THE SITUATION ON GROUND India’s cities are extremely vulnerable to disasters Rapid urbanisation Overcrowding in informal settlements or slums Accelerated population growth leading to the lack of basicservices and infrastructure to protect individuals againstdisasters Constrained planning, issues in construction andenvironmental controls, Climate change impact High levels of urban poverty3
THERE IS A NEED TO THINK PROACTIVELY –INVEST IN BUILDING CAPACITIES –THROUGHAWARENESS, TRAINING AND EDUCATION
WHY SIMULATION? Urban millions live in an increasingly volatile environment Susceptibility to both manmade and natural calamities leading tounprecedented humanitarian crises. Twenty-three urban centers in India have more than a millioninhabitants 30% to 40% of urban dwellers are estimated to live in poverty URBAN POVERTY IS OFTEN UNDERESTIMATEDThe effort of organizing simulations seeks to examine and strengthenUrban Emergency Response in Cities.
PURPOSE OF HOLDING SIMULATIONS Create a locally-driven, multi-disciplinary, sustainable commitment todeliver quality emergency response and preparedness for response The methodology to be used for on-going training of all stakeholdersinvolved in an emergency response: ESFs, government, non-government organizations and community atlarge, including school-going children and youth The lessons learned and methodologies to be adapted for regularmock drills Elements of the methodology and curriculum designs to be replicatedand to be used to strengthen the functioning of disaster managemententities(institutions)6
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY7DELHI MEGA SIMULATION EXERCISE 2012• NDMA in collaboration with the DelhiGovernment conducted a Mega SimulationExercise on Earthquake on 15 Feb 2012.• Scenario: Magnitude- 7.9 (R) earthquake ata distance of 200 km from Delhi.• It was conducted simultaneously at 400places spread over all the nine districts ofDelhi.• 15,000 officials and stakeholdersparticipated.• Over 30 million SMS’s were sent out, shortclips on TV and jingles on Radio wereplayed to encourage the people in participating.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYMULTI-STATE EARTHQUAKE EXERCISE 2013 Repeat of Mw 7.8 Kangra Earthquake inNorth West India. At 10.30 am on 13th Feb 2013, ahypothetical situation of an earthquakewas created in the Tri –cities ofChandigarh , Mohali and Punchkula, andShimla Involved activation of Unified Commandat Chandigarh that was linked to Stateand District Emergency OperationCentres (EOCs) inChandigarh, Mohali, Panchkula andShimla and in Delhi at MHA and NDMAControl Rooms 9
WHY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT EXERCISE (EMEX)…..The effort seeks to examine and strengthen Urban EmergencyPreparedness and Response Mechanisms….
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYEMEX EMEx is an Urban Emergency Management exercise to buildtechnical capacity of emergency support functions (ESF) tolaunch coordinated, timely and adequate response to knownand unforeseen disasters. Independent capacity building of various agencies followed bytwo levels of simulations to practice coordinated responsefollowed by debriefs13
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYOBJECTIVES OF EMEX Mass sensitization and public awareness on Urban EmergencyManagement Services (U-EMS) Capacity enhancement of different stakeholders Test interagency communication, coordination andinteroperability. Assess and recommend areas for reinforcement andimprovement. Perspective plan (long term) for U-EMS in the city14
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYOUTCOME OF EMEX Capacity Building of different stakeholders Strengthen Interagency Coordination Strengthen Contingency Planning Plan, prepare and rehearse to face emergency15
COMPONENTS OF EMEXPRE EMEx MOBILIZATIONTrainings: All the academic tracks are undertaken in a “Train theTrainer” mode. Creation of a pool of resource trainers atlocal levelTable-top simulation: Provides an opportunity for all of the stake holders to worktogether in a coordinated response to a city disaster
COMPONENTS OF EMEXField Drill: Real-time simulation of a mass casualty event involving multi-agencycoordination and responseDebriefing: Post-drill hot-wash which assists in identifying the strengths andweaknesses in current plans.Evaluation: Domestic and international experts in disaster management evaluate theentire exercise and make recommendations for future improvements
SNAPSHOTDETAILED EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF EMExCRITERIA OF PARTICIPANTS FOR THE HEALTH TARGET GROUPCRITERIA OF PARTICIPANTS FOR THE NON HEALTH TARGET GROUP80 DAYS CALENDAR FOR ROLL OUT OF EMEx
EMEX IS A PROCESS Need Assessment Review of Existing Contingency Plans at the policy and unitlevels Ensuring existence of unified incident response systemwith demarcated roles and responsibilities departmentwise Common disaster communication network and SOPsactivated. Capacity building of stakeholders
EMEX TRAINING TRACKSS.NoCOURSES Participants Faculty1 Humanitarian Response in Disaster - Public Health 60 32 First Responder Training 100 53 School & Higher Education Preparedness 120 64 Public Health Assessment 60 35 Interagency Communication & Coordination 60 46 Industrial and Chemical Disaster Preparedness 60 57 Search and rescue 60 58 MISP 100 69 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) 100 610 Emergency Nursing Care (ENC) 100 511 Hospital Disaster Management (HDM) 60 512 Public Health Emergencies 100 1213 Advanced Disaster Life Support (ADLS) 60 6TOTAL 1500 71
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYSOME OF THE LESSONS LEARNT Necessity of Disaster Management Plans /contingencyplans at various levels Necessity of SOPs for all ESFs and concerneddepartments as well as other stakeholders Establishment of fully equipped EOC with skilledmanpower Mapping of resources (inventory - Human andequipment both)21
SOME OF THE LESSONS LEARNT Land use planning- pre identification ofarea, schools, parking lots for base camps, reliefcamps, staging area etc. Regular meetings of ESFs and involvement of all agencies Need for state –of – the art emergency operation centresat the state and district levels with redundancy Need for skilled and trained personnel at various levels
SOME OF THE LESSONS LEARNT Need for interagency communication and coordinationbetween various agencies Capacity building of the community with specialized taskforces at every level Clarity on roles and responsibilities for all agencies concernedwith emergency response Develop and maintain arrangements for accessingresources, equipment, supplies and funding in preparation fordisasters that might occur
CHALLENGES OF SUCH SIMULATIONS Huge coordination exercise Participation of senior officials The efficiency of EOCs Element of surprise Redundancies and overlap across the agencies involved in emergencyresponse Non availability of Emergency Response Protocols and Standard OperatingProtocols for review before or during the drill Opportunities to evaluate real time response - how long it takes to delivervarious types of services24
AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT The simulations to be designed in a way that addresses thelearning outcomes of academic / training tracks The preparedness of all ESFs, EOCs and senior decisionmakers should be tested Prior review of established writtenprotocols, procedures, policies and guidelines byevaluators and observers to allow evaluation criteria to bedetermined before the drill Preparation of standardised evaluation forms fordifferent facilities/areas25
AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT Inclusion of actual exercises into the simulation, orassessment of emergency procedures when providing anothermajor service e.g. immunisation days, physicalscreenings, blood donation. (to test logistics management) Focus on agency-specific mini-drills and hot washes Distinguishing between on-site incident command andemergency operations centers Recognition that press coverage/the media involvement inpromoting the simulation can at times interfere withsimulating and testing emergency public information functions.
GLIMPSES OF EMEXCHENNAI 2011GUWAHATI 2012ANDDELHI 2012