An#bio#cs	  List	  2012   Antibiotic               Infection                 Example/                Mech of Action       ...
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Antibiotics

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Over view of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry

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Antibiotics

  1. 1. An#bio#cs  List  2012 Antibiotic Infection Example/ Mech of Action Metabolism Side Effects Pregnancy/ (Class) Typical Dose Excretion Breast Feeding (5-7 days)Penicillin/ Odontogenic Up to 2000mg load Bactericidal: Met: Hepatic Hypersensitivity Preg Cat: BAmoxicillin Infection 250-500 mg t.i.d. Cell Wall Synthesis Excr: Kidney (rash): 5% BF: Enters breast(Penicillins) Amox: IE (Take on empty inhibitor - binds to PBP Diarrhea: 5% milk - caution Prophylaxis stomach) inhibit peptidoglycan recommended IE: 2g 1 hr before appt synthesisTetracycline Periodontics 200 mg q.d. Bactericidal: Inhibits bacterial Met: CYP3A4 Photosensitivity Preg Cat: D(Tetracycline) Antacids may dec protein synthesis by binding with Excr: Kidney/Fecal BF: AAP considers the 30s and/or 50s ribosomal absorption subunits of susceptible bacteria tetracycline to “compatible”Clindamycin Odontogenic 300 mg t.i.d. or q.i.d. Bacteriostatic or cidal: Met: Hepatic Diarrhea: 7% Preg Cat: B(Lincosamide) Infection IE: 600mg 1hr before Binds to the 50s ribosomal Excr: Biliary/renal Pseudomembranous BF: AAP suggests subunit of susceptible bacteria IE Prophylaxis appt Colitis that it is “fairly” safe. Static and/or cidal conc, infections site, and organismMetronidazole Anaerobic 500 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. Bacteriostatic: Met: Hepatic Nausea/vomiting: B (Avoid 1st trimester)(Nitroimidazole) Odontogenic Binds to bac DNA Excr: Biliary/renal 12% BF: AAP rates Infection (Antabuse) “concern”Augmentin Tx of orofacial 875 b.i.d Bactericidal: Met: Hepatic Diarrhea: 3-34% Preg Cat: BClavulanic Acid infections when b- Dose is based on Cell Wall Synthesis inhibitor - Excr: Kidney BF: Enters milk, use binds to PBP inhib peptidoglcnAmoxicillin lactamase prod amoxicillin w/ caution syn Clavulanate binds/inhibs bac present beta-lactamasesAzithromycin Odontogenic 250-500 mg q.d. Bacteriostatic: Met: Hepatic Diarrhea (4-9%) Preg Cat: B(Macrolide) Infection alternative Binds to 50 ribosomal Excr: Kidney Nausea (<7%) BF: Enters milk, use subunit w/ cautionCephalexin Prophylaxis in total 250-1000mg every 6hrs Bactericidal: Met: Hepatic Diarrhea (4-9%) Rpeg Cat: B(Cephalosporin) joint replacement Max: 4 g/day Cell Wall Synthesis Excr: Kidney Nausea (<7%) BF: Enters milk, use patients inhibitor - binds to PBP w/ caution inhibit peptidoglcn synCiprofloxacin Periodontics 500 mg b.i.d. Bactericidal: Met: Hepatic Diarrhea (4-9%) Preg Cat: B(Fluorquinolone) Inhibs DNA gyrase Excr: Kidney Nausea (<7%) BF: Enters milk, not recommended
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