormsmart Coasts www.mass.gov/czm/stormsmart/
    • GRRIP - Geographic Roadway Runoff Inventory Programs - www.srpedd.org/gripp.asp
    • Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) – The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation www.ccap.org/docs/resources/989/Green_Infrastructure_FINAL.pdf
    • Lessons Learned on Local Climate Adaptation from the Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative www.ccap.org/docs/resources/988/Urban_Leaders_Lessons_Learned_FINAL.pdf
  • 63. E. Heidi Ricci, Senior Policy Analyst Mass Audubon 208 South Great Road Lincoln, MA 01773 www.massaudubon.orgshapingthefuture [email_address] 781-259-2172 Planning and Zoning for Climate Change Adaptation