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Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Peasants, Trade, and Cities Section 2 Christianity and Medieval Civilization Secti...
Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Intro 2 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of medieval Europe.   Click the mouse button or pr...
Intro 3 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.   Click the mouse...
Intro 4 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:    Click the mouse button or press the Spa...
End of Intro
Section 1-1 <ul><li>New farming practices, the growth of trade, and the rise of cities created a flourishing European soci...
Section 1-2 <ul><li>bourgeoisie   </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Venice   </li></ul>Places to Locate Click the mou...
Section 1-3 <ul><li>What changes during the High Middle Ages enabled peasants to grow more food?   </li></ul>Preview Ques...
Section 1-4 Preview of Events  Peasants, Trade, and Cities
Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 1-6 A serf required the permission of his lord to change his occupation or dispose of his property. A serf could b...
Section 1-7 The New Agriculture <ul><li>The number of people almost doubled in Europe between 1000 and 1300, from 38 to 74...
Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The New Agriculture  (cont.)   <ul><...
Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A new horse collar, which di...
Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Earlier, peasants had one p...
Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why does crop rotation enrich a field’s ...
Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Manorial System <ul><li>Medieva...
Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Manorial System  (cont.)   <ul>...
Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Up to one-half of a manor’s...
Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Lords had a variety of lega...
Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Serfs, however, were not sl...
Section 1-17 Compare the feudal manor to the plantation of the antebellum South  in the United States. The Manorial System...
Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life of the Peasantry <ul><li...
Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life of the Peasantry  (cont....
Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The seasons largely determi...
Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Meat was preserved with sal...
Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A peasant’s life was not al...
Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The village church was a cr...
Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women had a difficult but i...
Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The peasant’s diet was adeq...
Section 1-26 <ul><li>Grains were important also for making ale, the most common drink of the poor in northern Europe. </li...
Section 1-27 What do you think is the most fundamental difference between life for the medieval peasant and life for the s...
Section 1-28 The Revival of Trade <ul><li>In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, a revival of trade and the associated gro...
Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Revival of Trade  (cont.)   <ul...
Section 1-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Revival of Trade  (cont.)   <ul...
Section 1-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Demand for gold and silver ...
Section 1-32 What are the advantages of a money economy over a barter economy? Click the mouse button or press the Space B...
Section 1-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Growth of Cities  <ul><li>Expan...
Section 1-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Growth of Cities  (cont.)   <ul...
Section 1-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Medieval cities were compar...
Section 1-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The towns were tied to the ...
Section 1-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Some towns had the right to...
Section 1-38 Why do you think elections were rigged to elect the patricians?  Click the mouse button or press the Space Ba...
Section 1-39 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life in the Medieval City  <u...
Section 1-40 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life in the Medieval City  (c...
Section 1-41 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The physical environment of...
Section 1-42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Medieval cities had private...
Section 1-43 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>There were many more men th...
Section 1-44 What would bother you most about living in a medieval town or city?  Daily Life in the Medieval City  (cont.)...
Section 1-45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Industry and Guilds  <ul><li>Mediev...
Section 1-46 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Industry and Guilds  (cont.)   <ul>...
Section 1-47 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A person who wanted to lear...
Section 1-48 <ul><li>The journeyman was admitted to the guild based on this work. </li></ul>Industry and Guilds  (cont.)  ...
Section 1-49 What contemporary institution resembles the medieval guild in some ways?  Click the mouse button or press the...
Section 1-50 __ 1. economic system in which  people invest in trade or  goods to make profits  __ 2. in medieval Europe, a...
Section 1-51 __ 5. in medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to  the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, ...
Section 1-52 Explain  the process of becoming a master in a guild. What do you think motivated people to participate in an...
Section 1-53 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the ec...
Section 1-54 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain  Why were the...
Section 1-55 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine  the illustra...
Section 1-56 Close  Summarize how the focus of medieval life gradually shifted from the feudal manor to the towns.
End of Section 1
Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Catholic Church played a...
Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Pope Gregory VII   </li></u...
Section 2-3 <ul><li>Why were Church leaders often at odds with the European rulers?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Click t...
Section 2-4 Preview of Events Christianity and Medieval Civilization
Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 2-6 The term  heresy  comes from the Greek word  hairesis,  which simply signified holding a particular set of phi...
Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Papal Monarchy  <ul><li>The papa...
Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Papal Monarchy  (cont.)   <ul><l...
Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>When an individual became a ...
Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>If secular rulers did not a...
Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Gregory VII found himself i...
Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The struggle between Gregor...
Section 2-13 <ul><li>A representative of the pope then invested the bishop with symbols of his spiritual office. </li></ul...
Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The twelfth-century popes w...
Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To exercise his power, Inno...
Section 2-16 On what basis might Gregory VII and other popes have believed they had authority over secular monarchs? Click...
Section 2-16 <ul><li>A wave of religious enthusiasm seized Europe in the first half of the twelfth century and led to a sp...
Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Religious Orders  (cont.)   <ul...
Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Cistercians were more activ...
Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The number of women joining...
Section 2-20 <ul><li>She was also sought out for her advice as a mystic and prophetess. </li></ul>New Religious Orders  (c...
Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The  Franciscans  and  Domi...
Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Franciscans rejected all pr...
Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Spanish priest Dominic ...
Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Church’s wish to discov...
Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>From 1252 on, those who did...
Section 2-26 Why did most nuns in the High Middle Ages come from the aristocracy?  Click the mouse button or press the Spa...
Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The sacraments of the Catho...
Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Popular Religion in the High Middle...
Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Many European churches in t...
Section 2-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They were worshipped becaus...
Section 2-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Holy City of Jerusalem ...
Section 2-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Medieval Christians believed that relics...
Section 2-33 __ 1. the denial of basic church  doctrines  __ 2. the practice by which secular  rulers both chose nominees ...
Section 2-34 Explain  the use of the interdict. Checking for Understanding  The Interdict deprived people of sacraments an...
Section 2-35 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the ne...
Section 2-36 Critical Thinking  Explain  Why was the Catholic Church such a powerful influence in lay people’s lives durin...
Section 2-37 Identify  the figures pictured in the cathedral window shown on page 328 of your textbook. What central ideas...
Section 2-38 Close  Discuss the dominant role of the Church in the lives of medieval people. How dominant are the major re...
End of Section 2
Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>An intellectual revival led ...
Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Aristotle   </li></ul>Peopl...
Section 3-3 <ul><li>What were the major cultural achievements of European civilization in the High Middle Ages?   </li></...
Section 3-4 Preview of Events The Culture of the High Middle Ages
Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 3-6 The magnificent Gothic cathedral at Reims was the site of the coronation of French kings. The first Frankish k...
Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The modern-day university is...
Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of Universities  (cont.)   ...
Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The first university in nort...
Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Students began their univer...
Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The student would receive a...
Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In 1500, there were 80 universities in a...
Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Theology was the most highl...
Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Scholasticism  (...
Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Saint Thomas Aquinas  made ...
Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Aquinas first posed a quest...
Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the main goal of scholasticism?...
Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Latin was the universal lan...
Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Vernacular Literature and Architect...
Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The earliest and finest exa...
Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Initially, these cathedrals...
Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Romanesque churches, th...
Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Gothic cathedrals rose ...
Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>This distributed the weight...
Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>With its soaring towers and...
Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Troubadour poetry was the dominant form ...
Section 3-27 __ 1. a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason __ 2. the stud...
Section 3-28 Explain  the origin of universities  in Europe. Checking for Understanding  Universities were created as educ...
Section 3-29 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe  th...
Section 3-30 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain  How did the ...
Section 3-31 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine  the image on...
Section 3-32 Close  Discuss how Christian Europeans of the Middle Ages demonstrated their faith and spirituality through t...
End of Section 3
Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Europe in the fourteenth cen...
Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Pope Boniface VIII   </li><...
Section 4-3 <ul><li>How did the Black Death impact European society?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button...
Section 4-4 Preview of Events The Late Middle Ages
Section 4-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 4-6 Some of William Shakespeare’s plays– The Life of King Henry the Fifth,  for example–concern people and places ...
Section 4-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In the fourteenth century, s...
Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Black Death  (cont.)   <ul><li>B...
Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Usually, the Black Death fol...
Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Many people believed the pl...
Section 4-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The death of so many people...
Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Landlords were paying more ...
Section 4-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Black Death caused some people to pe...
Section 4-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Roman Catholic popes re...
Section 4-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Decline of Church Power  (cont....
Section 4-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The new pope established hi...
Section 4-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The citizens of Rome told t...
Section 4-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Great Schism lasted fro...
Section 4-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>This crisis in the Catholic...
Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By the early 1400s, then, t...
Section 4-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How could the French king have engineere...
Section 4-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In addition to economic cri...
Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Hundred Years’ War  (cont.)   <...
Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The war’s first major battl...
Section 4-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Joan of Arc, a French peasa...
Section 4-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Joan was captured in 1430. ...
Section 4-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What weapons significantly changed warfa...
Section 4-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The fourteenth-century Euro...
Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Political Recovery  (cont.)   <ul><...
Section 4-30 <ul><li>This gave Louis the income that helped create a strong foundation for the  monarchy. </li></ul>Politi...
Section 4-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Hundred Years’ War also...
Section 4-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Henry VII tried to establis...
Section 4-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A strong national monarchy ...
Section 4-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The two rulers also had a p...
