AMD Display Technologies

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Display devices have always been an integral part of the PC experience. …

Display devices have always been an integral part of the PC experience.
Whether it is in the form of a desktop monitor, a notebook’s embedded
panel, or the touch screen of a PC tablet, display devices play a vital role in
defining the user’s visual experience.
The new display technologies integrated exclusively in the AMD Radeon™
HD 7700-7900 Series are designed to deliver new and unique experiences
with impressive performance in these different technologies.

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  • 1. White Paper | A MD RADEON ™ HD 7900  AMD RADEON ™ HD 7800 AMD RADEON ™ HD 7700 SERIES GRAPHICS DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIESTable of Contents INTRODUCTION 2 Discrete Digital Multi-Point Audio 2 Multi-display Technologies 2 Stereoscopic 3D 2 Wide Color Gamut 2 DISCRETE DIGITAL MULTI-POINT AUDIO 3 Overview 3 DDMA Applications 4 AMD Display Library SDK 5 DISPLAYPORT™ 1.2 6 DisplayPort™ 1.2 Overview 6 High Bit-rate 2 7 Stereoscopic 3D on AMD Radeon™ Graphics 7 Multi-Stream Transport 8 Maximum AMD Eyefinity Technology Resolution 11 High Bit-rate Audio 12 AMD HD3D TECHNOLOGY 12 AMD HD3D Technology Overview 12 Frame Sequential Displays 13 HDMI® Stereo 3D Packed Frame 14 DisplayPort™ MSA Misc1 Bits 15 4K X 2K 16 Overview 16 COLOR ACCURACY 17 Overview 17 SUMMARY 19 April, 2012
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONDisplay devices have always been an integral part of the PC experience.Whether it is in the form of a desktop monitor, a notebook’s embeddedpanel, or the touch screen of a PC tablet, display devices play a vital role indefining the user’s visual experience.The new display technologies integrated exclusively in the AMD Radeon™HD 7700-7900 Series are designed to deliver new and unique experienceswith impressive performance in these different technologies:Discrete Digital Multi-Point Audio > As the display industry moves toward digital interfaces that support audio, such as HDMI® and DisplayPort™, more PC monitors now have the ability to output audio through built-in speakers or a stereo jack for external speakers. AMD’s new Discrete Digital Multi- Point (DDM) Audio technology takes advantage of this trend and enables new uses cases that were not previously possible.Multi-display Technologies > DisplayPort™ 1.2, a new display interface, boasts features such as tremendous bandwidth and daisy-chaining capabilities. Combined, these features complement the AMD Eyefinity technology multi-display technology very well.1Stereoscopic 3D > Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs are the first graphics cards in the market to support 3GHz HDMI® bandwidth to enable a smoother and more responsive Stereoscopic 3D gaming experience.2 This whitepaper will explain how this feature, exclusive to the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series, enables the PC to deliver a high-performance stereoscopic 3D gaming experience.Wide Color Gamut > Monitors and notebooks with wide color gamut panels, once reserved for the professional market, have become more prominent with several products shipping in the market. While these types of LCD panels display a wider range of colors, there are drawbacks and challenges which will be explained in this whitepaper, as well as the color gamut remapping technology integrated in Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs.This whitepaper provides an overview of the display technologies integrated into the display engine ofRadeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series graphics.3 These capabilities and technologies, when combined withcutting edge display devices, enable The Ultimate Visual Experience™. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 2
