GWH Chapter 11
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GWH Chapter 11 GWH Chapter 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Splash Screen
  • Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Peoples of North America Section 2 Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica Section 3 Early Civilizations in South America Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • Intro 2 Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of the Americas.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The early inhabitants of the Americas probably traveled from Asia across a Bering Strait land bridge produced by the Ice Age. 
    • The Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations developed and administered complex societies. 
    • Diseases that Europeans brought to the Americas contributed to the downfall of several cultures.
  • Intro 3 The Impact Today Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today. 
    • The Anasazi culture and the Anasazi’s descendants influenced adobe dwellings and handcrafted pottery made today in the southwestern United States. 
    • The Iroquois League was as model for British colonies. 
    • As in the Incan Empire, compulsory military service has been used in the United States and is used in other countries of the world.
  • Intro 4 Chapter Objectives Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 
    • describe the various peoples who adapted to North American geography and formed societies. 
    • describe the major cultures of Mesoamerica, particularly the Maya and the Aztec. 
    • explain the rise, progress, and decline of the Incan Empire.
  • End of Intro
  • Section 1-1
    • The first inhabitants of the Americas were hunters and gatherers, while later inhabitants also practiced farming. 
    Main Ideas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Peoples of North America Key Terms
    • longhouse 
    • adobe 
    • pueblo
    • clan 
    • tepee 
    • Because of the great variety of climate and geographic features, many different cultures emerged in the Americas. 
  • Section 1-2
    • Inuit 
    People to Identify
    • Plains Indians 
    • Anasazi 
    • Amazon 
    Places to Locate
    • Cahokia 
    • Mesa Verde
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Peoples of North America
    • Bering Strait 
    • Gulf of Mexico 
    • Hopewell 
    • Iroquois 
  • Section 1-3
    • Who were the first inhabitants of the Americas? 
    Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • What archaeological evidence remains of the Anasazi culture?
    The Peoples of North America
  • Section 1-4 Preview of Events The Peoples of North America
  • Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • Section 1-6 Maize, or corn, which originated in the Americas, is now one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food plants. Only wheat exceeds it in acreage. Although the United States produces about half the world’s total output of corn, a corn crop matures somewhere in the world every month of the year.
  • Section 1-7 The Lands of the Americas and The First Americans
    • The Americas stretch about nine thousand miles from the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn at the tip of South America. 
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Ice-covered lands, dense forests, river valleys ideal for hunting and farming, coastlines, tropical forests, and deserts are all part of the Americas.
    (pages 347–348)
  • Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Lands of the Americas and The First Americans (cont.)
    • Two major mountain ranges–the Rocky Mountains and Andes–run along the western side of the Americas. 
    • Broad valleys with fertile farmland run between these ranges and eastern mountains. 
    • Two great rivers are the Mississippi and the Amazon.
    (pages 347–348)
  • Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Hunters and gatherers, probably pursuing herds of bison and caribou, crossed the bridge as the glaciers receded.
    The Lands of the Americas and The First Americans (cont.)
    • Between 100,000 and 8,000 years ago, the last Ice Age left a land bridge between Asia and North America in the Bering Strait. 
    (pages 347–348)
  • Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How do we know about the early peoples of North America? Archaeologists and anthropologists developed theories about them based on finding artifacts, fossils, and other remnants of the past. The Lands of the Americas and The First Americans (cont.) (pages 347–348)
  • Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Peoples of North America (pages 348–350)
    • About 3000 B.C., the Inuit moved into North America from Asia. Most settled into the cold, harsh, treeless tundra on the coasts south of the Arctic. 
    • They became skilled hunters and fishers, using harpoons and spears of antler or narwhal tusk. 
    • Homes were made of stones and turf. 
    • Igloos, made of snow, were only temporary shelters for travelers.
  • Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Peoples of North America (cont.)
    • Around 1000 B.C., farming villages appeared in the Eastern Woodlands–the North American land stretching in the east, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. 
    • The Hopewell peoples of the Ohio River valley are the best known. 
    • They are also known as the Mound Builders. 
    • Elaborate earth mounds, some built in the shapes of animals, were used by them as tombs or for ceremonies.
    (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • A shift to full-time farming around A.D. 700 created a prosperous culture in the Mississippi River valley from present-day Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico. 
    • Corn, squash, and beans were grown together so as to provide plants with nutrients and shade.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Cities began to appear. 
    • At the site of Cahokia, near modern-day East St. Louis, Illinois, archaeologists found a burial mound with a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. 
