Amc week 13 impression new ballistics and final review
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final week presentation

final week presentation

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Amc week 13 impression new ballistics and final review Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Impression Evidence
  • 2. Impression Evidence
    • Just like fingerprints and palmprints
      • Looking for similarities and differences
    • Class and Individual Characteristics
      • Class is shared by like items
        • It’s a size 9 Reebok Perimeter
      • Individual is unique to individual evidence
        • It’s this size 9 Reebok Perimeter
  • 3.  
  • 4. Shoe Print Case
    • Respond to Woonsocket Plaza for Larceny of Copper
    • Find Shoeprints on the Black Tar Rubberized Roof near the Air Conditioning Units
    • Follow prints to edge of building finding point of entry
    • Send shoeprints to FBI (maintain a database of shoe impressions)
    • FBI identifies shoe as a Reebok Perimeter
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. Firearms and Ballistics
  • 10. How a gun works
  • 11. Four Components of Ammunition
    • Primer
      • Rimmed or Centerfire
    • Cartridge Case or Shotshell
    • Propellant
    • Projectile(s)
  • 12. Ammunition
  • 13. Ammunition
  • 14. PREMIUM LOAD with SHOTCUP Pellets do not contact bore
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. Some problems
  • 18. Stable vs. Instable Projectile Flight
  • 19. Rifling
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • When a firearm is manufactured, the individual parts are made with tools that are in a constant state of change
    • As a result, no two guns will leave the same marks on the ammunition components
    • The marks found on bullets are sometimes referred to as striations
  • 24.  
  • 25. The match on the bullet
  • 26. Gunshot Residue
  • 27. Source of Gunshot Residue
    • Firing a weapon may cause microscopic particles of primer residue and gunpowder to be deposited on the hands of the shooter
    • The higher the caliber, the more GSR depositied on hands
    • .22 caliber rim-fire cartridges will sometimes not show traditional GSR particles
  • 28. Primers
    • Lead Styphnate
      • Primary explosive
    • Barium Nitrate
      • Oxygen Source
    • Antimony Sulfide
      • Fuel
  • 29. Formation of the Particle
    • Upon detonation, the compounds of the primer vaporize, mix and then condense back into particles
    • The result: what was once three separate particles have become one particle made up of lead, barium and antimony
  • 30. Inside a GSR kit
    • Each GSR kit contains
      • Instructions
      • A pair of rubber gloves
      • Labels
      • Two sample vials
    • Each vial contains adhesive coated aluminum stub mounted on the base of a rubber stopper
    • Stub pressed and lifted on the surface being sampled
      • Hand
      • Face
      • Clothing
  • 31. The Examination
    • Look for particles with the proper morphology and size
    • Look for particles which contain all three components of the primer
      • Lead (Pb)
      • Barium (Ba)
      • Antimony (Sb)
  • 32. Positive: What does it mean?
    • The individual fired a weapon
    • The individual handled a weapon right after it was fired
    • The individual was very near when the gun was fired
    • The individual touched a surface that had GSR on it.
    • Etc, etc, etc.
  • 33. Negative: What does it mean?
    • The individual did not fire a weapon
    • The individual washed their hands
    • The sample was collected after the recommended 4-6 hour time window
    • The individual was wearing gloves when they fired the weapon
    • Etc, etc, etc.
  • 34. Bullet Trajectory
  • 35. Projectile Penetration
    • Three Possibilities
      • Projectile is stopped by impact without penetration
      • Projectile will penetrate the object without exiting
      • Projectile will pass through object (Perforate)
  • 36. Definitions
    • Penetration
    • Penetration is when a projectile enters but does not exit. Not to be confused with Perforation
    • Perforation
    • Perforation is when a projectile passes through and through. Not to be confused with Penetration
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Shotgun Pellet Patterns In General…. For every 1” across = 1 Yard from Muzzle 7” Muzzle to Target = 7 Yards
  • 41. Pellet Pattern Diameter vs. Range Orthogonal Impacts d d d
  • 42. Non-Orthogonal Pellet Patterns sin -1 (d/D) = incidence angle
  • 43. Orthogonal Strikes No. 4 Buck 12-ga. d = 7 in.
  • 44. 45 0 Incident Angle with No. 4 Buck, 12 ga. d = 7 in. d/D = 0.67 Sin -1 = 42 0 Same Range as previous shot
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52. Everything from Midterm Plus Ballistics Ammo components Chemicals Rifling Striations GSR What it means Trajectory Penetration Perforation Shotgun 1” for 1 yard Casings Glass – 2 shots which one first Difference between class and individual characteristics Blood Spatter Definitions Formula LVIS MVIS HVIS Tests Eyewitness Polygraph 3 measurements Physiological changes Heart Respiration Perspiration Reaction Eyes Cotton mouth Butterflies