  • 3. DISCRETE DIGITAL MULTI-POINT AUDIOOverviewToday’s PC monitors increasingly support HDMI® and DisplayPort™ inputs. Typically, these PC monitorshave the ability to decode and convert a digital audio stream from the HDMI® (or DisplayPort™) input andtransmit the sound through its embedded speakers or a stereo jack for external speakers. In addition,end users today have the option of connecting their PCs to HDTVs, which support audio through HDMI®.With this in mind, AMD looked for ways to enable new and unique use cases for end-users usingmultiple displays with audio capability. This gave birth to a new feature introduced by the Radeon™ HD7700-7900 Series GPUs: Discrete Digital Multi-Point Audio (“DDMA”).DDMA enables Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs with the ability to output multiple and independentaudio streams simultaneously through digital interfaces that support audio, such as DisplayPort™ andHDMI®. Each audio stream can be multi-channel (up to 8 channels). Previous generation GPUs onlyoutput one audio stream at a time, even if multiple DisplayPort™ or HDMI® outputs were connected todisplays with audio support (as shown in Figure 1): Figure 1: Current GPUs only support one audio stream at a timeThe Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs are the world’s first GPUs to output more than oneindependent multi-channel audio stream simultaneously (see Figure 2). In fact, up to six audiostreams are supported by the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs. Figure 2: Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs can simultaneously output multiple independent digital audio streams AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 3
  • 4. Transmitting multiple audio streams can be achieved through multiple DisplayPort™ outputs, and canbe combined with one HDMI® output. For graphics cards with limited display output connectors, DDMAcan be fully realized with DisplayPort™ 1.2-enabled equipment, such as a multi-stream transport hub ordaisy-chainable monitors.DDMA ApplicationsThere are numerous use cases that DDMA enables, the most prominent of which is multi-display videoconferencing. DDMA technology enhances a multi-display video conferencing experience by addinga “directional” audio element when used with multiple audio-capable displays. As illustrated in Figure2, an application can utilize DDMA technology to assign each person’s video and audio stream to anindividual display and the speakers connected to it. As expected, only that person’s voice can beheard from the display’s speaker. In addition, the application is no longer required to mix all of the audiostreams into one. This significantly enhances the experience.DDMA technology also enables audio that “follows” the window ofthe video playback application. Through AMD’s ADL SDK, a videoplayback application can map the audio stream to the end-pointassociated with the display that its window is currently locatedin. While the audio from the video content seamlessly followsthe window of the video, all the system sounds can still be heardthrough the system’s default audio end-point.   Audio  Another DDMA application caters to end-users with multiple  displays in their homes, which is becoming very common today given the low prices of HDTVs.With DDMA, one PC equipped with an Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPU can act as a mediahub or server and drive all the displays with independent video and audio content Figure 3: A single PC equipped with an Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPU can drive multiple displays in the home with different content AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 4
  • 5. Application developers can innovate in this area and provide unique solutions for end-users to controltheir media server wherever they are located. As an example, there are applications today that allowusers to interact with and control the media server application using smartphones or tablets thatcommunicate through their wireless network. DDMA technology is a cost-effective solution to supportmulti-room entertainment.Today’s PC gamers typically like to multi-task while they are playing their favorite games. Whether theyare waiting for their opponents in turn-based RPGs, or waiting for a long game cut-scene to end, gamerslike the ability to watch and listen to different video and audio content. With DDMA, they can do just that:keep themselves in the game with video on another display featuring audio that does not interfere withthe audio in the player’s headset. Figure 4: Multi-tasking with DDMAAMD Display Library SDKThe AMD Display Library (ADL) SDK is available to developers who want to take advantage of DDMA.This SDK gives developers the ability to map independent audio streams to specific audio-end pointsand enable new and unique use cases, including those described in this document. For more details,please visit : http://developer.amd.com/sdks/Pages/default.aspx. Figure 5: AMD Display Library SDK is available for developers to enable support for DDMA AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 5