Section 4-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Holy Roman Empire did n...
Section 4-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Religious differences made ...
Section 4-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The great prince  Ivan III ...
Section 4-38 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Which religions were so much at odds wit...
Section 4-39 __ 1. hostility toward or  discrimination against Jews  __ 2. an annual direct tax, usually  on land or prope...
Section 4-40 __ 5. a split in the Catholic  Church that lasted from  1378 to 1418, during which  time there were rival pop...
Section 4-41 Describe  the origins of the Hundred Years’ War. Checking for Understanding  Philip VI of France seized Gasco...
Section 4-42 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the re...
Section 4-43 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyze  What were th...
Section 4-44 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify  the two arm...
Section 4-45 Close  Discuss some of the consequences  of the Black Death, especially the destruction of the stable social ...
End of Section 4
Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary  The Middle Ages was a period marked by cultural diffusion, innovation, and conflict.
End of Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment 1 1. Governments that attempted to reestablish centralized power were called _______________. 2. Crafts...
Chapter Assessment 2 History   How did the Great Schism divide Europe? Reviewing Key Facts France and its allies supported...
Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture   Wh...
Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Science and ...
Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government  ...
Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography   ...
Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing   Wh...
Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating   H...
Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Study the chart below and answer the questions on the following slides.
Chapter Assessment 10 Select an event or invention from each category on the chart. What was the effect  of that event or ...
Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts How d...
Chapter Assessment 13 What effect did the Black Death have on Europe? F The plague resulted in an increase in the number o...
End of Chapter Assessment
World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button t...
CC 1 Economics   Discuss the economics of the Champagne fairs. Who do you think benefited most from the fairs: the merchan...
CC 3 Literature   Bring a favorite poem to class and compare its tone and theme with the troubadour poem written by Jaufré...
CC 4 Art   One of the best sources of information on the Hundred Years’ War is the chronicle written by  Jean Froissart of...
WWWW 3 Universities   Although modern universities had their origins in medieval Europe, Arabs founded universities nearly...
WWWW 4 The longbow   was as tall as the man who carried it. He would draw it by stooping over the bow parallel to the grou...
WWWW 1 contents Book of Hours Trade Fairs   Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
WWWW 1a Book of Hours   One of the most famous works of the Middle Ages, the  Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry  (Very Ri...
WWWW 1b Trade Fairs   Fairs served as centers of trade in medieval Europe, attracting merchants from all  over the contine...
WWWW 2 contents Hildegard of Bingen Giotto   Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
WWWW 2a Hildegard of Bingen   For women like Hildegard of Bingen, entering a convent was the only means of acquiring an ed...
WWWW 2b Giotto   Florentine painter Giotto (c.1266–c.1337) painted a series of frescoes based on the life of Saint Francis...
TP 4 Not until the early 1900s were rats carrying bacteria-infected fleas identified as the carriers of bubonic plague. To...
Skill Builder 1 What changes have you noticed in your town the past few years? Has the corner bank been replaced by an eth...
Skill Builder 2 Follow the steps below to learn how to analyze a historical map.   Learning the Skill <ul><li>Read the ti...
Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill <ul><li>To compare historical maps of the same region in different time periods, first ...
Skill Builder 4 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Analyze the map on the right ...
Skill Builder 5 What geographic region and time period are represented in the map? Practicing the Skill France in the 1400...
Skill Builder 6 What information is shown in the map’s key and labels? Practicing the Skill Battles, Burgundian lands, Fre...
Skill Builder 7 Find a present-day map of this region to compare with the map on page 334 of your textbook. How has the re...
A Story That Matters 1 Read  Life in London  on page 314 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slid...
A Story That Matters 2 What qualities make London such a “happy” place to William Fitz-Stephen? Healthy fresh air, Christi...
A Story That Matters 3 Why do you think Fitz-Stephen fails to mention London’s foul air, overcrowding, epidemics, and fire...
Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 341 of your textbook. Read the information on ...
Eyewitness 2 Who was blamed for causing the Black Death? Were these charges economically motivated? Why or why not? The Je...
Eyewitness 3 Can you provide examples of discrimination today that are similar to what the Jews experienced in medieval ti...
STS 1 Harnessing the Power  of Water and Wind Watermills use the power of running water to do work. The watermill was inve...
STS 2 Comparing   How are water and wind power used today? Dams harness water for hydroelectric power, and windmills are u...
Video 1 Chaucer’s England After viewing “Chaucer’s England,” you should:   Objectives <ul><li>Realize that studying the a...
Video 2 Chaucer’s England What social institution was central to life in medieval Europe? The Roman Catholic Church was th...
Video 3 Chaucer’s England Click the mouse button or press the  Space Bar to display the answer. What is the overall struct...
Maps and Charts 1-1
Maps and Charts 1-2
Maps and Charts 4-1
Maps and Charts 4-2
Chapter Transparency
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 450 600 to avoid w...
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1. Mayor, Justice ...
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Most were administ...
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. People would not k...
End of Custom Shows End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advanc...
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GWH Chapter 10

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Use this to prepare and study Lesson 5.

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Transcript of "GWH Chapter 10"

  1. 1. Splash Screen
  2. 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Peasants, Trade, and Cities Section 2 Christianity and Medieval Civilization Section 3 The Culture of the High Middle Ages Section 4 The Late Middle Ages Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  3. 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  4. 4. Intro 2 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of medieval Europe.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The revival of trade led to the growth of cities and towns, which became important centers for manufacturing.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church was an important part of people’s lives during the Middle Ages.  </li></ul><ul><li>During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Europeans experienced many problems including the Black Death, the Hundred Years’ War, and the decline of the Church. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intro 3 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The revival of trade brought with it a money economy and the emergence of capitalism, which is widespread in the world today.  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern universities had their origins in medieval Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>The medieval history of Europe can be seen today in Europe’s great cathedrals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intro 4 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>describe advances in farming and industry, the manorial system, and the rise of cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>explain the dominant role played by the medieval Church.  </li></ul><ul><li>list the high points of culture during the High Middle Ages.  </li></ul><ul><li>describe the various misfortunes that challenged Europe in the fourteenth century. </li></ul>
  7. 7. End of Intro
  8. 8. Section 1-1 <ul><li>New farming practices, the growth of trade, and the rise of cities created a flourishing European society.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Peasants, Trade, and Cities Key Terms <ul><li>manor  </li></ul><ul><li>commercial capitalism  </li></ul><ul><li>guild  </li></ul><ul><li>masterpiece </li></ul><ul><li>serf  </li></ul><ul><li>money  </li></ul><ul><li>The revival of trade and the development of a money economy offered new opportunities for people.  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 1-2 <ul><li>bourgeoisie  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Venice  </li></ul>Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Flanders </li></ul><ul><li>patricians  </li></ul>Peasants, Trade, and Cities
  10. 10. Section 1-3 <ul><li>What changes during the High Middle Ages enabled peasants to grow more food?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>What were the major features of the manorial system? </li></ul>Peasants, Trade, and Cities
  11. 11. Section 1-4 Preview of Events Peasants, Trade, and Cities
  12. 12. Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  13. 13. Section 1-6 A serf required the permission of his lord to change his occupation or dispose of his property. A serf could become a freedman only through formal emancipation or escape.