    • Cahokia was the seat of government for much of the Mississippian culture, which collapsed in the thirteenth century for unknown reasons.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Iroquois lived northeast of the Mississippian culture. 
    • They lived in longhouses built of wooden poles covered with bark. 
    • Each was 150 to 200 feet long and housed about a dozen families. 
    • The men were hunters and warriors. 
    • The women owned the longhouses, gathered wild plants, planted the seeds, cared for the children, and harvested the crops–most importantly, corn, beans, and squash, called the “three sisters.”
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Wars and blood feuds were common among the Iroquois. 
    • Legend says that sometime in the 1500s the Iroquois peoples were almost torn apart by warfare. 
    • A leader named Deganawida preached the need for peace, and one who listened was Hiawatha. 
    • From their combined efforts came the Great Peace, which created the Iroquois League of five major groups that banded together.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-17
    • One of the laws of the Great Peace made its principles clear: do not act on self-interest, act for the welfare of the whole, act with the good of future generations in mind.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • A group of 50 representatives met in the Grand Council to settle differences among league members. 
    • Iroquois society was organized into clans of related families. 
    • The clan mothers, who were chosen by the women of the clan, chose the members of the Grand Council. 
    • Council representatives were instructed to be firm but tender, not to act from anger, and to deliberate judiciously.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-19
    • Some scholars believe that Benjamin Franklin used the Iroquois League as a model when he drew up his Plan of Union for the British colonies.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • West of the Mississippi River basin, Plains Indians cultivated the “three sisters” and hunted buffalo, often by driving a frightened herd over a cliff. 
    • The Plains Indians ate the meat, used the skins for clothing, and made tools from the bones. 
    • They also made their circular tepees from buffalo skins stretched over wooden poles.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Anasazi established an extensive farming society in the Southwest, a dry part of North America covering present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. 
    • Between A.D. 500 and 1200, they used canals and earthen dams to turn parts of the desert into fertile gardens. 
    • They were known for their pottery, and used stone and adobe (sun-dried bricks) to build multi-storied pueblos that could house many people.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Two of the most important Anasazi centers were Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. 
    • Chaco Canyon’s Pueblo Bonito was a large pueblo complex with eight hundred rooms that could hold over a thousand people. 
    • A 50-year series of droughts caused the site to be abandoned.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Mesa Verde, now a national park, is in Colorado. 
    • It is a remarkable complex of buildings in the recesses of the cliff walls. 
    • Prolonged drought also caused the abandonment of Mesa Verde.
    The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-24 Are the three principles cited from the Great Peace good principles to live by? Why or why not? The Peoples of North America (cont.) (pages 348–350)
  • Section 1-25 __ 1. a circular tent made by stretching buffalo skins over wooden poles __ 2. a group of related families __ 3. sun-dried brick __ 4. Iroquois house about 150 to 200 feet (46 to 61 m) long built of wooden poles covered with sheets of bark and housing about a dozen families __ 5. a multistoried structure of the Anasazi that could house up to 250 people A. longhouse B. clan C. tepee D. adobe E. pueblo Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C B D A E Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • Section 1-26 Describe how settling in the tundra affected Inuit lifestyles. Checking for Understanding The Inuit depended on hunting and fishing for food and clothing. They built homes of stone and turf. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Section 1-27 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the major sources of food for the Plains Indians. Also list the many different ways in which the Plains peoples made use of the buffalo. The major sources of food came from farming (corn, beans, squash) and hunting (buffalo). They used buffalo for food, clothing, tools, and shelter.
  • Section 1-28 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluate The Iroquois League is considered “an experiment in democracy.” What do you think this means? They had a council of representatives known as the Grand Council.
  • Section 1-29 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the photograph of the Anasazi ruins shown on page 350 of your textbook. From this photograph, what conclusions can you draw about the daily life of the people who lived at this site? The site is surrounded by desert and plateaus, suggesting that people were always looking for water supplies and that they adapted to life in a dry, hot climate.
  • Section 1-30 Close Discuss how different peoples adapted to the varying environmental conditions in North America.
  • End of Section 1
  • Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Early Mesoamerican civilizations flourished with fully-developed political, religious, and social structures. 
    Main Ideas Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica Key Terms
    • Mesoamerica 
    • hieroglyph 
    • tribute
    • The Aztec state succumbed to diseases brought by the Spanish. 
  • Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Olmec 
    People to Identify
    • Aztec 
    • Hernán Cortés 
    • Montezuma 
    • Teotihuacán 
    Places to Locate
    • Chichén Itzá 
    • Tenochtitlán 
    • Lake Texcoco
    Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
    • Yucatán Peninsula 
    • Tikal 
    • Maya 
    • Toltec 
  • Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • What are the principal cultural developments of Mayan civilization? 