  • 6. DISPLAYPORT™ 1.2DisplayPort™ 1.2 OverviewIn 2006, PC manufacturers (including AMD) collaborated in designing the next generation PC displayinterface, which would eventually be known as DisplayPort™. DisplayPort™ was designed to replace DVIand VGA by offering features that are beneficial to both system integrators and end users. It was alsodesigned to be flexible and easily extensible for new features that the market will require in the future.The first generation of DisplayPort™ provided 10.8 Gbps of raw bandwidth, which no other displayinterface can match. DisplayPort™ also supported very long non-active cables, optional latch designsfor connectors, and audio support. In addition, DisplayPort™ supports spread spectrum clocking, whichcan dramatically reduce EMI. Finally, Source devices such as GPUs can also operate in dual-mode(otherwise known as DP++); this is valuable because it allows the same connector to transport TMDSsignals to support DVI and HDMI® outputs using inexpensive level-shifting adapters.The data link rates of DisplayPort™ 1.1a are fixed at either 1.62 Gbps per lane or 2.7 Gbps per lane,irrespective of the timing of the attached display device. This design only requires a single referenceclock source to drive as many DisplayPort™ streams as there are display pipelines in the GPU.In contrast, DVI and HDMI® both require a dedicated clock source per display timing. This uniqueDisplayPort™ feature allows for the most efficient multi-display design and complements theAMD Eyefinity . Please refer to the AMD Eyefinity Brief for more information.All the features of DisplayPort™ 1.1a proved that it was the superior PC display interface. To furtherenhance the DisplayPort™ interface, the same group of companies collaborated once more to define thenext version of DisplayPort™, which paved the way to DisplayPort™ 1.2.In 2010, the DisplayPort™ 1.2 specification was ratified by VESA. This new revision of the standard addssupport for new and exciting features including high bit-rate audio, even higher link bandwidth, andmulti-streaming capabilities.The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series is AMD’s second generation of GPUs that are DisplayPort™ 1.2certified. Table 1 is a simplified comparison of display interface capabilities integrated into the Radeon™HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs: DisplayPort™ 1.2 DisplayPort™ 1.1a SL-DVI DL-DVI HDMI® Bandwidth 21.6 Gbps 10.8 Gbps 4.95 Gbps 9.9 Gbps 9.0 Gbps Video Data Rate 17.28 Gbps 8.64 Gbps 3.96 Gbps 7.92 Gbps 7.2 Gbps Maximum Resolution Support >2560x2048 2560x2048 1900x1200 2560x1600 >1920x1200 @ 60Hz 24bpp Audio Support Yes Yes No No Yes Embedded Application Support Yes Yes No No No In-band Stereo 3D signaling Yes Yes No No Yes Multi-stream support Yes No No No No Table 1: Display interface capabilities of the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 6
  • 7. High Bit-rate 2DisplayPort™ 1.2 supports up to twice the bandwidth of DisplayPort™ 1.1a. High Bit-rate 2 (HBR2) providesup to 5.4 Gbps/lane of bandwidth, or up to 21.6 Gbps in a full four lane configuration. This lends itself verywell to many applications that require ultra-high bandwidth.Chart 1 illustrates the wide range of display timings (resolution, refresh rate, and color depth) supportedby various digital display interfaces. Chart 1: Comparison of video data rate versus resolution at different refresh rates and color depthsAs illustrated in Chart 1, DisplayPort™ 1.2 can easily support a multitude of display timings combininghigh resolutions, high refresh rates and high color depth. No other PC display interface can match thiscapability today.Stereoscopic 3D on AMD Radeon™ GraphicsFrame sequential 3D displays present one view at a time (left or right eye) to the user and require theuse of liquid crystal shutter glasses. According to Stereo 3D enthusiasts, at least 60fps (or 60Hz) per eyeis required for these types of displays to have a pleasant 3D experience. This means that the minimumtotal refresh rate required is 120Hz. DisplayPort™ 1.2 provides ample bandwidth to drive frame sequential3D displays at 120Hz with support for resolutions up to 2560x1600. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 7