  14. 14. Section 1-7 The New Agriculture <ul><li>The number of people almost doubled in Europe between 1000 and 1300, from 38 to 74 million people.  </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>One reason is that increased stability and peace enabled food production to rise dramatically.  </li></ul><ul><li>Food production increased also because a climate change improved growing conditions and more land was cleared for cultivation.  </li></ul><ul><li>Europe had more farmland in 1200 than it does today. </li></ul>(pages 315–317)
  15. 15. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The New Agriculture (cont.) <ul><li>Technological changes also aided farming.  </li></ul><ul><li>Water and wind power began to do jobs once done by humans or animals.  </li></ul><ul><li>Also, iron was used to make scythes, axes, hoes, saws, hammers, and nails.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly iron was used to make the carruca, a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare pulled by animal teams. </li></ul>(pages 315–317)
  16. 16. Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A new horse collar, which distributed the weight throughout the horse’s shoulders, and the horseshoe allowed horses to replace the slow oxen to pull the extremely heavy carruca.  </li></ul><ul><li>Using this heavy-wheeled plow led to the growth of farming villages.  </li></ul><ul><li>The plow was so expensive that communities bought one plow.  </li></ul><ul><li>People also shared animals.  </li></ul><ul><li>The shift from a two-field to a three-field system of crop rotation also increased food production. </li></ul>The New Agriculture (cont.) (pages 315–317)
  17. 17. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Earlier, peasants had one part of their field lie fallow and the other was cultivated.  </li></ul><ul><li>Now, one part of the field was planted in the fall with grains for a summer harvest, a second part was planted in spring with different grains for a fall harvest, and the third would lie fallow.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only one-third of the land now was not being used, and the rotation kept the soil from being exhausted so quickly. </li></ul>The New Agriculture (cont.) (pages 315–317)
  18. 18. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why does crop rotation enrich a field’s soil? Using different crops and letting fields lie fallow allow the soil’s nutrients to be replenished or not be used up so fast. The New Agriculture (cont.) (pages 315–317)
  19. 19. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Manorial System <ul><li>Medieval landholding nobles were a military elite who needed the leisure to pursue the arts of war.  </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants worked the lords’ landed estates on the fiefs of the vassals.  </li></ul><ul><li>These estates provided the needed economic support for the nobles. </li></ul>(pages 317–318)
  20. 20. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Manorial System (cont.) <ul><li>These agricultural estates were called manors.  </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers of free peasants became serfs –peasants legally bound to the land.  </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs worked the lord’s land, helped maintain the estate, paid rent, and were under the lord’s control.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 800, probably 60 percent of western Europeans were serfs. </li></ul>(pages 317–318)
  21. 21. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Up to one-half of a manor’s lands typically belonged to the lord.  </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs raised food for themselves on the remainder.  </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs paid rent by giving a share of what they raised for themselves.  </li></ul><ul><li>They also paid to use the lord’s pastures and fishing ponds, and paid for services like having their grain milled into flour.  </li></ul><ul><li>The serfs were obligated to tithe to the village church. </li></ul>The Manorial System (cont.) (pages 317–318)
  22. 22. Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Lords had a variety of legal rights over their serfs.  </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs needed the lord’s permission to marry anyone outside of the manor and to leave the manor.  </li></ul><ul><li>Often lords had the right to try peasants in their own courts. </li></ul>The Manorial System (cont.) (pages 317–318)
  23. 23. Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Serfs, however, were not slaves.  </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, a serf’s land could not be taken away, and serfs’ responsibilities were fixed.  </li></ul><ul><li>The lord was obligated to protect his serfs. </li></ul>The Manorial System (cont.) (pages 317–318)
  24. 24. Section 1-17 Compare the feudal manor to the plantation of the antebellum South in the United States. The Manorial System (cont.) (pages 317–318)
  25. 25. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life of the Peasantry <ul><li>European peasant life was simple with little privacy.  </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants’ one- or two-room cottages were built with wood frames surrounded by sticks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Spaces between the sticks were filled with straw and rubble, and then plastered over with clay.  </li></ul><ul><li>Roofs were thatched.  </li></ul><ul><li>A central hearth was used for heating and cooking. </li></ul>(pages 318–319)
  26. 26. Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) <ul><li>There were few windows and no chimney.  </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke escaped out cracks and through the thatch. </li></ul>(pages 318–319)
  27. 27. Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The seasons largely determined peasant life and work.  </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest time, August and September, was especially hectic.  </li></ul><ul><li>In October, peasants prepared the ground for winter planting.  </li></ul><ul><li>November brought the slaughtering of excess animals because usually there was not enough food to keep them alive all winter. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  28. 28. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Meat was preserved with salt.  </li></ul><ul><li>February and March brought plowing for spring planting.  </li></ul><ul><li>Summer was a time for lighter work on the estates. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  29. 29. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A peasant’s life was not all labor because of the numerous Catholic feast days, or holidays.  </li></ul><ul><li>The three great feasts were Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost.  </li></ul><ul><li>Other feast days were dedicated to saints or the Virgin Mary.  </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50 days a year were essentially holidays. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  30. 30. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The village church was a crucial part of the manorial system.  </li></ul><ul><li>The priests taught the basic Christian ideas to enable peasants to achieve salvation.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, most priests were peasants who could not read, so just how well the Christian message was communicated to the serfs is not known.  </li></ul><ul><li>Probably they saw God as a force to be appeased to help with the harvest. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  31. 31. Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women had a difficult but important role in manorial life.  </li></ul><ul><li>They worked the fields and had children.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their ability to manage the household could determine if the family survived hard times. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  32. 32. Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The peasant’s diet was adequate.  </li></ul><ul><li>The staple was bread baked in community ovens.  </li></ul><ul><li>The dark, heavy bread was nutritious because it contained wheat, rye, barley, millet, and oats.  </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants usually ate meat only on feast days such as Easter and Christmas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants raised vegetables and fruit, and made cheese.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens provided eggs. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  33. 33. Section 1-26 <ul><li>Grains were important also for making ale, the most common drink of the poor in northern Europe. </li></ul>Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  34. 34. Section 1-27 What do you think is the most fundamental difference between life for the medieval peasant and life for the small farmer in the United States? What is the same? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Two possible differences concern the lack of privacy in the medieval peasant cottage and the lack of meat in the medieval diet. A possible similarity is how in both cases people are beholden to the seasons. Daily Life of the Peasantry (cont.) (pages 318–319)
  35. 35. Section 1-28 The Revival of Trade <ul><li>In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, a revival of trade and the associated growth of towns and cities changed the economic foundation of Europe from being almost exclusively agricultural.  </li></ul>(pages 319–320) <ul><li>Italian cities took the lead.  </li></ul><ul><li>Venice developed a mercantile fleet and became a major trading center by the end of the tenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Italian cities traded mainly in the Mediterranean area. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  36. 36. Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Revival of Trade (cont.) <ul><li>The towns of Flanders –the area along the coast of present-day Belgium and northern France–traded in northern Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>These were most known for woolen cloth.  </li></ul><ul><li>Flemish towns like Bruges and Ghent became centers for the trade and manufacture of this cloth. </li></ul>(pages 319–320)
  37. 37. Section 1-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Revival of Trade (cont.) <ul><li>To encourage exchange between Flanders and Italy, the counts of Champagne in northern France held six trade fairs a year.  </li></ul><ul><li>Northern merchants exchanged furs, woolen cloth, tin, and honey for the cloth and swords of northern Italy and the silks, sugar, and spices from the East. </li></ul>(pages 319–320)
  38. 38. Section 1-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Demand for gold and silver arose at trading fairs and markets.  </li></ul><ul><li>A money economy –an economic system based on money rather than barter–arose.  </li></ul><ul><li>Trading companies and banks began to manage the exchange and sale of goods.  </li></ul><ul><li>These new practices were part of the rise of commercial capitalism –an economic system in which people invested in trade and goods to make profits. </li></ul>The Revival of Trade (cont.) (pages 319–320)
  39. 39. Section 1-32 What are the advantages of a money economy over a barter economy? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The chief advantage is that to barter, one must find a person who has what you want and wants what you have, which is quite economically inefficient. The Revival of Trade (cont.) (pages 319–320)
  40. 40. Section 1-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Growth of Cities <ul><li>Expanding trades led to a revival of cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants began to settle in the old Roman cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans followed. They brought skills to make goods that merchants could sell. </li></ul>(pages 320–321)
  41. 41. Section 1-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Growth of Cities (cont.) <ul><li>New cities and towns were founded, especially in northern Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, a group of merchants built a settlement near a castle for the trade and the lord’s protection.  </li></ul><ul><li>If the settlement prospered, walls were built to protect it.  </li></ul><ul><li>The merchants and artisans of these cities later came to be called burghers or bourgeoisie, from the German word burg, which means “a walled enclosure.” </li></ul>(pages 320–321)
  42. 42. Section 1-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Medieval cities were comparatively small.  </li></ul><ul><li>A large trading city would have only about five thousand inhabitants.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1200s, London had more than 40,000 people.  </li></ul><ul><li>The large Italian cities had more than 80,000 inhabitants.  </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople and the major Arab cities were much larger, however. </li></ul>The Growth of Cities (cont.) (pages 320–321)
  43. 43. Section 1-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The towns were tied to the lords and land around them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Lords wanted to treat the townspeople as vassals or serfs, but the inhabitants saw things differently.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 1100, townspeople had the right to buy and sell property, freedom from military service to the lord, and laws guaranteeing their freedom. </li></ul>The Growth of Cities (cont.) (pages 320–321)
  44. 44. Section 1-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Some towns had the right to govern themselves.  </li></ul><ul><li>Over time the cities developed their own governments.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only males born in the city or who had lived there a long time were citizens.  </li></ul><ul><li>These often elected a city council, who served as judges and local legislators. Elections were carefully rigged to make sure only the patricians, members of the wealthiest and most powerful families, won. </li></ul>The Growth of Cities (cont.) (pages 320–321)