    Preview Questions
    • What caused the Aztec to settle in Lake Texcoco?
    Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
  • Section 2-4 Preview of Events Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
  • Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • Section 2-6 All of La Venta’s major structures are set on an axis 8° west of north, probably in alignment with some star or constellation. A 100-foot-high clay mound shaped like a pyramid or fluted cone, perhaps to represent a volcano, dominates the site.
  • Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Olmec and Teotihuacán (pages 352–353)
    • Mesoamerica is the name for areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the Spaniards arrived. 
    • The Olmec civilization began around 1200 B.C. in the hot, swampy lowlands on the coast south of Veracruz, Mexico. 
    • Olmec peoples farmed along the area’s muddy riverbanks.
  • Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Olmec and Teotihuacán (cont.)
    • The Olmec had large cities, such as La Venta, that were centers of religious festivals. 
    • The Olmec carved colossal stone heads, probably to represent the gods. 
    • Around 400 B.C., the Olmec civilization declined, then collapsed.
    (pages 352–353)
  • Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Teotihuacán (“Place of the Gods”) was Mesoamerica’s first major city. 
    • It was the capital of a kingdom that arose around 250 B.C. and collapsed about A.D. 800. 
    • Most inhabitants were farmers, but the city was a trade center as well. 
    • Tools, weapons, pottery, and jewelry were traded as far as North America. 
    • Built near modern Mexico City, Teotihuacán had as many as 200,000 residents.
    The Olmec and Teotihuacán (cont.) (pages 352–353)
  • Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Temples and palaces were located along the Avenue of the Dead. 
    • The massive Pyramid of the Sun dominated the city.
    The Olmec and Teotihuacán (cont.) (pages 352–353)
  • Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The main thoroughfare in Teotihuacán was known as the Avenue of the Dead. Remembering that the street had many temples, why might it have had that name? The most likely possibility is that human sacrifice was performed in the temples. The Olmec and Teotihuacán (cont.) (pages 352–353)
  • Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (pages 353–355)
    • On the Yucatán Peninsula east of Teotihuacán, the highly sophisticated Mayan civilization flourished between A.D. 300 and 900. 
    • It covered much of Central America and southern Mexico. 
    • The Maya built splendid temples and pyramids, and they developed a complicated calendar.
  • Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • Mayan cities were built around a central pyramid topped with a temple to the gods. 
    • Nearby were temples, palaces, and a sacred ball court. 
    • Urban centers such as Tikal (in present-day Guatemala) may have had a hundred thousand inhabitants.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • Mayan civilization was composed of city-states governed by a hereditary ruling class. 
    • The states warred on each other. 
    • Captured nobles and war leaders were used for human sacrifice. 
    • Other war captives were enslaved.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • Mayan rulers claimed to be descended from the gods. 
    • A class of scribes helped the rulers. Mayan society also had townspeople who were artisans, officials, and merchants. 
    • Most Maya were farmers, however. 
    • Labor divided along traditional gender lines.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • The belief that all life is in the hands of divine powers was crucial to Mayan civilization. 
    • Itzamna was the supreme god, and some gods, like the jaguar god of the night, were evil. 
    • Like other ancient peoples in Central America, one way the Maya appeased the gods was through human sacrifice. 
    • Human sacrifice was also performed on certain ceremonial occasions.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • The walls of the ball courts were covered with images of war and sacrifice. 
    • The exact rules of the game that was played are unknown, but we do know that small teams tried to send a ball through a hoop using their hips. 
    • The game had a religious meaning because the court symbolized the world, and the ball represented the sun and the moon. 
    • The defeated team was sacrificed.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Maya and Toltec (cont.)
    • The Maya created a writing system using hieroglyphs, or pictures. 
    • Unfortunately, the Spaniards assumed the writings were evil because they were not Christian, and they destroyed many Mayan books. 
    • The Spanish applied their own religious views to the native civilizations which helped to destroy them.
    (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Many of the writings recorded dates in the Mayan calendar called the Long Count. 
    • The Long Count was based on a belief in cycles of creation and destruction. 
    • The Maya believed our present world was created in 3114 B.C. and would end on December 23, A.D. 2012. 
    • Many other hieroglyphs recorded important events in Mayan history, especially events in the lives of Mayan rulers.
    The Maya and Toltec (cont.) (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Maya used a solar calendar of 365 days. 
