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Complete Streets: Designing Healthy Places in Rhode Island
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Complete Streets: Designing Healthy Places in Rhode Island



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  • 1. Complete Street Design for Healthy Places Sheila Brush . Director of Programs . Grow Smart Rhode Island Wade Walker, PE . Director of Transportation Planning . Fuss & O’Neill Jennifer Nelson, AICP . Transportation Planner . Fuss & O’Neill
  • 2. Agenda• Introduction• Physical Elements of Complete Streets• Case Studies – 4:3 Road Diet in Urban / Suburban setting – Corridor Plan for Small Town / Suburban / Rural setting• Implementation – Benefits – Education and Advocacy Methods – Policies, Plans, and Regulating Manuals – Funding – Phasing
  • 3. Healthy Places by Design Online• RI Department of Health www.health.ri.gov/programs/healthyplacesbydesign/• North Kingstown http://northkingstown.org/healthy-places-design• South Kingstown http://skhealthyplacesbydesign.webs.com• Pawtucket www.horsleywitten.com/healthypawtucket 3
  • 4. Complete Streets Elements
  • 5. Definition of Complete Streets• Complete Streets are streets for everyone.• Designed and operated to enable safe access for all users -- pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and transit riders of all ages and abilities• Complete Streets make it easy to cross the street, walk to shops, and bicycle to work. They allow buses to run on time and make it safe for people to walk to and from train stations. National Complete Streets Coalition
  • 6. Holistic Transportation Strategy• Livability and balance – “Complete Streets”• Combine land use and transportation improvements• Full range of seamless multi- modal opportunities – transit, pedestrian, bicycle, and roadway networks• Context sensitive solutions – utilize inherent flexibility in design• Collaborative, interdisciplinary, and community-led design
  • 7. Complete Streets• Context Sensitive• Connected – Seamless connections among modes – Street connectivity• Zones• Street components – Beyond the travel lane
  • 8. The Size and Character of Road Influences the Quality of Urban Environment ROW Width: ~100’ Vertical: 10 – 20’ Ratio: 1:10+ to 1:5Photo courtesy of Rick Hall, Hall Planning & Engineering
  • 9. Components of a Street 1: 2.5 1: 1.8 1:1• Context & landscape provides vertical frame Outdoor Room• Comfortable Ratio of Enclosure - 1:1 to 1:4Image from ITE CSS Manual
  • 10. Context Sensitivity: The Neighborhood / Block Montgomery, ALAll images from Transect.org (DPZ & Company; Dover, Kohl, & Partners)
  • 11. Context Sensitivity: General Street Typologies • Place-Oriented Syntax – Boulevard – Avenue – Main Street – Local Street – Alley • Additional types and cross-sections as desired by jurisdiction • Ideal and optional elements vary by street type
  • 12. Streetside Zones A: East Greenwich, RI B: Barrington, Rt 114 Residential: 12 – 18’ (min 9’)Mixed / Commercial: 15 - 25’ (min 12’) Observations?
  • 13. Streetside: Distinct Zones Walkability
  • 14. Bike Facilities Shared Lanes: Bike Lanes: Most appropriate for streets 25 mph 5-6’ wide Typically installed in middle of street Between vehicle lanes & parking Most appropriate for streets 25-35 mph Raised Side Path: Shared Trail adjacent to roadway Min. 10’ wide Optimally 12-20’ wide Optional landscape buffer or barrier Cycle Track: Buffered, 6-11’ wide On one side of roadImages from NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide
  • 15. Vehicular Travel Lanes Average through lane capacity by configuration • Number of Lanes vs. Capacity – Not directly proportional – Typical 4-3 Road diet maintains capacity • Lane width vs. Capacity – Very little difference between 10’, 11’ and 12’ • Lane width vs. Speed Vehicular – Significant reduction in speed at <= 10’ • SAFETY – Single biggest factor is speed!Images from New Jersey Mobility and Community Form presentation, originally Walter KulashStudy: Relationship of Lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials, Potts, 2007
  • 16. Relationship between Speed and Safety 25-30 mphSource: “On a Collision Course? Smart Growth & Traffic Safety (Charlier, Garrick, Dumbaugh – 2011)
  • 17. Medians, Landscaping, Crossings • Buffer • Safety • Accessibility • Environmental mitigation • Low Impact Design • Character & beautySources: RIDOT, Portland OR, Fuss & O’Neill
  • 18. Some Additional Considerations • Transit Accommodations • Freight Accommodations • Emergency vehicles • Utilities • Street Transitions • Access Management • Maintenance • Wayfinding Above: Turning Radii AnalysisImages from Urban Design to Accommodate Trees (Gilman) and City of Oceanside
  • 19. Put it all togetherImages of Alexandria VA courtesy of Code Studio
  • 20. History of Street Design
  • 21. We know how to build great communities…
  • 22. WhatHappened???