  45. 45. Section 1-38 Why do you think elections were rigged to elect the patricians? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The elections were rigged so that the interests of the wealthy and powerful were protected. The Growth of Cities (cont.) (pages 320–321)
  46. 46. Section 1-39 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life in the Medieval City <ul><li>Medieval towns were surrounded by stone walls, which were expensive.  </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the space inside was filled tightly.  </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were close to one another, and the streets were narrow. </li></ul>(pages 321–322)
  47. 47. Section 1-40 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) <ul><li>Fire was a great danger because houses were wooden up to the fourteenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was also a constant threat because candles and wood fires were used for light and heat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Once a fire started, putting it out was difficult. </li></ul>(pages 321–322)
  48. 48. Section 1-41 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The physical environment of the towns was unpleasant.  </li></ul><ul><li>The cities and towns were dirty and smelled of human and animal waste.  </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution from the ubiquitous wood fires was a problem.  </li></ul><ul><li>Blood from slaughtered animals and chemicals from such activities as tanning went into the rivers.  </li></ul><ul><li>Cities relied on wells for drinking water. </li></ul>Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) (pages 321–322)
  49. 49. Section 1-42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Medieval cities had private and public baths.  </li></ul><ul><li>The great plague closed them in the fourteenth century. </li></ul>Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) (pages 321–322)
  50. 50. Section 1-43 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>There were many more men than women in medieval cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Women could lead quite independent lives even though they were expected to fulfill the usual roles of taking care of the house and raising children.  </li></ul><ul><li>They could lead fairly independent lives because they helped their husbands at their trades and sometimes carried on his trade after his death. </li></ul>Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) (pages 321–322)
  51. 51. Section 1-44 What would bother you most about living in a medieval town or city? Daily Life in the Medieval City (cont.) (pages 321–322)
  52. 52. Section 1-45 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Industry and Guilds <ul><li>Medieval cities became important manufacturing centers for such goods as cloth, metalwork, shoes, and leather goods.  </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in the eleventh century, craftspeople organized into business associations called guilds.  </li></ul><ul><li>They played a leading role in urban economic life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every craft had a guild, as did some kinds of merchants. </li></ul>(page 322)
  53. 53. Section 1-46 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Industry and Guilds (cont.) <ul><li>Craft guilds directed almost every aspect of the production process.  </li></ul><ul><li>They set quality standards, specified methods of production, and fixed the prices for the finished products.  </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds determined how many people could enter a guild and the procedure for entering. </li></ul>(page 322)
  54. 54. Section 1-47 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A person who wanted to learn a trade first became an apprentice to a master craftsperson at around age 10.  </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentices received room and board, but no pay.  </li></ul><ul><li>After learning for five to seven years, apprentices became journeymen. They worked for wages for other masters.  </li></ul><ul><li>To become masters, the journeymen had to produce a masterpiece, a finished product in their craft. </li></ul>Industry and Guilds (cont.) (page 322)
  55. 55. Section 1-48 <ul><li>The journeyman was admitted to the guild based on this work. </li></ul>Industry and Guilds (cont.) (page 322)
  56. 56. Section 1-49 What contemporary institution resembles the medieval guild in some ways? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The contemporary union bears a resemblance to the medieval guild. Unions look out for the interests of workers, and many unions have apprenticeship programs. Industry and Guilds (cont.) (page 322)
  57. 57. Section 1-50 __ 1. economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make profits __ 2. in medieval Europe, an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants __ 3. an economic system based on money rather than barter __ 4. a business association associated with a particular trade or craft, which evolved in the twelfth century and came to play a leading role in the economic life of medieval cities A. manor B. serf C. money economy D. commercial capitalism E. guild Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. C E
  58. 58. Section 1-51 __ 5. in medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord’s control A. manor B. serf C. money economy D. commercial capitalism E. guild Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  59. 59. Section 1-52 Explain the process of becoming a master in a guild. What do you think motivated people to participate in and endure this demanding process? Checking for Understanding The process of becoming a master in a guild includes starting as an apprentice to a master, then becoming a journeyman, then a master. People did this for financial security. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  60. 60. Section 1-53 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the economic developments of the Middle Ages that allowed for the emergence of commercial capitalism. A money economy, new trading companies, and banking firms allowed for the emergence of commercial capitalism.
  61. 61. Section 1-54 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain Why were the three-field system and heavy iron plows so important to increased food production? They were important because one-third, rather than one-half, of the land lay fallow, and they allowed more land to be cultivated.
  62. 62. Section 1-55 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the illustration of peasants working in a field shown on page 319 and the chart shown on page 318 of your textbook. Use the illustration and chart to help you describe the major characteristics of the economic system of manorialism. Manorialism depended on agriculture. The serf’s livestock provided food and clothing for the manor. Excess could be traded or sold.
  63. 63. Section 1-56 Close Summarize how the focus of medieval life gradually shifted from the feudal manor to the towns.
  64. 64. End of Section 1
  65. 65. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Catholic Church played a dominant role in the lives of people during the High Middle Ages.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Christianity and Medieval Civilization Key Terms <ul><li>lay investiture  </li></ul><ul><li>heresy  </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition  </li></ul><ul><li>relic </li></ul><ul><li>interdict  </li></ul><ul><li>sacrament  </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership by the popes made the Catholic Church a forceful presence in medieval society.  </li></ul>
  66. 66. Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Pope Gregory VII  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Hildegard of Bingen  </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Francis of Assisi  </li></ul><ul><li>Papal States  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Assisi </li></ul><ul><li>Henry IV  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Innocent III  </li></ul>Christianity and Medieval Civilization
  67. 67. Section 2-3 <ul><li>Why were Church leaders often at odds with the European rulers?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>What role did Christianity play during the Middle Ages? </li></ul>Christianity and Medieval Civilization
  68. 68. Section 2-4 Preview of Events Christianity and Medieval Civilization
  69. 69. Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  70. 70. Section 2-6 The term heresy comes from the Greek word hairesis, which simply signified holding a particular set of philosophical opinions. The term heresy took on a negative meaning in Christianity. According to the Catholic Church, a person is guilty of a material but not formal heresy if he or she does not know that he or she is denying a doctrine of the Church.
  71. 71. Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Papal Monarchy <ul><li>The papal control of the Papal States in central Italy kept the popes involved in politics, often at the expense of their spiritual duties.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Church became increasingly involved in the feudal system.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bishops and abbots came to hold their offices as grants from nobles, and so were vassals.  </li></ul><ul><li>These bishops and abbots often cared little about spiritual duties. </li></ul>(pages 323–325)
  72. 72. Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) <ul><li>By the eleventh century Church leaders realized the need to be free from the interference of lords in the appointment of Church officials.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory VII decided to fight the practice of lay investiture. </li></ul>(pages 323–325)
  73. 73. Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>When an individual became a Church official he was given a ring and a staff as symbols of the authority he was invested with.  </li></ul><ul><li>Secular, or lay, officials began granting this investiture.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory VII saw the need to stop this practice.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only then could the Church regain its freedom, the sole right to appoint clergy and run its own affairs. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  74. 74. Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>If secular rulers did not accept this, the pope would remove them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory VII believed the pope’s authority extended over all rulers. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  75. 75. Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Gregory VII found himself in conflict with Henry IV, the German king, over his views.  </li></ul><ul><li>The German kings had appointed high-ranking Church officials for years and made these officials vassals, to fight the power of the nobles.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory finally issued a decree forbidding lay investiture. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  76. 76. Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The struggle between Gregory VII and Henry IV became known as the Investiture Controversy.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1122 a new German king and a new pope reached an agreement called the Concordat of Worms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Church officials first elected the German bishop.  </li></ul><ul><li>The new bishop then paid homage to the king as his lord, and the king invested him with the symbols of earthly office. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  77. 77. Section 2-13 <ul><li>A representative of the pope then invested the bishop with symbols of his spiritual office. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  78. 78. Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The twelfth-century popes were most interested in strengthening papal power and building a strong administrative system.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church reached the height of its political power during the papacy of Pope Innocent III.  </li></ul><ul><li>He believed the pope was the supreme judge and ruler of European affairs. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  79. 79. Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To exercise his power, Innocent III especially used the interdict.  </li></ul><ul><li>An interdict forbids a priest to give the sacraments (Christian rites) to a particular group of people.  </li></ul><ul><li>People under interdiction lost the comforts and blessing of religion, and so they exerted pressure against their ruler to follow the pope’s wishes. </li></ul>The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  80. 80. Section 2-16 On what basis might Gregory VII and other popes have believed they had authority over secular monarchs? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Their argument was that they were the representative of God’s power and authority, and God’s power and authority outweighed human power and authority. The Papal Monarchy (cont.) (pages 323–325)
  81. 81. Section 2-16 <ul><li>A wave of religious enthusiasm seized Europe in the first half of the twelfth century and led to a spectacular growth in the number of monasteries and new orders. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (pages 325–327)
  82. 82. Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Religious Orders (cont.) <ul><li>The most important new order was the Cistercians, founded by a group of disgruntled Benedictine monks in 1098.  </li></ul><ul><li>The order spread rapidly throughout Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Cistercians were strict. They had only one robe and ate a simple diet; their churches and monastic buildings had no decorations. </li></ul>(pages 325–327)
