Innovative Zoning:    Land Conservation via Development –Open Space Residential Design & Related Tools  Kurt Gaertner  Exe...
Sprawl Development Maximizes Land             Consumption & the Cost of Infrastructure         Six houses here require lon...
On a state scale zoning calls for 2/3rds of the Commonwealth tobe developed with single family homes on lots > 1 acre  Mas...
About 1.6 million acres of developable land is zoned for houses on lots of >1 acre • Such zoning does not respect resource...
Current zoning largely ignores habitat conservation …BioMap identifies over 500,000 acres most in need of protection to co...
A significant disconnect often exists between local plans and local zoning   Alford’s 418 Plan calls for conservation of  ...
OSRD or Large Lots?                                             Large Lots                                     • Lots may ...
>75% of FY10 Commonwealth Capital Applicants had Cluster/OSRD Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit       Open Space Resident...
OSRD is a form of subdivision design that maximizesresource protection and optimizes the use of space.                    ...
Open Space  Residential Design                  Conventional      & Similar                         Design1. Identify Cons...
Flexible or “Set in Stone”?     • Creative Partnership          • Regulatory Focus     • Pre-Application Mtg           • E...
Pre-Application Meeting               and Site Visits• Site Context Map (GIS  data of the site in  context to surrounding ...
DETERMINATION OF YIELDThe process begins with determining how many lots could be developed underconventional zoning; this ...
1. Identify ConservationValue: such as wetlands, significanttrees or tracts of forest, habitat,cultural resources or buffe...
3. Align roads and trailson the site to provide pedestrianand vehicle access.4. Draw lot lines around thehomes.   Massachu...
BENEFITS of OSRD and similarEconomic- Reduces infrastructure and          Environmentalmaintenance costs                  ...
BENEFITS    For the Developer and Realtor    - Streamlines plan review process; reduces time and costs    - Adds valuable ...
COMMUNITY OUTREACH:     OSRD and similar bylaws will have to be adopted at Town Meeting     or by Council Vote. The Public...
BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #1:                       What is the Permit mechanism?                         (Special Per...
BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #2:  What are the resource priorities of the community?       • Resource priorities         ...
Conservation Areas Should Be Identified       Through A Comprehensive Planning ProcessMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit  ...
OSRD can be used to conserve large blocks of open spaceConservation of a greenway corridor                                ...
BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #3:      How will the Bylaw affect other local regulations?       •   Bylaw should consider ...
BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #4:What sort of incentives or bonuses can the community comfortably and effectively promote?...
COMMON DENSITY BONUSES                                      Towns may choose to give Density • More Open Space            ...
BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #5             How to Handle Open Space Preservation?Defining a Minimum Percentage of Open S...
CASE STUDYCaldwell FarmNewbury, MACaldwell Farm is a 66-unit housingproject, 100 of the 125 acres beingmaintained as open ...
Island Co-Housing in West Tisbury• 49.4 acre site purchased by South Mountain Company• Subdivided into four parcels• 30 ac...
Open SpacePrivate BusinessParcelPrivate HomeParcelMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit                Open Space Residential...
Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit   Open Space Residential Design
LUPA and CLURPA both:• Enhance the framework for adoption of     OSRD & similar tools• Encourage adoption of OSRD & simila...
Goal: Communities that follow Ashby’s lead and go from zoning that calls for growtheverywhere …   Massachusetts Smart Grow...
…to zoning that is far more attuned to resources and community goals outlined in the Plan    Massachusetts Smart Growth To...
Contact Info and Website: Kurt Gaertner Kurt.Gaertner@state.ma.us or 617-626-1154 MA Smart Growth/Smart Energy Toolkit: ht...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Innovative Zoning Strategies Workshop - Open space residential design

653

Published on

Published in: Real Estate, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
653
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Innovative Zoning Strategies Workshop - Open space residential design"

