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Buddhism Diversity Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. BUDDHISM
    • Samantha Cruz, Cassandra Jones,
    • Amanda Murphy, & Daniella Smochko
    • University of Ontario of Institute Technology
    • NURS1100U
    • Hilde Zitzelsberger
    • November 28 th , 2008
    Buddhism
  • 2. Outline
    • Meditation
    • What is Buddhism? & Types
    • Religious Beliefs
    • Spiritual Realization/Enlightenment
    • Traditions
    • Dietary Practices
    • Nursing Relevance
    • Interview
    Buddhism
  • 3. M E D I T A T I O N Buddhism
  • 4. ZEN CHANTING Buddhism
  • 5. What is Buddhism? Buddhism
    • Founder of Buddhism is Buddha Shakyamuni or known as Siddhartha Gautama
    • “ Enlightened One”
    • balance between starvation and indulgence
    • All our problems and suffering arise from negative states of mind
    • All our happiness and good fortune arise from peaceful and positive states of mind
    • Based on the principle or the law of impermanence
    • Everything is subject to change though some may last longer than others
    • Find balance between two extremes of self-indulgence and total abstinence
  • 6. Types of Buddhism
    • Japan, China and Southeast Asia
    • Mahayana and Theravada (East Asia) – Zen Buddhists (follow Hinduism, Confucianism, and Taoism)
    Buddhism
  • 7. Beliefs Buddhism
  • 8. Buddhist Existence
    • Buddha teaches that life is marked by three things:
    • Impermanence : nothing lasts forever, all things change
    • Suffering : since “existence is inseparably entwined with impermanence… this relationship makes suffering inseparably entwined with existence” (Falls, Skeel, Edinger, 1999, p.3)
    • No-self : due to the belief of impermanence, nothing has lasting identity, and therefore nothing can be called a “self”
    Buddhism
  • 9. Karma and Rebirth
    • Law of causation, according to which nothing occurs due to pure chance = Karma = action
    • Actions and resulting forces of those action – cause and effect: past present and future
    • Existed even before Siddartha Gautama
    Buddhism
  • 10. Karma and Rebirth cont’d
    • Consequences of these actions will be repaid in this life or another lifetime
    • Generate karma as long as passions are intact
    • Extinguishment of all karmic forces leads to Nirvana
    • Wheel of Life: samsara
    • Some may not believe in getting any treatment
    • The non-self can be reborn: contradiction
    • Water analogy
    Buddhism
  • 11. COSMOTHEOLOGY “ Beauty in Imperfection” Buddhism
  • 12. Cosmotheology
    • Beauty within imperfection – especially in nature
    • “ This tree won’t make good lumber” “Therefore it shall never be cut down”
    • Laid-back approach
    Buddhism http://www.emagazine.com/view/?924 (Lecture - Patricia Campbell, November 7, 2008)
  • 13. Spiritual Realization/Enlightenment
    • Master gives Koan to disciple
    • Meditation > contemplation > spiritual realization > enlightenment > nirvana
    • Nirvana is the cessation of rebirth (samsara)
    Buddhism (Lecture - Patricia Campbell, November 7, 2008)
  • 14. Four Noble Truths
    • 1) life means suffering
    • 2) origin of suffering is our desire and
    • attachment
    • 3) stopping the suffering is attainable
    • through detachment of desires
    • 4) the path to the cessation of suffering
    • (eight fold path)
    Buddhism (Lecture - Patricia Campbell, November 7, 2008)
  • 15. Ox Herding Pictures Buddhism http://www.egreenway.com/meditation/ox.htm
  • 16. Dietary Practices
    • emphasis on the Great Compassion
    • They especially call the following foods, robbed foods:
    • 1) Eggs: Rob the offspring's life from its parents. 2) Honey: Rob the food of bees. 3) Milk: Rob the food of the offspring, food from their mother.
    • Most are vegans or vegetarians
    Buddhism
  • 17. Diet Cont’d
    • Five Precepts:
    • 1. there is a living being 2. knowledge of this living being 3. intention to kill this living being 4. act of killing this living being 5. this living being is dead because of the act of killing.
    Buddhism
  • 18. Traditions Buddhism
    • use a lunar calendar
    • new year depends on your country of origin
    • celebrate new years for 3 days straight from the first full moon in April.