  • 8. Multi-Stream TransportLeveraging the micro-packet architecture of DisplayPort™, DisplayPort™ 1.2 adds the capability toaddress and drive several display devices through one DisplayPort™ connector. This feature has oftenbeen referred to as daisy-chaining or addressable displays.Multi-stream transport, or MST for short, can be leveraged using two types of system design. Figure 6illustrates how MST can be used with daisy-chainable monitors. Each of the monitors in the daisy-chainconfiguration, with the exception of the last monitor in the chain, must have a DisplayPort™ receiver anda transmitter. Once the monitor extracts the video and audio stream addressed to it, it will then transmitthe rest of the video and audio streams addressed to the other monitors down the chain. Figure 6: Daisy-chaining monitorsFigure 7 illustrates the alternate method of using MST to drive multiple displays through the use ofMST Hub or Splitter devices. The hub device receives a DisplayPort™ 1.2 MST signal from the sourcedevice and splits up and routes the video streams independently to each display device. Using thistype of configuration also allows the use of non DisplayPort™ 1.2 monitors. To support non DisplayPort™outputs, such as VGA, DVI or HDMI®, the MST hub has to actively convert the DisplayPort™ signal to theother types of display interface signals. Active adapters that convert from DisplayPort™ 1.1a to legacyinterfaces such as VGA or DVI/HDMI® exist today. Figure 7: Using MST Hub or splitter AMD ZeroCore Power Technology 8
  • 9. The number of display devices, and also the timings that each display device can be driven at, willdepend on the available bandwidth. Table 2 lists the multi-display configurations possible with HBRand HBR2 bandwidth: HBR HBR2 1366x768 @ 60Hz, 24bpp Up to 5 Up to 64 1600x900 @ 60Hz, 24bpp Up to 3 Up to 62 1920x1080 @ 60Hz, 24bpp Up to 2 Up to 4 2560x1440 @ 60Hz, 24bpp 1 Up to 2 Table 2: Display configurations supported by HBR1 and HBR2In 2009, AMD first announced the Eyefinity Multi-display feature. Thisdifferentiating feature has been well received by reviewers and end-users alike. While the appeal is mainly for ultra-wide screen and highresolution gaming, this feature also caters to those looking to increasetheir productivity through multi-monitor configurations. The Radeon™ HD7700-7900 Series will be the second generation of GPUs that extend thecapabilities of AMD Eyefinity technology with DisplayPort™ 1.2 MST.Using daisy-chainable displays or MST hubs significantly extends thenumber of display configurations possible with a reference board designthat has at least one DisplayPort™ 1.2 connector. For example, with theATI Radeon™ HD 5000 Series GPUs, six-display configurations are onlypossible using six DisplayPort™ 1.1a connectors as shown in Figure 8. Thiswas realized with the acclaimed ATI Radeon™ HD 5890 Eyefinity6 Editiongraphics card. Figure 8: ATI Radeon™ HD 5890 Eyefinity6 Edition driving six displays with six mini-DP connectors AMD ZeroCore Power Technology 9
  • 10. As an example of how to combine MST and AMD Eyefinity , consider Figure 9. Using an MST hub, whichis expected to be available in the second half of 2012, even the AMD Radeon™ HD 7900 reference boardcan drive up to six displays using only two DisplayPort™ connectors. This provides an upgrade path forend-users who have three monitors today, but may want to upgrade to five or six monitors in the future. Figure 9: Using MST Hub to drive six displaysAside from multi-output hubs, AMD expects less expensive DisplayPort™ 1.2 MST dongles in the market,which support up to two display outputs. Figure 10 illustrates how you can support up to six displaysusing two of these dongles combined with the DVI or HDMI® display outputs on the graphics card. Figure 10: Using MST dongles and legacy outputs on graphics card to drive six displays AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 10
  • 11. Maximum AMD Eyefinity Technology ResolutionThe ATI Radeon™ HD 5000 series GPUs supported a maximum AMD Eyefinity technologyresolution of 8192 pixels wide by 8192 pixels high. The AMD Radeon™ HD 6000 and 7000Series GPUs removes this limitation and supports a maximum AMD Eyefinity technologyresolution of 16384x16384 pixels, which enables new usage scenarios. Figure 11 showsone example of an AMD Eyefinity technology configuration which is not supported withprevious generation GPUs. Figure 11: AMD Eyefinity technology configuration that exceeds 8192x8192 limitation but supported by AMD Radeon™ HD 6000 & 7000 Series GPUsThere are other possible configurations supported by the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 SeriesGPUs combined with DisplayPort™ 1.2 MST monitors, hubs and dongles. Please note that totake advantage of this feature, Windows® 7 Aero glass must be disabled. In addition, onlyDirectX® 11 games allow resolutions above 8192x8192 pixels. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 11