    • Priests, however, used a sacred calendar of 260 days to foretell the future and know the omens associated with each day. 
    • Only priests could read and use the calendar.
    The Maya and Toltec (cont.) (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Toltec were a fierce and warlike people who conquered the Mayan lands of Guatemala and the northern Yucatán. 
    • They also built great palaces and pyramids, controlling the upper Yucatán Peninsula from Chichén Itzá. 
    • They came to power around A.D. 900 and declined around 1200.
    The Maya and Toltec (cont.) (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What does it say about the Spanish that they destroyed so much of the native culture in the Americas they conquered? Possible answer: It says that Catholicism led the Spanish believe they were helping the Native Americans. Dogmatism may have made them arrogant. The Maya and Toltec (cont.) (pages 353–355)
  • Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Aztec (pages 356–358)
    • Sometime during the twelfth century A.D. , the Aztec began a long migration to the Valley of Mexico. 
    • They established their capital at Tenochtitlán on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco, where Mexico City is now.
  • Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Aztec (cont.)
    • According to legend, the Aztec believed that a sign would come from the god of war and of the sun, Huitzilopochtli, telling them where to settle. 
    • In 1325 they were driven into the swamps and islands of Lake Texcoco, where they saw an eagle standing on a cactus growing out of a rock, the sign that had been foretold.
    (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • They built a magnificent city of temples, other public buildings, and roadways linking the islands and mainland. 
    • They also consolidated their rule over much of what is modern Mexico. 
    • The kingdom was a collection of semi-independent territories governed by lords. 
    • The Aztec ruler supported the lords in return for tribute –goods or money paid by conquered peoples to their conqueror.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • By 1500 up to four million Aztec lived in the Valley of Mexico and its environs. 
    • Power was in the hands of the king, who claimed descent from the gods. A council assisted him. 
    • The population consisted of commoners, indentured servants, and slaves, who were war captives and worked in the houses of the wealthy. 
    • The indentured servants were landless laborers who worked the fields of the wealthy.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Most people were commoners and farmers. 
    • Merchants also lived in the cities. 
    • Boys and girls had different roles from birth. 
    • The midwife said to a newborn boy, “You must understand that your home is not here where you have been born, for you are a warrior.” 
    • She said to the newborn girl, “As the heart stays in the body, so you must stay in the house.”
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Women were not equal to men, but they could inherit property and enter into contracts, something not often allowed in other world cultures of the time. 
    • They were also allowed to be priestesses.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Huitzilopochtli was a particularly important god. 
    • Another was Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent. 
    • According to Aztec tradition, this being left his homeland and vowed to return in triumph. 
    • This became part of a legend about a prince whose return from exile would be preceded by a sign of an arrow through a sapling.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-30
    • When the Aztec saw the Spanish with a cross on their breastplates, they mistook the Spanish for Quetzalcoatl’s representatives because the cross looked like the sign they awaited.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Aztec religion was based on the belief in an unending struggle between the forces of good and evil, which led to the creation and destruction of a series of worlds. 
    • The Aztec practiced human sacrifice to postpone the day of destruction of their world, the fifth world.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Aztec culture featured monumental architecture. 
    • A massive pyramid at the center of the capital was topped with shrines to the gods and an altar for human sacrifice.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The lords in the eastern provinces wanted greater independence from the Aztec king. 
    • Areas that had not been conquered wanted to remain free. 
    • In 1519, a Spanish force under the command of Hernán Cortés marched to Tenochtitlán. 
    • He had only 550 soldiers and 16 horses, but he made allies with the city-states that had tired of Aztec rule.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Cortés was greeted warmly by the Aztec king, Montezuma, who believed his visitor represented Quetzalcoatl. 
    • Montezuma offered gifts of gold and a palace to use.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Tensions arose between the Aztec and Spanish. 
    • In 1520, the local population revolted and drove the Spaniards from the city, killing many. 
    • Many Aztec also soon died from European diseases. They had no immunity to them. 
    • Cortés received troops from his local allies, and in four months the city surrendered to his forces.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The use of gunpowder also aided the Spanish considerably in their battles with the Aztec. 
    • They leveled the Aztec buildings and used the stones to construct government buildings and churches.