  • 23. AutoCentric Transportation Philosophy• Emphasis – Capacity – Operational Efficiency – Vehicular LOS – Minimize Vehicular Delay• Sometimes Prohibited – Speeds Lower Than 45 mph – Narrow Lanes – Two Lane Roads – On Street Parking – Street Trees/Furniture – Crosswalks/Sidewalks
  • 24. Guidance Today“This report has beendeveloped in response towidespread interest forimproving both mobilitychoices and communitycharacter through acommitment to creatingand enhancing walkablecommunities.”From Chapter 1 of theRecommended Practice, 2010
  • 26. 4:3 Road Diet:East Boulevard, Charlotte, NC
  • 27. East Boulevard Pedscape Plan, Charlotte• In June of 2002, the Charlotte City Council approved the East Boulevard Pedscape Plan which defined a vision and land use policy for the corridor.• Segment from Cleveland Avenue to Dilworth Rd remained undefined from curb to curb, and was to be determined through a subsequent public input process. Cleveland Ave Dilworth Rd East Blvd
  • 28. Land Use Context • Professional Office • Restaurants • Retail • Churches
  • 29. Road Diet Implementation• What do the residents want?• More comfortable for all roadway users - bikes, pedestrians, transit patrons and motorists• Enhance pedestrian activity on sidewalks, improve pedestrian crossings• Be able to cross the street without getting run over• More sidewalk cafés/outdoor seating• Tree-lined avenue
  • 30. Goals Developed at Citizen CharretteProject Goals• Safe Pedestrian Environment• Pedestrian Oriented Activities• Bicycle Facilities/Accommodations• Aesthetic Improvements/Amenities• Tree Lined Avenue• Outdoor Commercial Activities• On Street Parking
  • 31. What would you do? Street width (curb-to-curb): 70’ ADT: 12,000 – 15,000 vehicles / day
  • 32. Design IssueRoad Diet Impacts 53’
  • 33. Design IssuePedestrian Safety
  • 34. Design IssueLeft turn accommodation 28’
  • 35. Design IssueNeed for On-Street Parking
  • 36. Parallel Parking(angled parking near church on Sunday) Proposed Concept B
  • 37. Design IssueBicycle Facility Design
  • 38. Design IssueStreetscape Aesthetics
  • 39. Design Compromises Through Public Process• Eliminated roundabouts at Euclid and Dilworth West• Eliminated back-in angled parking at Churches
  • 40. As Enhanced
  • 41. As Enhanced
  • 42. Corridor Study: SmallTown & Rural Setting, Simsbury, CT
  • 43. Process Overview preferred M 7pm T 5pm plan W 5pm R 7pm public public openmeeting meeting house public meeting vision review review confirmation alternative plan concept development
  • 44. Opening Night
  • 45. Route 10 Corridor Master Plan
  • 46. Weatogue• Accentuate Greenway Crossing• TOD opportunity• Center Median• Expanded Commuter Parking Lot
  • 47. Weatogue -Today
  • 48. Weatogue - Vision
  • 49. Illustrative Master Plan for Form-Based CodeRendering courtesy of Code Studio
  • 50. Town Center
  • 51. Hopmeadow Street - Present UrbanAdvantageImage courtesy of Code Studio
  • 52. Hopmeadow Street - Vision UrbanAdvantageImage courtesy of Code Studio
  • 54. Complete Streets Benefits
  • 55. Community Health Benefit• Increasing physical activity;• Reducing injury;• Improving air and water quality;• Minimizing the effects of climate change;• Decreasing mental health stresses;• Strengthening the social fabric of a community
  • 56. Energy & Environmental Benefits• Transportation choice allows less energy-intensive and GHG-emitting modes. Key mitigation strategy according to IPCC• Reduction in oil dependency national security• Streetscaping w/ trees and plants mitigates air pollution, stormwater runoff
  • 57. Safety BenefitsDangerous By Design 2011: report by Transportation 4 America (http://t4america.org)