    • In other countries such as china, Buddhist celebrate late January or early February.
    • Buddhist celebrate festivals by early morning going to local temples and offering food to monks and listen to a Dharma talk.
    • In the afternoon, they will distribute food to the poor.
    • The days ends with the evening chanting of the buddhas teachings and meditation.
    • Vesak (Buddha Day)- is the most important day in Buddhism. It is the celebration of buddas birthday and death. It happens on the first full moon day in May.
    •  
  • 19. Tradition Cont’d
    • Buddhist Nursing Traditions
    • Tibetan Buddhist Medicine:
    • A combination of logical healing practices, spiritual methods, and mystical practice. End of life : Because Buddhists believe the mind must be as alert as possible at the time of death, many may decline pain medication or limit its use
    Buddhism
  • 20. Buddhist Ethics: Cloning
    • National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) prepared a report on the ethical implications of cloning humans
    • Report focused mainly on Islamic, Judaic, and Christian perspectives on cloning
    • “ created, dependant on God, and finite”
    • “ Religious concerns focus mainly on how such persons created through cloning will inevitably or possibly be treated, rather than whether such persons are actually unique creatures in God’s image
    Buddhism
  • 21. Buddhist Ethics: Cloning cont’d
    • Although some types of Buddhism have deities, Buddhism does not focus on theism
    • In Buddhism there is no “self”, and therefore terms such as “unique creatures” do not apply to the Buddhist mentality
    • Cloning, along with fertility technology create life and therefore opportunities for reincarnation
    • Cloned life deserves the same kind of respect and protection as human life
    • However cloning research risks harming the life that that has been cloned
    Buddhism
  • 22. Buddhist Ethics: Cloning cont’d
    • Adoption is preferred over cloning because:
    • Adopting another child is considered commendable since adoption provides a home and security to a child in need.
    • Cloning can potentially harm mother and child. Adoption does not.
    • Waste of money and resources, and is contrary to the Buddhist belief of renunciation
    • Koan of cloning: “To say that the clone is identical to the parent is inaccurate; to say that the clone is totally separate and independent of the parent is also inaccurate.
    Buddhism
  • 23. Buddhist Ethics: Suicide and Euthanasia
    • Life can be empirically measured only through body heat and reflexes
    • Ex: if a person who is considered “brain dead” has either body heat or reflexes, then he/she is considered alive by Buddhist teachings
    • Exception: meditative trances and hypothermia
    • “ The crucial variable governing rebirth [is] the nature of consciousness at the moment of death” (Becker, p.547)
    Buddhism
  • 24. Buddhist Ethics: Suicide and Euthanasia
    • Death is not the end of life; it is merely a natural process in samsara . It is a transition
    • Death = transition, suicide is not an escape
    • Suicide is accepted when:
    • The motivation is selfless, desireless, and enlightened at the moment of death
    • The action is done to preserve one’s honor
    • One is in great pain and is no longer able to contribute to society
    Buddhism
  • 25. Buddhist Ethics: Suicide and Euthanasia
    • Conditions under which euthanasia could be considered acceptable:
    • The disease is considered terminal and incurable by present medicine
    • The pain is unbearable, both for the patient and those around the patient
    • The death is for the purpose of his peaceful passing
    • The person himself has requested the death, while conscious and sane
    • The killing is done by a doctor
    • The method of killing is humane
    Buddhism
  • 26. Buddhist Ethics: Suicide and Euthanasia
    • A Buddhist patient is suffering from a terminal illness. He is in a great amount of pain and states that relief of his pain is greatly desirable. Out of the three options below, which would he choose, if his choice was guided by Buddhist teaching?
    • No treatment at all
    • Painkilling medication which may blur or confuse the mind of the patient
    • Treatment that would hasten his end, while keeping his mind clear.
    Buddhism
  • 27. Interview Buddhism
  • 28. References
    • http://www.aboutbuddhism.org/what-is buddhism.htm/
    • http://www.thebigview.com/buddhism/fourtruths.html
    • http://www.yogichen.org/cw/cw43/bk142.html
    • http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab77#1946
    • http://www.egreenway.com/meditation/ox.htm
    • http://www.emagazine.com/view/?924
    Buddhism