    The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-37 What do you think the Aztec midwives meant when they compared a woman’s life in the home to the heart in the body? The Aztec (cont.) (pages 356–358)
  • Section 2-38 __ 1. a picture or symbol used in a system of writing __ 2. goods or money paid by conquered peoples to their conquerors __ 3. the name used for areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the arrival of the Spanish A. Mesoamerica B. hieroglyph C. tribute Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B C A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • Section 2-39 Explain how Mayan hieroglyphs have helped us to understand Mayan culture. Checking for Understanding They provide a record of events in Mayan history, especially in the lives of Mayan rulers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Section 2-40 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize the different categories of Aztec society. Rulers (monarch, lords, government officials), nobles, commoners, indentured workers, and slaves are the categories of Aztec society.
  • Section 2-41 Critical Thinking Evaluate What was the importance of trade for the early American civilizations? Trade brought in new products, created new markets, and initiated exchange of ideas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Section 2-42 Compare the sculpture of a Mayan athlete shown on page 354 with the photograph of modern athletes shown on page 355 of your textbook. What inferences can you draw about the status of athletes in Mayan culture? What status do athletes in America have today? Analyzing Visuals The fact that someone took the time and resources to create the sculpture of the Mayan athlete suggests that athletes had a great status in Mayan culture, as they have in American society. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Section 2-43 Close Compare and contrast the most important features of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations.
  • End of Section 2
  • Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Inca developed a well-organized, militaristic empire. 
    Main Ideas Early Civilizations in South America Key Terms
    • maize 
    • quipu
    • Incan communities undertook sophisticated building projects and established a high level of cultural development. 
  • Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Moche 
    People to Identify
    • Pachacuti 
    • Francisco Pizarro 
    • Ecuador 
    Places to Locate
    • Machu Picchu 
    • Urubamba River
    Early Civilizations in South America
    • Cuzco 
    • Inca 
  • Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • What does Moche pottery tell us about the Moche people? 
    Preview Questions
    • What method did the Inca use to enlarge their empire?
    Early Civilizations in South America
  • Section 3-4 Preview of Events Early Civilizations in South America
  • Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • Section 3-6 Descendants of the Inca still live and farm in the Andean highlands from Ecuador to Bolivia. Known as the Quechua–after their language, adapted from the language of the Incan Empire–they have been the subjects of numerous studies about physiological adaptation to high-altitude living.
  • Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Civilizations (pages 359–360)
    • Located in Peru, Caral is believed to be the oldest major city in the Western hemisphere, one thousand years older than those previously known. 
    • It had stone buildings for officials, grand residences, and apartments. 
    • Caral’s inhabitants developed an irrigation system. 
    • Caral was abandoned between 2000 and 1500 B.C.
  • Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Civilizations (cont.)
    • Sometime about 200 B.C., another advanced civilization appeared near the Pacific coast just south of the border of Ecuador. 
    • An urban center arose at Moche, amid irrigated fields. 
    • Farmers grew enough maize (corn), peanuts, potatoes, and cotton to supply much of the region.
    (pages 359–360)
  • Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Moche led lives centered on warfare. 
    • They had no written language, but we know about them from images on their pottery. 
    • The authority of the Moche rulers extended far along the coast.
    Early Civilizations (cont.) (pages 359–360)
  • Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What kinds of images on the Moche’s pottery do you think have taught us that their lives centered on warfare? The pottery has images of warriors, prisoners, and sacrificial victims. Early Civilizations (cont.) (pages 359–360)
  • Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Inca (pages 360–362)
    • The Moche civilization collapsed around A.D. 700. 
    • A new power–the kingdom of Chimor–arose a few hundred years later. 
    • This was destroyed by people who created a more spectacular empire–the Inca.
  • Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Inca (cont.)
    • In the late 1300s, the Inca were a small community in the area of Cuzco, a city high in the mountains of Peru. 
    • In the 1440s, the Inca, under the leadership of the powerful Pachacuti, began to conquer the entire region. 
    • Eventually the Incan Empire went as far as Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of the Amazon basin. 
    • It included twelve million people.
    (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Incan state was built on war. 
    • All young men had to serve in the army, which numbered two hundred thousand. 
    • Supplies were carried on the backs of llamas because, like other cultures in the Americas, the Inca did not use the wheel. 
    • Once the Inca controlled an area, the inhabitants learned Quechua–the Incan language.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • To instill organization and order, Pachacuti divided the empire into four quarters, which in turn were divided into provinces, each with about ten thousand residents. 
    • At the top of the entire system was the emperor, who was believed to be descended from Inti, the sun god.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Forced labor was an integral part of the state. 
    • All subjects were responsible for labor service several weeks each year. 
    • Laborers were moved to other parts of the empire to take part in building projects. 
    • Sometimes whole communities were moved.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Inca built 24,800 miles of roads. 
    • Two major north-south highways had connecting routes between them. 