  83. 83. Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Cistercians were more active in the world than Benedictine monks.  </li></ul><ul><li>They took their religion to the people outside of the monastery. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  84. 84. Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The number of women joining religious houses grew dramatically.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most nuns came from the landed aristocracy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Female intellectuals like Hildegard of Bingen found convents a haven for their activities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard of Bingen became abbess of a convent, and she was also one of the first women composers.  </li></ul><ul><li>She contributed to the genre called Gregorian chant. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  85. 85. Section 2-20 <ul><li>She was also sought out for her advice as a mystic and prophetess. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  86. 86. Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Franciscans and Dominicans emerged in the thirteenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>Each had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people.  </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans.  </li></ul><ul><li>Born into wealth, he had a series of spiritual experiences that led him to abandon material pursuits and preach poverty.  </li></ul><ul><li>His simplicity, joy, and love attracted followers. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  87. 87. Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Franciscans rejected all property and lived by working and begging for food.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Franciscans became popular with the poor, among whom they lived and whom they helped.  </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike many other religious orders, the Franciscans lived in the world and undertook missionary work. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  88. 88. Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Spanish priest Dominic de Guzmán founded the Dominicans to defend Church teachings from heresy –the denial of basic Church doctrines.  </li></ul><ul><li>People who denied Church doctrines were called heretics.  </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic believed that the best way to combat heresy was to have an order of men who lived in poverty and preached effectively. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  89. 89. Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Church’s wish to discover and deal with heretics led to the Inquisition, or Holy Office.  </li></ul><ul><li>This court was instituted to try heretics, and it developed a regular way to deal with them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Heretics who confessed performed public penance and were punished, for example by flogging. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  90. 90. Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>From 1252 on, those who did not confess voluntarily were tortured until they confessed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Many who did not confess were considered guilty and were executed by the state.  </li></ul><ul><li>Relapsed heretics were also subject to execution.  </li></ul><ul><li>For Christians of the thirteenth century, using force to save souls was the right thing to do.  </li></ul><ul><li>Heresy was a crime against God, and people’s salvation hung in the balance. </li></ul>New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  91. 91. Section 2-26 Why did most nuns in the High Middle Ages come from the aristocracy? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Convents were convenient for families who were unable or unwilling to find husbands for their daughters, for aristocratic women who did not wish to marry and had the option not to, or for widows. New Religious Orders (cont.) (pages 325–327)
  92. 92. Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The sacraments of the Catholic Church, such as baptism, marriage, and Communion, were very important to ordinary people.  </li></ul>Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages <ul><li>The sacraments were a means for receiving God’s grace and were necessary for salvation.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only clergy could give the sacraments, which made people dependent on the clergy. </li></ul>(pages 327–328)
  93. 93. Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Saints had a special position in Heaven and could ask for favors before the throne of God.  </li></ul><ul><li>The apostles were recognized throughout Europe as saints.  </li></ul><ul><li>Local saints such as Saint Nicholas, the patron saint of children and the inspiration for Santa Claus, sprang up. </li></ul><ul><li>Venerating saints was also important to ordinary people.  </li></ul>(pages 327–328)
  94. 94. Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Many European churches in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were dedicated to her. </li></ul>Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>The Virgin Mary was the most highly regarded saint of the High Middle Ages.  </li></ul>(pages 327–328)
  95. 95. Section 2-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They were worshipped because it was believed that they offered a connection between the earthly world and God, they could heal, or they produced other miracles. </li></ul>Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Emphasis on the saints was tied to the use of relics, usually bones of saints or objects connected with the saints.  </li></ul>(pages 327–328)
  96. 96. Section 2-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Holy City of Jerusalem was the greatest such site.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rome, with its relics of Saints Peter and Paul, and the Spanish town of Santiago de Compostela, supposedly where the Apostle James is buried, were also important pilgrimage destinations. </li></ul>Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Medieval Christians also believed that a pilgrimage to a holy shrine produced a spiritual benefit.  </li></ul>(pages 327–328)
  97. 97. Section 2-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Medieval Christians believed that relics produced miracles, especially of healing. What is a miracle in the religious sense? In the religious sense a miracle is an event that occurs but does not adhere to the laws of the realm of nature. The event’s cause must be divine grace, it is believed. Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.) (pages 327–328)
  98. 98. Section 2-33 __ 1. the denial of basic church doctrines __ 2. the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office __ 3. Christian rites __ 4. a court established by the Catholic Church in 1232 to discover and try heretics; also called the Holy Office __ 5. a decree by the pope that forbade priests to give the sacraments of the church to the people A. lay investiture B. interdict C. sacraments D. heresy E. Inquisition Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D A C E B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  99. 99. Section 2-34 Explain the use of the interdict. Checking for Understanding The Interdict deprived people of sacraments and pressured rulers to submit to the pope. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  100. 100. Section 2-35 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the new religious orders created during the Middle Ages. Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican were the new religious orders created during the Middle Ages.
  101. 101. Section 2-36 Critical Thinking Explain Why was the Catholic Church such a powerful influence in lay people’s lives during the Middle Ages? The Church and sacraments were essential to salvation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  102. 102. Section 2-37 Identify the figures pictured in the cathedral window shown on page 328 of your textbook. What central ideas of the Roman Catholic Church does the window from Chartes illustrate? Analyzing Visuals The window illustrates the mediating role of the Virgin Mary and saints. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  103. 103. Section 2-38 Close Discuss the dominant role of the Church in the lives of medieval people. How dominant are the major religions today in people’s lives?
  104. 104. End of Section 2
  105. 105. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>An intellectual revival led to the formation of universities.  </li></ul>Main Ideas The Culture of the High Middle Ages Key Terms <ul><li>theology  </li></ul><ul><li>scholasticism  </li></ul><ul><li>vernacular </li></ul><ul><li>In the High Middle Ages, new technical innovations made it possible to build Gothic cathedrals, which are one of the great artistic triumphs of this age.  </li></ul>
  106. 106. Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Aristotle  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Bologna  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Paris  </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford </li></ul><ul><li>St. Thomas Aquinas  </li></ul>The Culture of the High Middle Ages
  107. 107. Section 3-3 <ul><li>What were the major cultural achievements of European civilization in the High Middle Ages?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>What role did theology play in the European intellectual world? </li></ul>The Culture of the High Middle Ages
  108. 108. Section 3-4 Preview of Events The Culture of the High Middle Ages
  109. 109. Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  110. 110. Section 3-6 The magnificent Gothic cathedral at Reims was the site of the coronation of French kings. The first Frankish king, Clovis, was crowned by Saint Rémy, archbishop of Reims, in the town where the cathedral was later built. From the ninth century it was claimed that a dove had descended from the heavens with sacred oil for anointing Clovis. Miraculously, the oil never dried up, and later kings supposedly were anointed with it.
  111. 111. Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The modern-day university is a product of the High Middle Ages.  </li></ul>The Rise of Universities <ul><li>The word university comes from the Latin universitas, meaning “corporation” or “guild.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval universities were guilds that produced educated and trained individuals. </li></ul>(pages 329–330)
  112. 112. Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of Universities (cont.) <ul><li>The first university appeared in Bologna, Italy.  </li></ul><ul><li>A great teacher of Roman law named Irnerius attracted students there from all over Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>To protect their rights, students at Bologna formed a guild, which was chartered in 1158.  </li></ul><ul><li>The charter gave the guild the right to govern its own affairs. </li></ul>(pages 329–330)
  113. 113. Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The first university in northern Europe was the University of Paris.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the second half of the twelfth century, some students left Paris and went to England, founding a university at Oxford.  </li></ul><ul><li>There were 80 European universities by 1500. </li></ul>The Rise of Universities (cont.) (pages 329–330)
  114. 114. Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Students began their university education with the traditional liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval universities taught through the lecture method.  </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers read from the few existing copies of books and added their commentary.  </li></ul><ul><li>There were no written exams. To graduate, the student had an oral examination with a committee of teachers. </li></ul>The Rise of Universities (cont.) (pages 329–330)
  115. 115. Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The student would receive a bachelor of arts and later might earn a master of arts, if he passed.  </li></ul><ul><li>No women attended these universities.  </li></ul><ul><li>A student could go on to study law, medicine, or theology –the study of religion and God.  </li></ul><ul><li>A student who passed the oral exam in one of these received a doctoral degree.  </li></ul><ul><li>Universities provided the teachers, administrators, lawyers, and medical doctors for medieval society. </li></ul>The Rise of Universities (cont.) (pages 329–330)
  116. 116. Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In 1500, there were 80 universities in all of Europe. Thousands of universities now exist in the United States. What accounts for the difference? Possible answers: A larger population, democratization, and the need to train a large workforce account for the thousands of universities in the United States today. The Rise of Universities (cont.) (pages 329–330)
  117. 117. Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Theology was the most highly regarded subject at medieval universities.  </li></ul>The Development of Scholasticism <ul><li>The philosophical and theological system known as scholasticism became very important in the twelfth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The main point of scholasticism was to harmonize Christian teachings with Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle. </li></ul>(pages 330–331)
  118. 118. Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.) <ul><li>The works of Aristotle were introduced to Europe in the twelfth century, largely through the work of Muslim and Jewish scholars.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle had arrived at his conclusions through rational thought, however, not faith, and some ideas contradicted Church teachings. </li></ul>(pages 330–331)
  119. 119. Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Saint Thomas Aquinas made the most important attempt to reconcile Aristotle with Christianity, or to reconcile the knowledge through Scripture with the knowledge gained through reason and experience.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas is best known for his Summa Theologica (a summa was a summary of all knowledge on a given subject).  </li></ul><ul><li>This masterpiece was organized by the logical method of investigation used by scholasticism. </li></ul>The Development of Scholasticism (cont.) (pages 330–331)