  • 58. Placemaking & Economic Benefits (1)• Road Diet & Complete Streets increase property values, reduce vacancies – 6-lane street to 4 lanes in some portions and 2 lanes in other portions – Wider sidewalks and on-street parking added – The taxable value of nonexempt properties in the Community Redevelopment Agency district went up $6.3 million, some 6.5 percent – Retail vacancies are down to virtually zero • Lake Avenue in Lake Worth Florida• Speed reduction increases property values – A 5 to 10 mph reduction in traffic speeds increased adjacent residential property values by roughly 20%... • Local Gov’t Commission, “Economic Benefits of Walkable Communities”
  • 59. Placemaking & Economic Benefits (2)• One-way to Two-Way conversion, on-street parking, plus streetscaping increases property values, rents, and attracts private investment – One-way, four-lane street two-way traffic. On-street parking installed, plus landscaped bulb-outs and street trees to slow traffic. – Property values: $10-$40 per square foot $50-$100 per square foot – Commercial rents: $6 per square foot $30 per square foot in downtown areas that have been traffic calmed. – Commercial buildings: 50% 0% vacancies. – Downtown is a popular place to live – The project has attracted some $350 million in private investment to the area • City of West Palm Beach (1998). "Traffic Calming Reference Materials." Ian Lockwood and Timothy Stillings. October.
  • 60. Transportation Choice and Housing Affordability Benefits• Complete Streets provide sufficient opportunities for walking, biking, and transit… and lowers the cost of living, which contributes to resiliency and stability for households & communities. Center for Neighborhood and Technology http://htaindex.cnt.org/
  • 61. Education & Advocacy
  • 62. Complete Streets in Your Community• Define the problem – What kinds of issues can Complete Streets address?• Gather Quantifiable Evidence – Safety, Public Health, School Access, Pollution, Energy Use, etc• Identify Stakeholders – Common goals, mutual benefits & understanding• Garner Support – Politicians, Local Gov’t Staff, Public, Individual Champions, Partnerships – Crisis as catalyst, media advocacy, financial support – Alignment with community values
  • 63. Education & Advocacy – Public• Events: – General Community Workshops – Targeted meetings (influential n’hood leaders, civic organizations, advocates, media, etc) – Festivals & Benefits• Activities: – Factsheets & Research • Commuter Toolkits • How-to Manuals (Safe Bicycling, etc) – Street Audits – Design Charrettes
  • 64. Education – Professional• Technical – Modal Audits (Bike, Walk, Wheelchair, Transit) & Needs Assessment – General Cross-Disciplinary Training • Retreats, workshops, lunch & learn – Specific Items • Bicycle Planning, ADA Compliance, LID techniques, Etc – Design Charrettes• Procedural – Checklists – Staff Coordination – Performance Measurements and Reporting • Indexes, Report Card, Impact Assessment, Project Evaluation • Must tie to planning goals
  • 65. Policies, Plans, andRegulating Manuals