  • 12. High Bit-rate AudioRadeon™ GPUs have supported pass-through audio through HDMI® since the ATI Radeon™ HD 2000series GPUs, without external audio cabling. In 2009, AMD released the ATI Radeon™ HD 4700, 4600and 4500 and 4300 series GPUs which were the first GPUs in the market to support audio throughDisplayPort™. Today, there are several DisplayPort™-enabled monitors in the market that can takeadvantage of this feature, all of which have the option of attaching external speakers or a sound bar tothe monitor.Although DisplayPort™ 1.1a supports audio, the specification does not have provision to support highbit-rate compressed audio formats, such as those found in Blu-ray movies. DisplayPort™ 1.2 adds thiscapability and the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series will be the second generation GPUs in the market tosupport High bit-rate audio through DisplayPort™. Table 3 lists the high bit-rate audio formats found inpremium content, now supported through DisplayPort™ 1.2: DTS-HD Master Audio Dolby TrueHD PCM 7.1ch Bitrate Up to 24 Mbps Up to 18Mbps Up to 36 Mbps Bits/Sample 24 bits/sample 24 bits/sample 24 bits/sample Sampling Rate Up to 192 kHz Up to 192 kHz Up to 192 kHz Channels Up to 8 Up to 8 Up to 8 Table 3: Compressed and uncompressed audio formats supported through DisplayPort™ 1.2This capability is attractive to HTPC enthusiasts who want the latest in audio technologies in the market.AMD HD3D TECHNOLOGYAMD HD3D TECHNOLOGY OverviewStereoscopic 3D is a technique that creates the illusion of depth using a stereo image pair. Each imagerepresents the scene as viewed by the left or the right eye. The illusion of depth is achieved when thedisplay device (along with the passive polarized and active glasses in most 3D systems) is able topresent the left image only to the left eye and the right image to the right eye. To fully understand howAMD HD3D technology can deliver stunning 3D images, it is helpful to first examine the Stereoscopic 3Dgaming pipeline.The majority of DirectX® games available in the market do not support stereo 3D natively. This meansthat the stereo image pair must be generated external to the game engine. This can be achieved withthird party stereo 3D conversion software, such as Dynamic Digital Depth’s TriDef gaming driver.The stereo 3D conversion software intercepts DirectX® calls from the game. Using these calls, the stereo3D conversion software generates the stereo image pair, or the Left and Right eye view. For certain typesof 3D displays, the stereo 3D conversion software blends the two views together to form a single frameusing a format that the display supports (e.g. Row interleave, checkerboard, side-by-side, etc…). Oncethe frame is in the correct format, the stereo 3D conversion software sends the frame to the GPU, whichwill then be sent to the 3D display device. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 12
  • 13. Figure 12: Stereo 3D conversion software architectureFrame Sequential DisplaysFrame sequential 3D displays (also known as page flipped displays) require special treatment. Thestereo 3D conversion software typically must output in frame sequential format to support framesequential 3D displays, and does not need to convert the frames into any of the formats illustrated inFigure 12. However, the stereo 3D conversion software requires a new API known as AMD’s quad buffer. Figure 13: Stereo 3D conversion software architecture using AMD’s quad bufferAMD’s quad buffer API provides the infrastructure for stereo 3D conversion software to support framesequential 3D displays by creating a double-height buffer using the existing front & back buffer inDirectX®. After the stereo 3D conversion software stores the left and right images in the quad buffer,they are then fetched by the display engine which ensures that the frames remain in ordered sequencethroughout the pipeline. Before the frames are transmitted, the display engine formats the output toprovide frame polarity information to the display device. Two standardized methods of conveying framepolarity information are supported by the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs. These will be describedin the next section. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 13
