Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of
He created an entirely new approach to the understanding of the
He is regarded as one of the most influential - and controversial -
minds of the 20th century.
He began to study medicine at University of Vienna in 1873. At the
third year of uiversity he started a research into nervous system.
Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna
in 1881, then he worked at the Vienna General Hospital.
In 1885, Freud went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean
Charcot. On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in
private practice, specialising in nervous and brain disorders.
In 1897, he began an intensive analysis of himself. In 1900, his major
work 'The Interpretation of Dreams' was published in which Freud
analysed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and experiences.
- Freud developed the theory that humans have an unconscious in
which sexual and aggressive impulses are in perpetual conflict for
- Another theme he concerned was about the importance of the first
few years of life in the subsequent development of personality. He
also believed that children experience emotional conflicts, and their
future adjustment depends on how well these conflicts are resolved.
The theory of psychosexual development describes how personality
develops during childhood. Freud believed that personality develops
through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking
energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas.
Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by
the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality
development and continue to influence behavior later in life.
If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a
The Id, Ego and Superego
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This
aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive
and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all
psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with
reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that
the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real
world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious,
and unconscious mind.
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego
is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral
standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our
sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making
judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around
We forget 90% of our dreams.
We only dream of things we've seen, heard of or
We don't dream when we snore.
About 30% of people have experienced a precognitive
SIGMUND FREUD'S THEORY
Freud was concerned with psychoanalysis.
Patients reported dreams during sessions.
He decided to use them as a scientific
Dreams were the key to understand the
What does this have to do with dreams?
DURING THE DAY
Superego control the ego or
suppress the id.
WHEN YOU SLEEP
The id needs a way to
realease all the unacceptable
If those primal desires cause
psychological harm → the brain
transcribes them to symbolic forms
Common dream interpretations
One or more teeth falling out, crumbling, rotting or becoming loose:
- How others perceive you.
- Getting older.
Falling – usually down stairs, elevators or from the sky.
- Lack of control.
- Feelings of failure or inferiority.
Being partially or completely naked in public.
vulnerability, shamefulness and being exposed for who you are.
self satisfaction and unrestricted freedom, you are proud of who you are.