  1. 1. Innovative Zoning: Land Conservation via Development –Open Space Residential Design & Related Tools Kurt Gaertner Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs Portions adapted from the MA Smart Growth/Smart Energy Toolkit
  2. 2. Sprawl Development Maximizes Land Consumption & the Cost of Infrastructure Six houses here require long driveways, separate wells for water supply and independent septic systems. Berkshire CountyMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  3. 3. On a state scale zoning calls for 2/3rds of the Commonwealth tobe developed with single family homes on lots > 1 acre Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  4. 4. About 1.6 million acres of developable land is zoned for houses on lots of >1 acre • Such zoning does not respect resources and yet it is the legal basis for development • Land acquisition efforts are important but will not be sufficient • Zoning could assist rather than hinder land protection Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  5. 5. Current zoning largely ignores habitat conservation …BioMap identifies over 500,000 acres most in need of protection to conserve biodiversity Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  6. 6. A significant disconnect often exists between local plans and local zoning Alford’s 418 Plan calls for conservation of grey shaded areas and other lands The zoning in place at the time Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  7. 7. OSRD or Large Lots? Large Lots • Lots may be consumed by home, garage, pool, shed, patio, landscaping, etc. • May or may not contain open space and typically fragmented • Often upscale homes OSRD and similar • Less impervious surface • Permanent open space • May contain mixed housing typesMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  8. 8. >75% of FY10 Commonwealth Capital Applicants had Cluster/OSRD Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  9. 9. OSRD is a form of subdivision design that maximizesresource protection and optimizes the use of space. The Problem The Solution Loss of Open Space Smart Development OSRD provisions provide inherent flexibility relative to minimum lot size, setbacks and frontage and therefore can streamline the permitting process.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  10. 10. Open Space Residential Design Conventional & Similar Design1. Identify Conservation Areas 1. Align Roads 2. Locate House Sites 2. Draw the Lot Lines 3. Align Roads & Trails 3. Locate House Sites 4. Draw the Lot Lines ? Open Space? Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  11. 11. Flexible or “Set in Stone”? • Creative Partnership • Regulatory Focus • Pre-Application Mtg • Early Financial (Four Step Process) Investment • Special Permit Early • Concurrent Permit in Process Processes • Conservation Values • Open Space • Streamlined Process Percentage • Early Stakeholder • Uncertain Timeframe Involvement • Involvement at the • Creative Incentives hearing phaseMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  12. 12. Pre-Application Meeting and Site Visits• Site Context Map (GIS data of the site in context to surrounding parcels)• Site Analysis Map (GIS data of site features and existing conditions)• Input from Conservation Commission, Board of Health, DPW, etc…Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  13. 13. DETERMINATION OF YIELDThe process begins with determining how many lots could be developed underconventional zoning; this is the base yield of the property. From that point, theplan development process follows four basic steps: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  14. 14. 1. Identify ConservationValue: such as wetlands, significanttrees or tracts of forest, habitat,cultural resources or buffer zones.Remove these from the “developablearea”.2. Place houses: maximizeresidents’ enjoyment of these areas byproviding access to open space,privacy, and preserving views. Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  15. 15. 3. Align roads and trailson the site to provide pedestrianand vehicle access.4. Draw lot lines around thehomes. Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  16. 16. BENEFITS of OSRD and similarEconomic- Reduces infrastructure and Environmentalmaintenance costs - Protects unique or fragile- Reduces demand to acquire new habitatspublic parkland - Reduces the pollution impacts- Maintains local character of stormwater runoff - Promotes aquifer rechargeSocial and Recreational - Provides opportunities to link- Enhances New England wildlife habitatscommunity character - Can further goals of open- Provides interconnected space and community network of trails and open space development plans- Can encourage affordable housing Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  17. 17. BENEFITS For the Developer and Realtor - Streamlines plan review process; reduces time and costs - Adds valuable amenities that can enhance marketing and sale prices - Increases resale value; homes in OSRD subdivisions have shown to appreciate faster than those in conventional subdivisions - Decreases site development costs by designing with the terrain The permitting structure encourages smart growth and facilitates a permitting process that is clear, easy to understand, and cost-effective to developers.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  18. 18. COMMUNITY OUTREACH: OSRD and similar bylaws will have to be adopted at Town Meeting or by Council Vote. The Public’s concerns MUST be addressed for these votes to be successful. Common concerns include: 1) Will flexible provisions increase the amount of housing in the community? 2) Will the style of housing affect community character? 