  • 14. For more information regarding AMD’s quad buffer API, please visit:http://developer.amd.com/sdks/QuadBufferSDK/Pages/default.aspxHDMI® Stereo 3D Packed FrameThe HDMI® 1.4a specification provides a method to support Stereo 3D displaydevices. This specification provides a mechanism for the source device, inthis case the GPU, to convey frame polarity information, while maintaining fullresolution. The majority of stereo 3D TVs released in the market since 2009 supportthe HDMI® 1.4a specification. Today, monitors support stereo 3D through HDMI®.Similar to AMD’s quad buffer described in the preceding section, every stereoimage pair is assembled into a standard format known as a packed frame. The GPUcreates a buffer that is twice the height of the resolution of the frame, with activespace in between. As per the specification, the top half of the packed frame isreserved for the left eye view, while the bottom is reserved for the right eye view.After both frames are packed into one double-height frame, the GPU will then sendit over the HDMI® link as a packed frame. Once the TV receives this packed frame,it is then unpacked and typically presented to the viewer in a frame sequential orpage flipped manner. Since the polarity of each frame is known, the display canreliably control the emitter to send the correct signal to the shutter glasses.The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs are the first in the world to support all ofthese packed frame 3D modes: > New - 1920x1080 @ 60Hz/Eye ( 120Hz total ) > 1920x1080 @ 24Hz/Eye ( 48Hz total ) > 1280x720 @ 60Hz/Eye ( 120Hz total ) > 1280x720 @ 50Hz/Eye ( 100Hz total )The first mode listed above (1920x1080 @ 60Hz/Eye) is very critical to gamers who want to play gamesin stereo 3D. With the 3GHz HDMI® speed supported by the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs,higher frame rates (up to 60Hz/Eye) at Full HD resolution can now be transmitted to the display deviceresulting in smooth and responsive game-play. Another feature enabled by 3GHz HDMI® speed issupport for 4kx2k resolutions, which will be discussed later. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 14
  • 15. DisplayPort™ MSA Misc1 BitsThe DisplayPort™ standard specifies a method in which the source device can send frame polarityinformation through the DisplayPort™ main link. This method is often referred to as the MSA method.MSA (Main stream attribute) is a secondary packet sent by the GPU to the display device, which istransmitted during the vertical blanking interval. This table shows how the GPU sets the MISC1 bits forleft and right images.Due to the high bandwidth requirement of Stereo 3D as well as the MSA method for signaling, monitorvendors are designing their next generation Stereo 3D monitors to support DisplayPort™. In fact, MSA MISC1 BitsSamsung has released multiple stereo 3D monitors in 2011 that support this method of signaling through Bit 1 Bit 1DisplayPort™ (Samsung A700, A750 and A950 series). The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series are thesecond generation GPUs that are ready to support these monitors. This method is also applicable to No Stereo Video 0 0embedded DisplayPort™ to support embedded stereo 3D panels for notebook and All-in-one platforms. Video Frame is Right 0 1 Reserved 1 0The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs also support stereo 3D video playback. The stereo 3D video Video Frame is Left 1 1pipeline is similar to the gaming pipeline, where a third party application is required to convert 2D contentto 3D, or to decode native Stereo 3D content. These applications also convert the format of the frame,depending on the type of 3D display device attached to the PC. Figure 14: Stereo 3D Video pipelineThe Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs support the following features: > UVD accelerated MVC Decode for Blu-ray 3D movies > Windowed mode playback of Blu-ray 3D movies through HDMI® and DisplayPort™ > Clone mode 3D movie playbackFor more information, please refer to the AMD Video Technologies technical whitepaper. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 15