  120. 120. Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Aquinas first posed a question, then cited sources offering opposing opinions on the question, and then reconciled them and arrived at his own conclusions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas believed that the truths of reason and the truths of faith did not contradict.  </li></ul><ul><li>Reason and experience could arrive at truths about the physical universe, but reason and experience unaided by faith could not grasp spiritual truths. </li></ul>The Development of Scholasticism (cont.) (pages 330–331)
  121. 121. Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the main goal of scholasticism? The main goal was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers and to show that what was accepted through faith was in harmony with what could be learned through reason and experience. The Development of Scholasticism (cont.) (pages 330–331)
  122. 122. Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Latin was the universal language of medieval civilization.  </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture <ul><li>In the twelfth century, new literature was being written in the vernacular –the everyday language of particular regions, such as Spanish or English.  </li></ul><ul><li>Educated people at courts and in the cities took an interest in vernacular literature, often as a new source of entertainment. </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  123. 123. Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>The most popular vernacular literature was troubadour poetry, chiefly the product of nobles and knights.  </li></ul><ul><li>It told of a knight’s love for a lady who inspired him, usually from afar, to be a braver knight. </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  124. 124. Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The earliest and finest example is the Song of Roland, which appeared written in French around 1100.  </li></ul><ul><li>Heroic epics describe battles and political contests.  </li></ul><ul><li>The epic world was one of combat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Women played little or no role in this literature. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>The chanson de geste, or heroic epic, was another type of vernacular literature.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  125. 125. Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Initially, these cathedrals were in the Romanesque style, built in the basilica shape favored in the late Roman Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Romanesque basilica was topped with a long, round, stone-arched structure called a barrel vault. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, an explosion of building in medieval Europe, especially of churches, took place.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  126. 126. Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Romanesque churches, therefore, were dark and resembled fortresses.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the twelfth century, a new Gothic style appeared.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Gothic cathedral is one of the artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two innovations made it possible. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>Because stone roofs were so heavy, the churches needed massive pillars and had little space for windows.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  127. 127. Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Gothic cathedrals rose higher, therefore, creating an impression of the building reaching towards God. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>One innovation was replacing the barrel vault with ribbed vaults and pointed arches.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  128. 128. Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>This distributed the weight of the church’s vaulted ceilings and eliminated the thick, heavy walls of the Romanesque style.  </li></ul><ul><li>Since Gothic cathedrals had fairly thin walls, they could have windows, which were filled with magnificent stained glass. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>The other innovation was the flying buttress–a heavy, arched, stone support on the outside of the building.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  129. 129. Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>With its soaring towers and light-filled interior, the Gothic cathedral testifies to an age when most people believed in a spiritual world. </li></ul>Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) <ul><li>The windows also created a play of natural light inside the cathedral; natural light was believed to be a symbol of the divine light of God.  </li></ul>(pages 331–333)
  130. 130. Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Troubadour poetry was the dominant form of love poetry for its time. Where do we principally get something like love poetry in modern culture? Today’s popular music is similar to love poetry. Vernacular Literature and Architecture (cont.) (pages 331–333)
  131. 131. Section 3-27 __ 1. a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason __ 2. the study of religion and God __ 3. the language of everyday speech in a particular region A. theology B. scholasticism C. vernacular Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B A C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  132. 132. Section 3-28 Explain the origin of universities in Europe. Checking for Understanding Universities were created as educational guilds to produce educated, trained men. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  133. 133. Section 3-29 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe the possibilities open to a student who had completed the liberal arts curriculum at a medieval university in Europe. Students could go on to study law, medicine, or theology.
  134. 134. Section 3-30 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain How did the architecture of the Gothic cathedral reflect medieval religious values? Pointed arches and ribbed vaults focused upward toward God. Sunlight through stained glass symbolized God’s light.
  135. 135. Section 3-31 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the image on page 331 of your textbook. What does it convey about the role of the troubadour in European society during the Middle Ages? Troubadours performed for wealthy, private audiences.
  136. 136. Section 3-32 Close Discuss how Christian Europeans of the Middle Ages demonstrated their faith and spirituality through their architecture.
  137. 137. End of Section 3
  138. 138. Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Europe in the fourteenth century was challenged by an overwhelming number of disastrous forces.  </li></ul>Main Ideas The Late Middle Ages Key Terms <ul><li>Black Death  </li></ul><ul><li>new monarchies  </li></ul><ul><li>taille </li></ul><ul><li>anti-Semitism  </li></ul><ul><li>Great Schism  </li></ul><ul><li>European rulers reestablished the centralized power of monarchical governments.  </li></ul>
  139. 139. Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Pope Boniface VIII  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Henry V  </li></ul><ul><li>Isabella  </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand  </li></ul><ul><li>Avignon  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Agincourt  </li></ul><ul><li>Orl é ans </li></ul>The Late Middle Ages <ul><li>Cr é cy  </li></ul><ul><li>King Philip IV  </li></ul><ul><li>John Hus  </li></ul>
  140. 140. Section 4-3 <ul><li>How did the Black Death impact European society?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Late Middle Ages <ul><li>What were the “new monarchies”? </li></ul>
  141. 141. Section 4-4 Preview of Events The Late Middle Ages
  142. 142. Section 4-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  143. 143. Section 4-6 Some of William Shakespeare’s plays– The Life of King Henry the Fifth, for example–concern people and places of the Hundred Years’ War.
  144. 144. Section 4-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In the fourteenth century, some catastrophic changes took place in Europe.  </li></ul>The Black Death <ul><li>The worst was the Black Death.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was the most devastating natural disaster in European history.  </li></ul><ul><li>It horrified people and seemed an incomprehensible evil force. </li></ul>(pages 335–336)
  145. 145. Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Black Death (cont.) <ul><li>Bubonic plague was the most common form of the Black Death.  </li></ul><ul><li>Black rats infested with fleas carrying a deadly bacterium spread it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Italian merchants brought it from Caffa, on the Black Sea. </li></ul>(pages 335–336)
  146. 146. Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Usually, the Black Death followed trade routes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1347 and 1351, it ravaged most of Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly as many as 38 million people died in those four years, out of a total population of 75 million.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Italian cities were hit hardest, losing 50 to 60 percent of their population. </li></ul>The Black Death (cont.) (pages 335–336)
  147. 147. Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Many people believed the plague was a punishment sent by God for their sins or was caused by the devil.  </li></ul><ul><li>The plague led to an outbreak of anti-Semitism –hostility toward Jews.  </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution was the worst in Germany.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some people thought that the Jews had caused the plague by poisoning their towns’ wells.  </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews fled eastward, especially to Poland, where the king protected them. </li></ul>The Black Death (cont.) (pages 335–336)
  148. 148. Section 4-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The death of so many people had strong economic consequences.  </li></ul><ul><li>Trade declined.  </li></ul><ul><li>The shortage of workers made the price of labor rise.  </li></ul><ul><li>The lowered demand for food resulted in falling prices. </li></ul>The Black Death (cont.) (pages 335–336)
  149. 149. Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Landlords were paying more for labor as their incomes from rents declined.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some peasants bargained with their lords to pay rent instead of owing services.  </li></ul><ul><li>This change in effect freed them from serfdom, which had been declining throughout the High Middle Ages. </li></ul>The Black Death (cont.) (pages 335–336)
  150. 150. Section 4-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Black Death caused some people to persecute Jews. Some say that AIDS is a similar epidemic of our time. Has it caused persecution or something comparable? Possible answer: AIDS has not caused widespread persecution like that of the Jews during the Middle Ages, but it has caused widespread discrimination. The Black Death (cont.) (pages 335–336)
  151. 151. Section 4-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Roman Catholic popes reached the height of their power in the thirteenth century.  </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power <ul><li>A series of problems in the next century lessened the Church’s political position.  </li></ul><ul><li>European kings grew unwilling to accept the papal claims of supremacy over both religious and secular matters, as the struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France shows.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their struggle had serious consequences for the papacy. </li></ul>(page 337)
  152. 152. Section 4-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) <ul><li>Philip claimed he had the right to tax the clergy.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pope said that in order to pay taxes, the clergy would need the pope’s consent.  </li></ul><ul><li>Philip rejected this position and sent troops to bring Boniface to France for trial.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pope escaped but soon died from shock.  </li></ul><ul><li>Philip then engineered to have a Frenchman, Clement V, elected pope in 1305. </li></ul>(page 337)
  153. 153. Section 4-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The new pope established himself at Avignon, not Rome.  </li></ul><ul><li>The popes lived there from 1305 to 1377.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pope not living in Rome seemed improper, as did the splendor of how the popes lived in Avignon.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory XI recognized the decline in papal prestige and returned to Rome in 1377. He died soon after his return. </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  154. 154. Section 4-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The citizens of Rome told the cardinals to elect an Italian pope or fear for their lives.  </li></ul><ul><li>The terrified cardinals elected one–Pope Urban VI.  </li></ul><ul><li>Soon a group of French cardinals declared the election invalid and chose a Frenchman as pope. He went to Avignon.  </li></ul><ul><li>There now were two popes, beginning what has been called the Great Schism of the Church. </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  155. 155. Section 4-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Great Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417 and divided Europe politically.  </li></ul><ul><li>It also damaged the Church.  </li></ul><ul><li>Each pope denounced the other as the Antichrist, and people’s faith in the papacy and the Church was shaken.  </li></ul><ul><li>At a council in 1417, a new pope acceptable to all parties was elected, ending the Great Schism. </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  156. 156. Section 4-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>This crisis in the Catholic Church led to cries for an end to the clergy’s corruption and the papacy’s excessive power.  </li></ul><ul><li>One protesting group was the Czech reformers led by John Hus.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was accused of heresy and burned at the stake in 1415. </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  157. 157. Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By the early 1400s, then, the Church had lost much of its political power.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pope no longer could assert supremacy over the state.  </li></ul><ul><li>The papacy and Church also lost much of their spiritual authority. </li></ul>The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  158. 158. Section 4-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How could the French king have engineered the papal election? Possible answer: The king engineered the election through intimidation and through promising rewards like power and position. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) (page 337)