    • Rest houses–located a day’s walk apart–and storage depots were placed along the roads. 
    • Bridges, including some of the finest pre-modern suspension bridges, spanned ravines and waterways.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Incan society was highly regimented. 
    • Men and women had to marry someone from their own social group. 
    • Women either worked in the home or were priestesses. 
    • In rural areas, the people farmed on terraces watered by irrigation systems.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The Inca were great builders. 
    • The building in the capital of Cuzco dazzled European visitors. 
    • The ruins of the abandoned city Machu Picchu show architectural genius. 
    • It was built on mountain peaks far above the Urubamba River. 
    • In one part, a long stairway leads to an elegant stone known to the Inca as the “hitching post of the sun.”
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • It may have been used as a solar observatory. 
    • During sun festivals, the people gathered there to chant to the sun god.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • Instead of a writing system, the Inca used a system of knotted strings called the quipu. 
    • They had a highly developed tradition of court theater consisting of both tragic and comic works. 
    • Plays often recounted valiant deeds. 
    • Members of the nobility or senior officials were the actors. 
    • Poetry also was recited, accompanied by music.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • The first Spanish expedition arrived in the central Andes in 1531, under the command of Francisco Pizarro. 
    • Though he had only a small band of about 180 men, Pizarro had some things the Inca did not: steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses. 
    • The Incan Empire experienced a smallpox epidemic. 
    • Like the Aztec, the Inca were not immune to European diseases. 
    • The emperor died of smallpox.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
    • When the emperor died, his sons fought a civil war for control. 
    • Atahuallpa defeated his brother, but Pizarro then captured and executed Atahuallpa. 
    • Pizarro then captured the capital Cuzco with the help of Incan allies. 
    • By 1535, Pizarro had established a new capital at Lima for a new colony of the Spanish Empire.
    The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why would some Inca ally with Pizarro against the Incan Empire? Possible answers: Resentment against the rulers, promises of power, and promises of riches might have caused some Inca to ally with Pizarro. The Inca (cont.) (pages 360–362)
  • Section 3-24 __ 1. corn __ 2. a system of knotted strings used by the Inca people for keeping records A. maize B. quipu Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. A B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  • Section 3-25 Describe the Incan system of forced labor. Checking for Understanding All Incan subjects were responsible for labor service, usually several weeks a year. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Section 3-26 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List evidence historians use to support the claim that the Moche led lives centered around warfare. The paintings and pottery of the Moche portray warriors, prisoners, and sacrificial victims.
  • Section 3-27 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluate How did Pachacuti expand the Incan state into an empire? He expanded it through military conquest and careful governing of conquered territories.
  • Section 3-28 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the photograph of the Incan temple at Cuzco, Peru, shown on page 359 of your textbook. What architectural elements does the Incan temple have that are also seen in buildings from other cultures you have read about? It has curved arches seen in Roman buildings, it is elevated like Greek temples, and it has a rounded foundation similar to medieval castles.
  • Section 3-29 Close Compare the rise, achievements, and decline of the Aztec and Incan Empires.
  • End of Section 3
  • Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary The table below summarizes the factors that helped shape early cultures in the Americas.
  • End of Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Assessment 1 1. The Iroquois built _______________, made of wooden poles and covered with bark, to house many families. 2. Within each Iroquois group were _______________, groups of related families. 3. Sun-dried bricks are called _______________. 4. The Aztec ruler allowed others to rule semi-independent territories if they paid _______________, goods or money paid by those conquered. 5. The Mayan system of writing was based on pictures called _______________. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. longhouses clans adobe tribute hieroglyphs
  • Chapter Assessment 2 Culture How many people did some of the urban centers of the Hopewell people contain? Reviewing Key Facts Some contained 10,000 people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government The phrase “self-interest shall be cast away” comes from which Iroquois statement? It comes from the Great Peace.
  • Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. History What did the Spanish bring to the Americas that contributed to the destruction of the early civilizations? They brought disease and gunpowder.
  • Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Religion What did the Aztec believe when they saw the crosses on the Spanish breastplates? They believed that the crosses represented an arrow through a sapling, the sign that would mark the return of Quetzalcoatl.
  • Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography At what altitude did the Inca build Cuzco? It was built at 11,000 feet (3,353 m).
  • Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating How are the houses of the North American peoples a reflection of the geography of their regions? They used what they had at hand, and what they had at hand depended on the geography. The Inuit used stone and turf since they lived in the treeless tundra; Plains peoples used buffalo skins for tepees on the relatively treeless Plains; the Eastern Woodlands had plentiful forests, so wood was available for longhouses; and the desert was hot and dry, so stone and adobe were used.
  • Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Drawing Conclusions Why did Incan rulers insist that all conquered peoples be taught the Quechua language? It was a means of unifying their territories by making it easier to communicate.
  • Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts European visitors were amazed by the buildings and monuments of the Incan capital at Cuzco. Use the map below to answer the questions on the following slides.
  • Chapter Assessment 10 Approximately how long was the city of Cuzco? It was less than 2 miles (3.2 km) long. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts
  • Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts What natural boundaries surround Cuzco? Where did the Inca build boundaries? Why were man-made boundaries needed? Ridges were the natural boundaries. The Inca built boundaries around city boundaries where no natural borders exist. There were no natural boundaries.
  • Chapter Assessment 12 Analyzing Maps and Charts The Inca developed a vast road system. What do you notice about the roads leading out of Cuzco? They lead out in all directions. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Chapter Assessment 13 Analyzing Maps and Charts How might geographical factors have influenced the placement of buildings in Cuzco? Builders would need to plan for level terrain. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Chapter Assessment 14 The League of Iroquois was important because it A protected the Aztec from Hernán Cortés. B was created by Deganawida and Hiawatha. C was an early American form of the democratic assembly. D established the Mayan calendar. Test-Taking Tip Some answer choices are better than others. Be sure you have read all the choices carefully before you pick your answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Standardized Test Practice
  • End of Chapter Assessment
  • World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://wh.glencoe.com
  • CC 2 contents Science Economics Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  • CC 2a Science The Aztec built their empire on a highly effective system of agriculture. The limited available farmland was intensively cultivated, and it was supplemented by an elaborate system of reclaimed swampland. This highly effective agricultural system, which produced abundant food, was just one of the many scientific achievements developed by a Mesoamerican civilization. Research and write a brief essay in which you summarize the ideas in astronomy, mathematics, and architectural engineering that developed in Mesoamerica.
  • CC 2b Economics Mayan farmers produced large surplus crops of maize that they brought to market to trade for other goods made by craftspeople. Similarly, the Aztec economy was not based on money, but rather merchants bartered for goods and crafts. Compare the Mayan and Aztec economic systems with the American economic system.
  • WWWW 2 Hieroglyphics The word “hieroglyphics” means sacred writing. Hieroglyphics use pictures rather than words to represent objects. The complex Mayan writing system contained about 800 characters, including phonetic, ideographic, and hieroglyphic symbols. Do you think that if the Spanish had realized the significance of the Mayan hieroglyphic records, they would have treated Mayan books with more respect?
  • TP 1 By about 5000 B.C., a group of hunter-gatherers in a highland area of present-day Mexico discovered that the seeds of native plants could be planted and harvested, providing a reliable source of food. This discovery led to the first permanent villages in the Americas.
  • Skill Builder 1 Suppose for a moment that a devastating tornado has struck a nearby town. On television that night, you watch an interview with an eyewitness. The eyewitness begins to cry as she describes the destruction of her own home and neighborhood. The next day, you read a newspaper account that describes the tornado’s path. Is one of these accounts of the same event more accurate than the other? Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources Why Learn This Skill? This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook.
  • Skill Builder 2 To determine the accuracy of an account, you must analyze its source. There are two main types of sources–primary and secondary.  Learning the Skill Primary sources are produced by eyewitnesses to events. Diaries, letters, autobiographies, interviews, artifacts, and paintings are primary sources. Because primary sources convey personal experiences, they often include the emotions and opinions of participants in an event. This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Secondary sources use information gathered from others. Newspapers, textbooks, and biographies are secondary sources. Secondary sources, written later, help us to understand events in a larger context or time frame.  To determine reliability of a source, consider the type of source you are using. For a primary source, determine who the author is and when the material was written. An account written during or immediately after an event is often more reliable than one written years later. For a secondary source, look for good documentation. Researchers should cite their sources in footnotes and bibliographies. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 4 Learning the Skill For both types of sources you also need to evaluate the author. Is this author biased? What background and authority does he or she have? Finally, compare two accounts of the same event. If they disagree, you should question the reliability of the material and conduct further research to determine which can be corroborated with other reliable sources. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook.
  • Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Read the excerpts and answer questions that follow: “ Finally the two groups met. . . . When all was ready Montezuma placed his feet, shod in gold-soled, gem-studded sandals, on the carpeted pavement and . . . advanced to an encounter that would shape both his own destiny and that of his nation. . . . Montezuma had servants bring forward two necklaces of red shells hung with life-size shrimps made of gold. These he placed around Cortés’s neck.” – from Cortés by William Weber Johnson, 1975 Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. “ When we had arrived at a place not far from the town, the monarch raised himself in his sedan. . . . Montezuma himself was sumptuously attired, had on a species of half boot, richly set with jewels, and whose soles were made of solid gold. . . . Montezuma came up to Cortés, and hung about his neck a chaste necklace of gold, most curiously worked with figures all representing crabs.” – from an account by Conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo, 1519 Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 7 What is the general topic of the two sources? Practicing the Skill The meeting between Cortés and Montezuma is the general topic. This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 8 Identify the primary source. Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The account by Bernal Díaz del Castillo is the primary source. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • Skill Builder 9 Is one account more reliable than the other? If so, why? How do you know? Practicing the Skill Possible answer: Bernal Díaz del Castillo’s account may have been an eyewitness account. Even if his account was not an eyewitness account, he accompanied Cortés, whereas the historian Johnson definitely was not there and must base his version on available documentation–which in this case is probably limited to Díaz’s account. This feature can be found on page 351 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources
  • A Story That Matters 1 Read Two Cultures Collide on page 346 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 346 of your textbook. Mask of an Aztec god
  • A Story That Matters 2 Why were the Spanish surprised when they found cities and towns in Mexico? They expected to find only primitive people. This feature can be found on page 346 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • A Story That Matters 3 What was the reaction of the Aztec to the Spanish army? They were terrified. This feature can be found on page 346 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • A Story That Matters 4 What did the Spanish do to the cities they found? They destroyed them. This feature can be found on page 346 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 363 of your textbook. Read the information on page 363 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 363 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  • Eyewitness 2 What did the quipu record? What was it unable to record? The quipu was used to record anything that could be numbered. It was not used to record things that could not be counted. It could not record the purpose and meaning of events, nor could it provide descriptions. This feature can be found on page 363 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Eyewitness 3 This feature can be found on page 363 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In what other ways and from what other sources was the history of the Inca preserved? Incan history was recorded through memorization, then passed down from one generation to another orally, as stories or poems.
  • The Way It Was 1 The Deadly Games of Central America Mayan cities contained ball courts. Usually a court consisted of a rectangular space surrounded by walls with highly decorated stone rings. The walls were covered with images of war and sacrificial victims. The contestants tried to drive a solid rubber ball through these rings. Ball players, usually two or three on a team, used their hips to propel the ball (they were not allowed to use hands or feet). Players donned helmets, gloves, and knee and hip protectors made of hide to protect themselves against the hard rubber balls. Read the excerpt on pages 354–355 of your textbook and answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on pages 354–355 of your textbook.
  • The Way It Was 2 Summarizing Why was great skill required of the athletes who played the Mayan ball game? Players were not allowed to use either their hands or feet. Members of the losing side were sacrificed after the game. This feature can be found on pages 354–355 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • The Way It Was 3 Describing Explain the symbolism of the Mayan ball game. The ball court was symbolic of the world, and the ball represented the sun and the moon. This feature can be found on pages 354–355 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • The Way It Was 4 Writing about History What other sporting events have you read about that could result in the death of the losing participant? Contests between gladiators in ancient Rome could result in the death of the losing participant. This feature can be found on pages 354–355 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Video 1 Mesoamerican Civilizations After viewing “Mesoamerican Civilizations,” you should:  Objectives
    • Know that the Maya and Aztec established civilizations in what is now Mexico and Central America long before Europeans came to the Western Hemisphere. 
    • Appreciate the culture, science, and architecture of the Mesoamerican civilizations. 
    • Recognize that the ruins of Aztec and Mayan cities offer mute testimony to their greatness even today.
    Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
  • Video 2 Mesoamerican Civilizations Why did the Maya practice human sacrifice? They practiced human sacrifice to reflect their understanding of the cycle of life and death in the natural world and to please their gods. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  • Video 3 Mesoamerican Civilizations Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What are some theories about why the Maya evacuated their great cities? They may have left for religious reasons, their soil may have failed to support them, or they may have been wiped out by disease.
  • Maps and Charts 1
  • Maps and Charts 2
  • Maps and Charts 3
  • Chapter Transparency
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. by geographic area foods eaten, clothing, housing, hunting vs. farming Arctic Southwest, Great Plains
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 3 18 15 9 3; 10
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. to keep a common language loyalty to the Incan ruler divided into four quarters, each of which was divided into provinces
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