  • 16. 4K X 2KOverviewUltra-high resolution displays have existed for years butwere targeted for professional applications. However,4Kx2K TVs have started to appear in many tradeshowsand demonstration events. In the future, AMD envisionsTVs and monitors supporting significantly higherresolutions, well above WQXGA (2560x1600). There arevarious resolutions for 4Kx2K displays, with differentaspect ratios. Table 4 lists some examples: 4Kx2K Resolution Aspect Ratio 4096x2304 16:9 4096x2160 19:10 3840x2400 16:10 3840x2160 16:9 Table 4: List of 4Kx2K resolutionsCurrent 4Kx2K displays require multiple display interface inputs. For example, to support 3840x2400@ 60Hz, four single-link DVI inputs, or two dual-link DVI inputs are required. These displays can besupported by most AMD GPUs, assuming the right combination of display outputs is supported.Next generation 4Kx2K displays ( including TVs, monitors and projectors ) will only require a single cableand a single display interface input. The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs are the first that arecapable of supporting next generation 4Kx2K displays through a single DisplayPort™ or HDMI® cable. Display Interface Resolution Refresh Rate DisplayPort 1.1a ( HBR1 ) ™ 4096x2304 30Hz DisplayPort 1.2 ( HBR2 ) ™ 4096x2304 60Hz5 HDMI® ( @ 3Ghz ) 4096x2160 24Hz DL-DVI 3840x2400 30Hz AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 16
  • 17. COLOR ACCURACYOverviewA display’s color gamut refers to the range of colors that it can represent. The mostcommon method of illustrating a display device’s color gamut is by using a gamutdiagram, similar to Figure 15. The supported color gamut of the display is representedas the area bounded usually by a triangle - in this case labeled sRGB. The majority ofdisplay devices in the past had the capability to fully display the sRGB color gamut.(Note: This is usually advertised as 72% NTSC). In addition, the majority of contentare captured in sRGB color gamut, including pictures and videos. Even the MicrosoftWindows® desktop is rendered in sRGB color gamut.Today, there are LCD monitors in the market that can display a color gamut greater thansRGB. Some monitors can cover 80% NTSC, while professional monitors can coverAdobe RGB (92% NTSC) or more. The problem arises when the end user views sRGBcontent on wide color gamut monitors without color correction - the colors becomedistorted and over saturated in most cases. This problem can be addressed by aprocess called color correction or color gamut remapping. Figure 15: – Color gamut diagram for sRGBFigure 16: Difference between corrected anduncorrected image6While the uncorrected image may seem more vivid, some of the colors look unnatural - especially fleshtone colors. One can imagine the problem this would cause in professional graphics applications wherecolor accuracy is paramount. Even for mainstream consumers, uncorrected color images could leadto frustration for those who print photos at home, or those who view and purchase items through theinternet.Previous generation GPUs, for example the ATI Radeon™ HD 5000 Series, had the capability to performgamut remapping. However, the capability is limited, in that the color gamut remapping or colorcorrection is performed in non-linear space (i.e. gamma space). This limits the precision and accuracy ofthe color gamut remapping process. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 17
  • 18. The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs remove this limitation by performing the color gamutremapping in linear space, as illustrated in Figure 17:Previous Generation GPUsAMD Radeon™ HD6000 & 7900 Series Figure 17: Comparison of color gamut remapping hardwareAdding the de-gamma step in the display engine and an advanced gamut remapping algorithm ensurehigh precision color gamut remapping throughout the pipeline, resulting in excellent color reproductioneven on wide gamut panels. In addition, since the color gamut remapping process is performed by thedisplay engine hardware and not through software, it will not incur any CPU or shader performancepenalty and can be applied to full screen and windowed applications.AMD plans to publish an API that can take advantage of this new hardware capability, along with SDKdocumentation. These will soon be available for application developers at http://developer.amd.com. AMD Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series Display Technology 18