  159. 159. Section 4-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In addition to economic crises, plague, and the decline of the Church, political instability was also a problem for the late Middle Ages.  </li></ul>The Hundred Years’ War <ul><li>In the thirteenth century, England still had a small possession in France, the duchy of Gascony.  </li></ul><ul><li>King Philip VI of France tried to take it back, and King Edward III of England declared war on Philip in 1337.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thus began the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. It continued until 1453. </li></ul>(pages 337–339)
  160. 160. Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) <ul><li>The war began in an explosion of knightly enthusiasm.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, the war was a turning point in the history of warfare because peasant foot soldiers won the chief battles in this war.  </li></ul><ul><li>The English foot soldiers were armed not only with pikes, but the deadly longbow, which replaced the formerly favored crossbow.  </li></ul><ul><li>The longbow had great striking power, long range, and a rapid rate of fire. </li></ul>(pages 337–339)
  161. 161. Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The war’s first major battle was at Crécy in 1346.  </li></ul><ul><li>The arrows of the English archers devastated the French cavalry.  </li></ul><ul><li>The English king, Henry V, was eager to conquer all of France even though the English did not have the resources.  </li></ul><ul><li>At the Battle of Agincourt (1415), 1,500 French nobles died on the battlefield.  </li></ul><ul><li>The English were masters of northern France. </li></ul>The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) (pages 337–339)
  162. 162. Section 4-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Joan of Arc, a French peasant woman, stepped in to aid France and the timid ruler of southern France, Charles.  </li></ul><ul><li>Joan of Arc was born in 1412. She was deeply religious and experienced visions.  </li></ul><ul><li>She believed her favorite saints commanded her to free France.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1429 Joan’s sincerity and simplicity convinced Charles to let her accompany the French army to Orléans.  </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Joan’s faith, the army captured the city. </li></ul>The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) (pages 337–339)
  163. 163. Section 4-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Joan was captured in 1430.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Inquisition tried her for witchcraft.  </li></ul><ul><li>She was condemned as a heretic and executed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, she inspired the French army, which, after defeats of the English at Normandy and Aquitaine, won the war in 1453.  </li></ul><ul><li>The French success was also helped by the use of the cannon, made possible by the invention of gunpowder. </li></ul>The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) (pages 337–339)
  164. 164. Section 4-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What weapons significantly changed warfare in the twentieth century, as the longbow once did? Possible answers: The airplane, because of bombing, and the automatic weapon, because of how many rounds it can shoot in a row, significantly changed warfare in the twentieth century. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) (pages 337–339)
  165. 165. Section 4-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The fourteenth-century European monarchies experienced many difficulties over succession and finances.  </li></ul>Political Recovery <ul><li>The fifteenth century saw a recovery of the centralized power of monarchies, however.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some historians refer to these reestablished states as the new monarchies.  </li></ul><ul><li>This term applies especially to France, England, and Spain. </li></ul>(pages 339–340)
  166. 166. Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Political Recovery (cont.) <ul><li>The Hundred Years’ War left France exhausted.  </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, the kings used the new French national feeling to reestablish royal power.  </li></ul><ul><li>King Louis XI, who ruled from 1461 to 1483, greatly advanced the French state.  </li></ul><ul><li>He strengthened the use of the taille –an annual direct tax on property or land–as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority. </li></ul>(pages 339–340)
  167. 167. Section 4-30 <ul><li>This gave Louis the income that helped create a strong foundation for the monarchy. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  168. 168. Section 4-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Hundred Years’ War also strained England’s economy.  </li></ul><ul><li>England faced more turmoil when the civil conflicts known as the War of the Roses broke out.  </li></ul><ul><li>Noble factions tried to control the monarchy until 1485, when Henry Tudor (Henry VII) established a new dynasty. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  169. 169. Section 4-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Henry VII tried to establish a strong royal government.  </li></ul><ul><li>He abolished the nobles’ private armies.  </li></ul><ul><li>He won support for his monarchy by his thrift and by not overtaxing the nobles and middle class. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  170. 170. Section 4-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A strong national monarchy also emerged in Spain.  </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims had conquered much of Spain by 725.  </li></ul><ul><li>During the Middle Ages, several Christian rulers had tried to win back Spain.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the strongest kingdoms were Aragon and Castile.  </li></ul><ul><li>When Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, it was a big step towards unifying power in Spain. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  171. 171. Section 4-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The two rulers also had a policy of adhering strictly to Catholicism.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1492, they expelled all Jews from Spain.  </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims were “encouraged” to convert to Catholicism.  </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few years, all professed Muslims were also expelled from Spain.  </li></ul><ul><li>To be Spanish was to be Catholic. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  172. 172. Section 4-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Holy Roman Empire did not develop a strong monarchical authority.  </li></ul><ul><li>After 1438, the Hapsburg dynasty held the position of Holy Roman emperor.  </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-fifteenth century, these wealthy rulers were playing an important role in Europe. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  173. 173. Section 4-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Religious differences made it hard for rulers in eastern Europe to unify their states.  </li></ul><ul><li>In Poland, the nobles established the right to elect their king, which weakened the monarchy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Since the thirteenth century, Russia had been under the control of the Mongols.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually the princes of Moscow gained power by using their relation with the khan to increase their wealth and landholdings. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  174. 174. Section 4-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The great prince Ivan III established a new Russian state.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 1480, he had thrown off the yoke of the Mongols. </li></ul>Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  175. 175. Section 4-38 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Which religions were so much at odds with each other in eastern Europe that a strong monarchy did not develop in the area? The three principal religions were Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Islam. Political Recovery (cont.) (pages 339–340)
  176. 176. Section 4-39 __ 1. hostility toward or discrimination against Jews __ 2. an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy __ 3. in the fifteenth century, government in which power had been centralized under a king __ 4. a form of bubonic plague, spread by fleas carried by rats A. Black Death B. anti-Semitism C. Great Schism D. new monarchy E. taille Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B E D A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  177. 177. Section 4-40 __ 5. a split in the Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1418, during which time there were rival popes in Rome and in the French city of Avignon; France and its allies supported the pope in Avignon, while France’s enemy England and its allies supported the pope in Rome A. Black Death B. anti-Semitism C. Great Schism D. new monarchies E. taille Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  178. 178. Section 4-41 Describe the origins of the Hundred Years’ War. Checking for Understanding Philip VI of France seized Gascony. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  179. 179. Section 4-42 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the religious groups in conflict in eastern Europe. Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Muslims were in conflict in eastern Europe.
  180. 180. Section 4-43 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyze What were the economic and social results of the Black Death in Europe? Economic results of the black death were loss of labor, a decline in trade, falling prices, and a decline of rent income. Social results included anti-Semitism and the decline of serfdom.
  181. 181. Section 4-44 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify the two armies pictured in the illustration on page 338 of your textbook. How can you tell the two armies apart? What details did the artist include to describe the outcome or significance of the battle? The French army is on the left with crossbows, and the English army is on the right with longbows. The artist included images of fallen warriors, and weapons.
  182. 182. Section 4-45 Close Discuss some of the consequences of the Black Death, especially the destruction of the stable social order and the end of the feudal state.
  183. 183. End of Section 4
  184. 184. Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary The Middle Ages was a period marked by cultural diffusion, innovation, and conflict.
  185. 185. End of Chapter Summary
  186. 186. Chapter Assessment 1 1. Governments that attempted to reestablish centralized power were called _______________. 2. Craftspeople began to organize themselves into business organizations called _______________ in the twelfth century. 3. A _______________ was an object that provided a link between the earthly world and God. 4. The religious court whose job it was to find and try heretics was called the _______________. 5. The language of a particular region is called the _______________. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. new monarchies guilds relic Inquisition vernacular
  187. 187. Chapter Assessment 2 History How did the Great Schism divide Europe? Reviewing Key Facts France and its allies supported the pope in Avignon, while England and its allies supported the pope in Rome. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  188. 188. Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture What was the role of women in medieval cities? Women supervised the household, raised the children, managed the family’s finances, and helped or took over their husbands’ trade.
  189. 189. Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Science and Technology Why was the longbow superior to the crossbow? The longbow had greater power, range, and speed.
  190. 190. Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government What steps helped Spain to become a strong centralized monarchy? The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile was a step toward the reunification of Spain. They worked to strengthen royal control of the government and pursued a policy of conformity to Catholicism.
  191. 191. Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography What impact did geographic factors have on the population of the High Middle Ages? Climate change led to increased food supply and population growth. Farmland expanded as trees were cut and swamps were drained.
  192. 192. Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing What forces led to Europe’s economic growth during the Middle Ages? The development of a money economy, improved agriculture methods, and increased trade led to Europe’s economic growth.
  193. 193. Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating How did the continual conflict between England and France strengthen the monarchies of those two countries? In France, animosity toward a common enemy reestablished royal power. In England, civil conflict led to a strong Tudor dynasty.
  194. 194. Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Study the chart below and answer the questions on the following slides.