3) Will these subdivisions unduly affect the tax burden to the rest of the community? 4) How will density incentives increase the development potential of the community? 5) Are developers being given too much latitude?Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  19. 19. BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #1: What is the Permit mechanism? (Special Permit, By Right) OSRD may be offered as a by-right development option, through Site Plan Review, or as Special Permit. Communities should assess how permitting is currently structured in their bylaw and use those mechanisms that have proven effective in the past.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  20. 20. BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #2: What are the resource priorities of the community? • Resource priorities could include farmland, coastal areas, aquifers, sensitive habitats, historic buildings, forested areas, etc. • The resource priorities will help shape the approach to site plan development.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  21. 21. Conservation Areas Should Be Identified Through A Comprehensive Planning ProcessMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  22. 22. OSRD can be used to conserve large blocks of open spaceConservation of a greenway corridor Land targeted for protection Individual SubdivisionsConservation of a block of open space Land conserved via permanent conservation restriction Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  23. 23. BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #3: How will the Bylaw affect other local regulations? • Bylaw should consider input from all permitting agencies such as: • Conservation Commission • Health Department • Zoning Board of Appeals • Planning Board • Building Inspector • Conflicts with existing regulations or other bylaws need to be resolved.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  24. 24. BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #4:What sort of incentives or bonuses can the community comfortably and effectively promote? • The goals discussed in other planning documents should be consulted before determining different density bonuses: • Planned Production Plan (affordable housing) • Open Space and Recreation Plan • Executive Order 418 Community Development Plan • Master Plan/Local Comprehensive Plan • Offering bonuses may require a considerable outreach effort as many Town Meeting voters will be afraid of increases in density.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  25. 25. COMMON DENSITY BONUSES Towns may choose to give Density • More Open Space Bonuses: • Affordable Housing • Increased open space • Historic Structures • To encourage a specific age demographic • To promote town planning goals • To promote low to moderate income units • Based on the sensitivity of resources or the protection of resources Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  26. 26. BYLAW/ORDINANCE CONSIDERATION #5 How to Handle Open Space Preservation?Defining a Minimum Percentage of Open Space on the Lot:• Percentage wetland within the open space shall not be greater than the percentage wetland on the entire site• Contiguousness is emphasized to reduce habitat fragmentation• Use of open space should be primarily defined to protect habitat and promote conservation, although additional purposes such as agriculture, historic preservation, and education can be definedWho will own the open space?• Municipality, Conservation Commission• Non-profit Land Trust• Corporation or trust owned jointly or in common by the lot owners of the OSRD Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  27. 27. CASE STUDYCaldwell FarmNewbury, MACaldwell Farm is a 66-unit housingproject, 100 of the 125 acres beingmaintained as open space includingfields, forest, freshwater, andsaltwater wetlands.Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  28. 28. Island Co-Housing in West Tisbury• 49.4 acre site purchased by South Mountain Company• Subdivided into four parcels• 30 acres for 16 unit co-housing development – Pedestrian-oriented – Streets and vehicles on perimeter only – Community center, communal responsibilities• Comprehensive permit to cluster housing on 6 acres• 24 acres left as open space – “Village Common” – Community garden – Pond – Playing fields – Wooded area – Owned by homeowners’ association Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  29. 29. Open SpacePrivate BusinessParcelPrivate HomeParcelMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  30. 30. Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  31. 31. LUPA and CLURPA both:• Enhance the framework for adoption of OSRD & similar tools• Encourage adoption of OSRD & similar zoning toolsOSRD – Projects of >five units in any zoning district that requires a minimum lot area of >40,000 sf for single- family residential development must use open space residential design (unless determined infeasible by the RPA) (CLURPA includes a formula addressing areas on septic.) Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  32. 32. Goal: Communities that follow Ashby’s lead and go from zoning that calls for growtheverywhere … Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  33. 33. …to zoning that is far more attuned to resources and community goals outlined in the Plan Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design
  34. 34. Contact Info and Website: Kurt Gaertner Kurt.Gaertner@state.ma.us or 617-626-1154 MA Smart Growth/Smart Energy Toolkit: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/index.htmlMassachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit Open Space Residential Design

×