1. 28TH ALNAP MEETINGDISASTER MANAGEMENT INITIATIVESPOLICY PERSPECTIVES & EFFECTIVE RESPONSE MECHANISMIN INDIA04 MARCH 2013WASHINGTON , D.C.Dr. Muzaffar AhmadMEMBER, NDMA,GOI
2. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY2SEQUENCE OF PRESENTATIONDISASTERS – THE INDIAN CONTEXTDISASTER MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK IN INDIAROLE OF NDMANATIONAL POLICY AND NATIONAL GUIDELINESMAINSTREAMING DM IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNINGNDMA INITIATIVESNDRFDEVELOPMENT SECTOR ASSOCIATIONSWAY FORWARD
3. INDIA’S VULNERABILITY TO DISASTERS58.6% of the landmass is prone to earthquakesof moderate to high intensityOver 40 million hectares (12% of land) isprone to Floods & River ErosionOf the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km isprone to cyclones and tsunamis68% of the cultivable area is vulnerable toDrought
11. MAJOR MAN-MADE DISASTERS Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Transport (Air/Railways/Road traffic/Marine) Urban Flooding – One of the major causes Riots/Civic Disturbances Terrorism
12. JAIPUR OIL DEPOT FIRE
13. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
14. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
15. TRAFFIC FATALITIES IN INDIA 4.9 lakhs road accidents in 2009 Deaths – 1,52,689 Injuries – 5 lakhs Indian Scenario 1 Road accident every minute 1 death due to RTA every 4 minutes
16. CHANGING APPROACH TO DM
17. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. Until 2001 – Responsibility with Agriculture Ministry.2. Committees Set Up by Govt on Disaster Management :-• High Powered Committee under Chairmanship of Shri J C Pant –August 1999 (Prior to Orissa Super Cyclone).• All Party National Committee under the Chairmanship ofPrime Minister – Feb 2001 (After Gujarat Earthquake).3. Responsibility Transferred to MHA in June 2002.4. NDMA established with Executive Order in September 2005.5. DM Act passed in December 2005.MANAGEMENT OF DISASTERS
18. DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, 2005VISION“To build A SAFE AND DISASTER RESILIENT INDIA by developing a holistic,proactive, multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy through a culture ofprevention, mitigation, preparedness and efficient response.”STRATEGY A multi-dimensional Strategy, focusing on – Pre-disaster Phase:1. Prevention.2. Mitigation.3. Preparedness.4. Capacity Building (NDRF, SDRF, CD, NCC, NYKS etc).5. Community based Disaster Management (including Public Awareness). Post-disaster Phase:6. Prompt and Efficient Response – Proactive.7. Reconstruction and Recovery (Building back better)
19. SALIENT FEATURES – DM ACT APPROACH Paradigm Shift from Response Centric to a Holistic and IntegratedApproach. Backed by – Institutional Framework and Legal Authority. Supported by Financial Mechanism, Creation of new Funds, i.e.,Response Fund and Mitigation Fund. DM STRUCTURE NDMA set up as the Apex Body with Hon’ble PM as Chairperson. DM Structure – At all three levels i.e. National, State and District. National Executive Committee (NEC) - Secretaries of 14 Ministries andChief of Integrated Defence Staff Function as Executive Committee ofNDMA.
20. CentralGovernmentStateGovernmentNational DisasterManagement AuthorityNDMA, (10- Memberbody chaired by the PM,hosted by Ministry ofHome Affairs)State DisasterManagementAuthority (SDMA)Chair- ChiefMinister with other8 membersDistrict DisasterManagementAuthority (DDMA)Chair- DM/DC/and Co- Chair byChairperson, ZilaParishadPanchayat
21. ROLE OF CENTRAL MINISTRIES AND DEPARTMENTS Disaster Management is a multi-disciplinary process, all Central Ministriesand Departments will have a key role in the field of disaster management. Nodal Ministries and Departments of Government of India will addressspecific disasters as assigned to them as :-(i) Drought - Ministry of Agriculture.(ii) Epidemics & Biological Disaster - Ministry of Health.(iii) Chemical Disaster - Ministry of Environment.(iv) Nuclear Accidents & Leakages - Dept. of Atomic Energy.(v) Railway Accidents - Ministry of Railways.(vi) Air Accidents - Ministry of Civil Aviation.(vii) Natural Disasters & Civil Strife - Ministry of Home Affairs.
22. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. Lay down Policy and Guidelines.2. Approve National Disaster Management (DM) Plan and DM Plans ofMinistries & Departments.3. Coordinate enforcement and implementation of policy and plans.4. Take Measures for :– Prevention. Preparedness (including Capacity Development). Mitigation. Awareness Generation. Rehabilitation and Recovery.MANDATE OF NDMA
23. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY5. Response :– Low Level Disasters – National Executive Committee. Grave Disasters – Execution by NEC and National CrisisManagement Committee (NCMC).Coordination by the NDMA.6. Additional :– National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) – Superintendence, Directionand Administrative Control with NDMA. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) to work underguidelines of NDMA. Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and Preparednessmeasures. Assistance in Support to other Countries.MANDATE OF NDMA
24. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY• NDMA finalized the National Policy on Disaster Management in 2009.• Vision enshrined in the Policy :NATIONAL POLICY ON DM“To build a Safe and Disaster Resilient India bydeveloping a holistic, proactive, multi-disasterand technology-driven strategy through a cultureof prevention, mitigation, preparedness andefficient response.”
25. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNATIONAL GUIDELINESSection 6 (2) (d & e) of the DM Act mandates NDMA to prepareGuidelines on the basis of which Plans will be made by the Ministries/Departments of the Government of India and the States.Approach• All inclusive participatory and consultative process withrepresentatives from the Ministries/ Departments ofGovernment of India and other stakeholders
26. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY• Guidelines on Pandemic PreparednessBeyond Health.22 Apr 08.• Cyclones. 24 Apr 08.• Biological. 22 Aug 08.• Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies(Unclassified, Part – I).24 Feb 09.• Guidelines for Disaster Response Training atthe Centre & States – NDRF & SDRFs.Mar 09.• Landslides & Snow Avalanches. 23 Jun 09.• Chemical Terrorism Disasters. 04 Aug 09.• Psycho Social and Mental Health Care. 20 Jan 10.• Incident Response System. 21 Jul 10.• Strengthening of Safety and Security forTransportation of POL Tankers.26 Jul 10.GUIDELINES ISSUED:
27. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY• Threats to Municipal Water Supply and WaterReservoirs.26 Jul 10.• Mechanism to Detect, Prevent and Respond toRadiological Emergencies in India.11 Aug 10.• Management of the Dead in the Aftermath ofDisaster.17 Aug 10.• Minimum Standards of Relief –Food in Relief Camps.Sanitation & Hygiene in Disaster Relief.Water Supply in Relief Camps.Medical Cover in Relief Camps.30 Aug 10.• Tsunami. 03 Sep 10.• Drought. 24 Sep 10.• Role of NGOs in Disaster Management 24 Sep 10.• Urban Flooding 27 Sep2010.GUIDELINES ISSUED:
28. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY• National Policy on Disaster Management(DM)Approved bytheGovernment on22 Oct 09.• Guidelines for NIDM’s Functioning. 13 Apr 06.• Recommendations on Revamping ofCD & Fire Services.17 Dec 06.• Earthquakes. 16 May 07.• Chemical (Industrial) Disasters. 28 May 07.• Formulation of State DM Plans. 16 Aug 07.• Medical Preparedness and MassCasualty Management.14 Nov 07.• Floods. 17 Jan 08.GUIDELINES ISSUED:
29. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. Revamping of Civil Defence;2. Guidelines for National Institute of Disaster Management;3. Pandemic Preparedness beyond Health;4. Guidelines for Disaster Response Training for NDRF & SDRFs;5. Strengthening of Safety and Security for Transportation of POLTankers;6. Threats to Municipal Water Supply and Water Reservoirs;7. Mechanism to Detect, Prevent and Respond to RadiologicalEmergencies in India;OTHER REPORTS PREPARED BY NDMA
30. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY8. Management of the Dead in the Aftermath of Disaster;9. Minimum Standards of Relief;10. Food in Relief Camps;11. Sanitation & Hygiene in Disaster Relief;12. Water Supply in Relief Camps;13. Medical Cover in Relief Camps;14. Training and Capacity Building of Civil Defence and SisterOrganizations.OTHER REPORTS PREPARED BY NDMA