  • 66. Supporting Guidance and Regulations• Complete Streets Policy• Includes a vision for how and why the community wants to complete its streets• Specifies that ‘all users’ includes pedestrians, bicyclists and transit passengers of all ages and abilities, as well as trucks, buses and automobiles.• Applies to both new and retrofit projects, including design, planning, maintenance, and operations, for the entire right of way.• Makes any exceptions specific and sets a clear procedure that requires high- level approval of exceptions.• Encourages street connectivity and aims to create a comprehensive, integrated, connected network for all modes.• Is adoptable by all agencies to cover all roads.• Directs the use of the latest and best design criteria and guidelines while recognizing the need for flexibility in balancing user needs.• Directs that complete streets solutions will complement the context of the community.• Establishes performance standards with measurable outcomes.• Includes specific next steps for implementation of the policyhttp://www.completestreets.org/changing-policy/policy-elements/
  • 67. The State of Complete Streets Policies• 283 Jurisdictions, including 25 states + PR + DC• Adopted Complete Streets policies or have made a written commitment to do so• BLUE: Laws & Ordinances• RED: Resolutions• YELLOW: Tax Ordinances• PURPLE: Internal Policies or Executive Orders• MAGENTA: Plans• GREEN: Design Manuals or Guides
  • 68. Plans to Support Policy• Community Visioning and Goal Setting• Plan Making – Comprehensive Plans – Multimodal Transportation Plans – Neighborhood and Corridor Plans
  • 69. Legal & Regulatory Framework to Support Policy• Rewrite Codes & Manuals – Unified Development Ordinance – Engineering & Design Manuals – Development Process• Performance Measures – Checklists
  • 70. Fundingaka “Show me the Money!”
  • 71. Federal Funding• Complete Streets Acts (federal and state)• Upcoming Surface Transportation Authorization Act According to USDOT – Performance based Secretary LaHood, – Reduce congestion and greenhouse gases all parties agree that – VMT reduction measures a reformation of – Ties land use to transportation/options transportation policy• HUD/EPA/USDOT Interagency Partnership for Sustainable is needed… Communities• Community Challenge Grants through HUD, EPA, and USDOT TIGER Grant programs (potential TIGER 3?)• National Endowment for the Arts “Our Towns” Program• Sustainable Communities Planning Grants• CMAQ and Enhancement Grants
  • 72. Funding Sources – Local, Public / Private• Tax Increment Financing, Business Improvement District, Targeted Sales Tax, SPLOST• Voter Approved Bonds• Foundations – Kodak American Greenways Program, Bikes Belong Coalition, Rhode Island Foundation• Operations & Maintenance: – Farebox Revenues – Fees on parking & business licenses – Property & sales tax – Real estate lease & sales revenues
  • 73. Funding: Key Points• Municipalities can partner with other groups• Leverage funding and completed work • Diverse and complimentary fund sources • Partnerships: NFP, NGO’s, Corporate, Private • Phasing/staging/breakdown of projects• Be innovative—Leverage/match earmarks, brownfields grants, etc.• Develop planning ahead of time to be on ball when funding sources come available• May receive less than requested—initially
  • 74. Phasing & Process
  • 75. Physical Implementation• Pilot Projects – Temporary measures – Opportunity for study• Phased Implementation – Lane Diets, Stripe Medians – Landscape, Streetscape – Move curbs, build medians• Get Organized – Flag corridors during regular funding cycle (Capital Improvement Program) – Coincide with other improvements – Street resurfacing or restriping, utility upgrades
  • 76. Thank You!“America . . . conceived many odd inventions for getting somewhere, but could think of nothing to do when they got there” Will Rogers, 1936
  • 77. For more informationFuss & O’Neill GrowSmart Rhode Island• www.fando.com • www.growsmartri.org/• Wade Walker • Sheila Brush – wwalker@fando.com – sbrush@growsmartri.org – 860.646.2469 x5580 – 401.273.5711 x 3• Jennifer Nelson – jnelson@fando.com – 860.646.2469 x5247