  • 19. SUMMARYAMD is a recognized industry leader in display technologies, providing innovation through introductionof new technologies and display interfaces in our products. The Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUsmarks the introduction of these innovative display technologies: > First GPU to support multiple independent audio streams > First GPU to support 3GHz HDMI® speed for uncompromised Stereo 3D gaming performanceIn addition, the Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs continue to support these advanced features: > DisplayPort™ 1.2 Multi-Streaming & HBR2 > Stereo 3D through both DisplayPort™ and HDMI® > Enhanced color gamut remapping for wide color gamut displaysWith AMD Radeon™ and the introduction of Discrete Digital Multi-Point Audio (DDMA), Radeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series GPUs enable new and interesting multi-display applications. Combined with support forDisplayPort™ 1.2, high performance stereo 3D gaming through HDMI®, and improved AMD Eyefinity, theRadeon™ HD 7700-7900 Series is positioned as the GPUs of choice for gaming, HTPC and multimediaenthusiasts.DISCLAIMERThe information presented in this document is for informational purposes only and may contain technical inaccuracies, omissions andtypographical errors. AMD reserves the right to revise this information and to make changes from time to time to the content hereofwithout obligation of AMD to notify any person of such revisions or changes.AMD MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE CONTENTS HEREOF AND ASSUMESNO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY INACCURACIES, ERRORS OR OMISSIONS THAT MAY APPEAR IN THIS INFORMATION.AMD SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULARPURPOSE.IN NO EVENT WILL AMD BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL OR OTHER CONSEQUENTIALDAMAGES ARISING FROM THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, EVEN IF AMD IS EXPRESSLY ADVISED OFTHE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.SUBSTANTIATION1  MD Eyefinity works with games that support non-standard aspect ratios, which is required for panning across multiple displays. To enable more than two displays, additional panels with native DisplayPort™ A connectors, and/or DisplayPort™ compliant active adapters to convert your monitor’s native input to your cards DisplayPort™ or Mini-DisplayPort™ connector(s), are required. AMD Eyefinity can support up to 6 displays using a single enabled AMD Radeon™ graphics card with Windows Vista or Windows 7 operating systems – the number of displays may vary by board design and you should confirm exact specifications with the applicable manufacturer before purchase. SLS (“Single Large Surface”) functionality requires an identical display resolution on all configured displays.2  MD HD3D is a technology designed to enable stereoscopic 3D support in games, movies and/or photos. Requires 3D stereo drivers, glasses, and display. Not all features may be supported on all components or A systems – check with your component or system manufacturer for specific model capabilities and supported technologies. A list of supported stereoscopic 3D hardware is available at http://www.amd.com/HD3D.3  he GCN Architecture and its associated features (PCI Express® 3.0, AMD ZeroCore Power technology, DDM Audio, HDMI® (with 4K and 3GHz) and 28nm production) are exclusive to the AMD Radeon™ HD 7900, T HD 7800 and HD 7700 Series GPUs.4 HBR2 bandwidth can support more than six displays with this specific timing, but the AMD Radeon™ HD 7900 Series GPUs support up to a maximum of six independent displays.5 Driving a resolution of 4096x2304 @ 60Hz requires a monitor that supports DisplayPort™ 1.2 HBR2. This type of monitor will be driven by the GPU as two 2Kx2K monitors (side-by-side) using the DisplayPort™ 1.2  Multi-Stream Transport protocol over one DisplayPort™ cable.6 Simulated saturation to show the difference between color corrected and uncorrected image on wide gamut panels.©2012 Advanced Micro Devices Inc. All rights reserved. AMD, the AMD Arrow logo, ATI, the ATI logo, Radeon, and combinations thereof are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.HDMI is a trademark of HDMI Licensing, LLC. Other names are used for informational purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective owners. PID# 51883A AMD ZeroCore Power Technology 19