  195. 195. Chapter Assessment 10 Select an event or invention from each category on the chart. What was the effect of that event or invention? Items in the first category led to population increase. Items in the second category led to growth of cities. Items in the third category led to the decline of the feudal system. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts
  196. 196. Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts How did farming practices affect population? As a result of farming practices, there was a greater food supply, so population grew.
  197. 197. Chapter Assessment 13 What effect did the Black Death have on Europe? F The plague resulted in an increase in the number of universities and the rise of scholasticism. G The plague led to an acute labor shortage that resulted in higher wages and the emancipation of many serfs. H The plague inspired new ideas about faith that led to the formation of the Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican orders. J The plague sparked the Hundred Years’ War between France and England. Test-Taking Tip Although these questions mostly ask you about what you’ve learned in class, using common sense can help you arrive at the correct answers too. For example, to answer this question, think about what you know about the Black Death and then read the answer choices. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Standardized Test Practice
  198. 198. End of Chapter Assessment
  199. 199. World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://wh.glencoe.com
  200. 200. CC 1 Economics Discuss the economics of the Champagne fairs. Who do you think benefited most from the fairs: the merchants, the buyers, or the towns and their residents who organized the fairs?
  201. 201. CC 3 Literature Bring a favorite poem to class and compare its tone and theme with the troubadour poem written by Jaufré Rudel on page 331 of your textbook.
  202. 202. CC 4 Art One of the best sources of information on the Hundred Years’ War is the chronicle written by Jean Froissart of Valenciennes, from which this fourteenth-century illustration is taken. Notice that the picture on page 338 of your textbook shows English soldiers wielding their longbows against French crossbows. Notice also the chaotic violence of this scene.
  203. 203. WWWW 3 Universities Although modern universities had their origins in medieval Europe, Arabs founded universities nearly 200 years earlier. The Fatimids founded Cairo’s al-Azhar University in 970. It remains the world’s chief center of Islamic and Arabic learning.
  204. 204. WWWW 4 The longbow was as tall as the man who carried it. He would draw it by stooping over the bow parallel to the ground and then straighten up, using his leg and back muscles. The arrow was drawn to the ear. Bowmen could drive a thirty-inch shaft tipped with a dagger through three inches of oak. In battle, the arrow storm was reported to darken the sky.
  205. 205. WWWW 1 contents Book of Hours Trade Fairs Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  206. 206. WWWW 1a Book of Hours One of the most famous works of the Middle Ages, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry), is a book of hours, or devotional prayer book. It includes a beautiful painting for each of the twelve months of the year.
  207. 207. WWWW 1b Trade Fairs Fairs served as centers of trade in medieval Europe, attracting merchants from all over the continent. There were four major fair seasons per year: one in the winter, one at Easter, one in midsummer, and one in October.
  208. 208. WWWW 2 contents Hildegard of Bingen Giotto Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  209. 209. WWWW 2a Hildegard of Bingen For women like Hildegard of Bingen, entering a convent was the only means of acquiring an education and pursuing a life as a writer. Hildegard composed musical plays and wrote treatises on natural history and medicine. Her influence extended to advising bishops, popes, and kings. Compare Hildegard’s story with that of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, who joined a convent in Mexico when she was refused university admission in the seventeenth century.
  210. 210. WWWW 2b Giotto Florentine painter Giotto (c.1266–c.1337) painted a series of frescoes based on the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. The frescos are in the cathedral at Assisi, Italy. In September 1997, a severe earthquake damaged the cathedral and some of the frescoes. The one on page 326 of your textbook is called “Preaching to the Birds.”
  211. 211. TP 4 Not until the early 1900s were rats carrying bacteria-infected fleas identified as the carriers of bubonic plague. Today, knowledge of disease prevention and the development of vaccines have largely isolated plague outbreaks and reduced their devastating impact on societies.
  212. 212. Skill Builder 1 What changes have you noticed in your town the past few years? Has the corner bank been replaced by an ethnic restaurant? Would a map of your town that was drawn today look different from one drawn 15 years ago?  Analyzing Historical Maps Why Learn This Skill? Changes take place on a larger scale across nations and continents. Wars, economic troubles, and natural disasters change borders and landscapes; once-powerful nations crumble; displaced people move from one country to another, taking their language and their culture with them. These political, social, and cultural changes can be clearly traced and interpreted through the use of historical maps. This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  213. 213. Skill Builder 2 Follow the steps below to learn how to analyze a historical map.  Learning the Skill <ul><li>Read the title of the map to identify its theme.  </li></ul><ul><li>Read the map’s key, labels, and captions to determine what time periods and changes appear on the map.  </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the chronology or order of events on the map. Many historical maps show changes over time. For example, a map may use colors to show land acquisitions of different rulers over a period of time. On the map of France on page 334 of your textbook, however, the colors represent areas controlled by different rulers at the same time. </li></ul>This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Analyzing Historical Maps
  214. 214. Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill <ul><li>To compare historical maps of the same region in different time periods, first identify the geographic location and time period of each map. Identify the features that have remained the same and those that have changed. For example, has the country’s size changed over time?  </li></ul><ul><li>After analyzing a map, draw conclusions about the causes and effects of the changes it shows. </li></ul>Analyzing Historical Maps This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  215. 215. Skill Builder 4 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Analyze the map on the right and answer the questions on the following slides. Analyzing Historical Maps
  216. 216. Skill Builder 5 What geographic region and time period are represented in the map? Practicing the Skill France in the 1400s is represented in this map. Analyzing Historical Maps This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  217. 217. Skill Builder 6 What information is shown in the map’s key and labels? Practicing the Skill Battles, Burgundian lands, French lands, and English possessions are shown in the map’s key and labels. Analyzing Historical Maps This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  218. 218. Skill Builder 7 Find a present-day map of this region to compare with the map on page 334 of your textbook. How has the region changed since the 1400s? Practicing the Skill Possible answer: Borders and countries have changed. Analyzing Historical Maps This feature can be found on page 334 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  219. 219. A Story That Matters 1 Read Life in London on page 314 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook. This medieval manuscript page shows a London scene Somersaulting was done for entertainment and leisure in medieval London
  220. 220. A Story That Matters 2 What qualities make London such a “happy” place to William Fitz-Stephen? Healthy fresh air, Christianity, strong defenses, its site on the river, and the activities and honor of its citizens make London such a happy place. This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  221. 221. A Story That Matters 3 Why do you think Fitz-Stephen fails to mention London’s foul air, overcrowding, epidemics, and fires? This feature can be found on page 314 of your textbook.
  222. 222. Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 341 of your textbook. Read the information on page 341 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  223. 223. Eyewitness 2 Who was blamed for causing the Black Death? Were these charges economically motivated? Why or why not? The Jews became the scapegoats in many areas, blamed for causing the Black Death. Yes, the charges were economically motivated. If the feudal lords had not been in debt to them, the Jews would have been spared. This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  224. 224. Eyewitness 3 Can you provide examples of discrimination today that are similar to what the Jews experienced in medieval times? This feature can be found on page 341 of your textbook.
  225. 225. STS 1 Harnessing the Power of Water and Wind Watermills use the power of running water to do work. The watermill was invented as early as the second century B.C. It was not used much in the Roman Empire because the Romans had many slaves and had no need to mechanize. In the High Middle Ages, watermills became easier to build as the use of metals became more common. In 1086, the survey of English land known as the Domesday Book listed about six thousand watermills in England. Read the excerpt on page 316 of your textbook and answer the question on the following slide. This feature can be found on page 316 of your textbook.
  226. 226. STS 2 Comparing How are water and wind power used today? Dams harness water for hydroelectric power, and windmills are used to produce electricity. This feature can be found on page 316 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  227. 227. Video 1 Chaucer’s England After viewing “Chaucer’s England,” you should:  Objectives <ul><li>Realize that studying the art and architecture of past ages tells us much about the lives and values of the people who lived in those times.  </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that surviving architecture from the Middle Ages attests to the great influence of Christianity in medieval Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the value of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales as a record of English life in the Middle Ages. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
  228. 228. Video 2 Chaucer’s England What social institution was central to life in medieval Europe? The Roman Catholic Church was the focal point of life in this devout period. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  229. 229. Video 3 Chaucer’s England Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the overall structure of The Canterbury Tales ? The Canterbury Tales tells about a group of people making a pilgrimage, or a religious journey, to visit a shrine.
  230. 230. Maps and Charts 1-1
  231. 231. Maps and Charts 1-2
  232. 232. Maps and Charts 4-1
  233. 233. Maps and Charts 4-2
  234. 234. Chapter Transparency
  235. 235. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 450 600 to avoid wearing out the soil three-field
  236. 236. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1. Mayor, Justice of the Peace; 2. local government, private institutions; 3. vocational schools, apprenticeship; 4. printers, publishers
  237. 237. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Most were administrators of kings and princes. study 4 to 6 years and pass an oral examination question, sources with opposing opinions, reconciliation, and conclusions
  238. 238. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. People would not know whom to believe; how could two or three popes each be an absolute authority? People might not accept either pope. The clergy were corrupt and too fond of worldly power and wealth.
  239. 239. End of Custom Shows End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.
  240. 240. End of Slide Show
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