31. INCIDENT RESPONSE SYSTEMMEDICAL GROUPRESTORATION OF ESSENTIALSERVICESDEAD BODY MANAGEMENT GROUP
32. RECOMMENDED OUTLAYS FOR DM BY FINANCE COMMISSIONSIN INDIAFinanceCommissionPeriod Category Amount(Rs. Cr)Sixth FC 1973-1978 Famine Relief 50.70Seventh FC 1978-1984 Margin Money 100.60Eighth FC 1984-1988 Calamity Relief Fund 240.80Ninth FC 1988-1994 Calamity Relief Fund 602.30Tenth FC 1994-2000 Calamity Relief Fund 4728.20Eleventh FC 2000-2005 Calamity Relief Fund 8255.70Twelfth FC 2005-2010 Calamity Relief Fund 21333.00Thirteenth FC 2010-2015 Disaster Response Fund 33581.00
33. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. WORKING WITH STATES• Primary Responsibility rests with States.• Our Approach is to act as facilitators.Pre- Disaster• Assist in various DM related issues.• Facilitate preparation / execution of Mitigation Projects.• Assist in running Mock Exercises.• Organize Awareness and preparedness campaigns in partnership withStates.Impending / During Disaster• Ensure prompt availability of NDRF and other Central Resources.• Assist in any other form as required.Attitude of States• Cooperative and Supportive.• Enthusiastic Participation.RELATIONSHIP WITH STAKEHOLDERS
34. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY2. WORKING WITH MINISTRIES/ DEPARTMENTS OF GOI• Platform for consultation and coordination of activities.• Assist in Preparation of techno-legal regimes in the areas of prevention andpreparedness.• Facilitate efforts to improve forecasting / early warning systems.• Assist Mainstreaming of DM projects into developmental plans.• Preparation / execution of mitigation projects.3. WORKING WITH THE S & T INSTITUTIONS, COMMUNITY, NGOs / CBOs AND THECORPORATE SECTOR• Forum for dialogue, discussion and role-definition.• Assimilation of Highest Academic, Technical & Scientific experience and effortinto DM.RELATIONSHIP WITH STAKEHOLDERS
35. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYMAINSTREAMING DM INTO DEVELOPMENTAL PLAN1. Modalities finalized with Planning Commission.• All Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC), Cabinet Committee on EconomicAffairs (CCEA) and Public Investment Board (PIB) notes to contain DM AuditCertification.• Need for DM Audit Accepted for –(a) All New and Ongoing Projects/ Programmes.(b) Selective revisiting of completed works.• Planning Commission has also agreed to consider additional fundsallocation for –(a) Ensuring Disaster Resilience.(b) Measures thrown up by the DM Plans prepared by CentralMinistries/ Departments and States/ UTs – following theGuidelines of the NDMA.2. All new Projects/ Programmes will mandatorily have DM resilience inbuilt (attimes of conceptualization itself).3. Modalities now being finalized with Finance Ministry, Central Ministries andStates.
36. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCEDisaster Management Act 2005 :National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)• Section 44 (1) : There shall be constituted a National Disaster Response Forcefor the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situation ordisaster.• Section 44 (2) : Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Force shall beconstituted in such manner and, the conditions of service of the members ofthe Force, including disciplinary provisions therefore, be such as may beprescribed.• Section 45 : The general superintendence, direction and control of the Forceshall be vested and exercised by the National Authority and the command andsupervision of the Force shall vest in an officer to be appointed by the CentralGovernment as the Director General of the National Disaster Response Force.
37. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. Composition.• Existing : 8 Bns.• Approved : 10 Bns.2. Tasks.• Specialized Response during disasters.• Assist in Community Training & Preparedness.• Impart basic and operation level training to State Disaster Response Forces(Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards).• Proactive Deployment during impending disaster situations.• Liaison, Reconnaissance, Rehearsals and Mock Drills.3. Equipment.• Inflatable Boats Available : 576 (72x8) + 48 (6x8) = 624.• BAUTS ordered : 288 (36x8).• National Response Reserve : Inflatable: 480 + BAUTS: 120 = 600.• Availability of Boats with 10 BNs –NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE(DEDICATED FORCE FOR DM)912.1512.1740.
38. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNDRF BNS – LOCATIONSBhatindaPunjabGhaziabadUttar PradeshVadodaraGujaratPuneMaharashtraMundaliOdishaKolkataWest BengalGuwahatiAssamPatnaBiharArakkonamTamil Nadu LEGENDBNsCBRN BNsNew RaisingsGunturAndhra PradeshTwo more Battalions Approved
39. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYAREA OF RESPONSIBILITY OF NDRF BNS
40. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYCOMPOSITION OF NDRF BNs Each Bn to have 1149 personnel. Each Bn to have 18 specialist teams of 44 members tohandle natural & NBC disasters. Each team of 45 to have 2 Engineers, 2 Paramedics, 1Technician, 1 Electrician & 1 Dog Squad. Total number – 18 teams x 8 Bn = 144 teams. Proposed Total Number for 10 Bns – 18 teams x 10 Bn = 180Teams.
41. VISIBLE PART: AT THE CUTTING EDGE LEVELKOSI FLOODSLANDSLIDE RESCUE,DARJEELINGAP & KARNATAKA FLOODSSAR OPERATION ATBELLARY,KARNATAKA,Rescue During Pawna RiverFloods, PUNENDRF : Response Activities
43. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTERMANAGEMENT
44. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYROLE OF NIDM1. According to Section 42(8) of the Act, theNIDM shall function within the broadpolicies and guidelines laid down by theNDMA.2. NIDM is responsible for training andresearch, documentations anddevelopment of national level informationbase related to Disaster Management.3. The functions of the NIDM are integral tothe activities of the NDMA.
45. IMMEDIATE CONCERNSSearch & RescueFirst AidTransfer/Evacuate to Medical institutionsRestoration of Essential services eg Medical services, Water,Electricity, Communication networks, etcProvision of Minimum Standards of Disaster in Relief Campseg. Food, Drinking water, Shelter, Sanitation, Medical coverDisposal of Dead bodiesPrevention of EpidemicsDebris Removal
46. BASIC ASSETS IN DISASTERS Community Police Fire & Emergency Services Civil Defence Home Guards State Disaster Response Force Youth Organisations National Service Scheme National Cadet Corps Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan NGOs
47. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYCAPACITY BUILDING:MAJOR INITIATIVES
48. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY1. Capacity Building Project (in Partnership with IGNOU) and Ministry of RuralDevelopment.• States. : 11.IGNOU• Districts. : 55.• Training of PRI/ ULB Representatives. : 12,375 (225 Per District).• Training of Government Functionaries. : 4,125 (75 Per District).CAPACITY BUILDING: MAJOR INITIATIVES
49. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY2. Training in State Institutes of Rural Development and National Institute of RuralDevelopment for PRIs is under active planning – with Ministry of Panchayati Raj.• Awareness Generation and Preparedness through PRI Training Institutes.• Disaster Resilience ensured in their Projects.CAPACITY BUILDING: MAJOR INITIATIVESNote: Similar consultation is in progress with Ministry of Urban Development forTraining of Urban Local Bodies.Panchayati Raj Institutions in the Filed of Disaster Management
50. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY3. Partnership with Corporate Sector through Corporate SocialResponsibility and Public Private Partnership.• All major Business Houses consulted• Positive response.• Modalities being finalized with help of IIM Ahmedabad.• FICCI, CII, ASSOCHAM, PHD Chamber of Commerce and NASSCOM etc.being consulted.• Through interaction with States.• Corporate Disaster Resource Network – Established (with AidMatrix).CAPACITY BUILDING: MAJOR INITIATIVES
51. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYRecently GoI approved Rs 200 Cr.4. Strengthening of Fire Services.• Present shortage : 91%.• Weakest link presently in DM apparatus of the Country – Matter of GraveConcern.• Equipment needs immediate upgradation to meet operational challenges.• Fire Services need to be upgraded into Fire and Emergency Services.• Discussion carried out with Finance Commission for necessaryallocation of funds.Presently the Fire Services though most valuable are the weakest link.CAPACITY BUILDING: MAJOR INITIATIVES
52. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY13th FINANCE COMMISSION AWARDFIRE SERVICES AND CAPACITY BUILDING1. Finance Commission has recognized the need for modernizationof the Fire Services.2. Finances allotted to ULBs for revamping and upgradation of FireServices in Cities over one Million population.• Compliance to be confirmed through Gazette Notification.3. In addition to the above, Finance Commission has allottedspecific funds for revamping Fire Services to Andhra Pradesh,Haryana, Orissa, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.4. For Capacity Building and upgradation of SDRF Rs. 525 Crallotted.5. For National Disaster Response Reserves Rs. 250 Cr allotted.
53. CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT IN EMERGENCY MEDICALPREPAREDNESS AND PUBLIC HEALTH Basic Life Support (BLS) Course Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course (National Nodal Centre =JPN Apex AIIMS) Disaster Management in Medical curriculum Medical Preparedness for Mass Casualty Management to get amainstay in the education curricula Skill and competence based training to all health care providers Development of disaster resilient communication network with singlenational toll free number and mobile tele-health facilities Provisions to provide special care to the vulnerable groups and thepsychosocial support to all the victims and their families Public health in emergencies MISP in reproductive health in crisis situations Nutrition in emergencies WASH in Emergencies
54. COMMUNITY BASED DISASTERMANGEMENT Community being the First Responder for any disaster oremergency Mechanism to incorporate community best practices to develop aresilient community Capacity Development of ASHA/VLH&S Committees/RKS/AWW Capacity Development of Railway functionaries at RailwayStations, Security Guards in RWA Capacity Development of Civil Defence volunteers, NCC/NSS/NYKS Development of Certified Medical First Responders
55. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNDMA’S INITIATIVE ON EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS1. NDMA issued Guidelines for Management of Earthquakes – 16 May 2007.2. Mainstreaming DRR in various Central Schemes.3. Reserve Bank of India Guidelines for Bank Financing –• For Building Sector – Issued in 2011.• For Infrastructure Sector – Under Formulation.4. Retrofitting Policy & Guidelines – Under Formulation.5. Building Typology.6. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in Open Ground Storey RC Buildings – Under Formulation.
56. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY Most destructive tsunami ever experienced. 16,096 lives lost in India. Unprecedented financial loss. Govt. of India’s milestone initiative: A State-of-the-art Indian Tsunami Warning Centre (ITWC) atthe Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services(INCOIS).INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004
57. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYINDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING CENTREITEWC disseminates regional tsunami advisoriesto 23 rim countries in the Indian Ocean region as apart of its Regional Tsunami Advisory ServiceProvider (RTSP) operations.
58. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYTsunami VulnerabilityTsunami Sources for India• For a tsunami to hitIndian coast, it isnecessary thatearthquake of magnitude> 7 should occur. Twosuch possible zones are• Andaman-Sumatra• MakranPotential Tsunamigenic Zones
59. INCOISNIOTDeep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System for Detection of TsunamisINCOISNIOTINCOISNIOTSATELLITEINCOISNIOTProposed to DeployCurrent DeployedCurrent DeployedProposed to DeployTB10ARelevant for Pakistan
60. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNATIONAL CYCLONE RISK MITIGATION PROJECT• Objective:i. To strengthen structural & non-structural cyclonemitigation efforts.ii. To build capacities for cyclone risk mitigation.
61. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYNATIONAL SCHOOL SAFETY PROGRAMME• For creating Safe School Environment.• Area Covered– Two districts each of 22 States/ UTs in Zone IV & V.• Project Objectives –• Formulation of National School Safety Policy.• Capacity Building of Staff and Students.• Information, Education and Communication Initiatives.• Demonstrative Retrofitting – one school each in 22 States/ UTs..
62. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYOTHER PROJECTS/STUDIES Development of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map of India (PSHA) Geo-Technical Investigation for Seismic Microzonation Brahmaputra River Erosion Study Setting up of Mobile Radiation Detection Systems (MRDS) Technical template to classify various typologies of building Preparation of Upgraded Earthquake Hazards Maps Soil Piping Project Early Warning System for flash flood in the Meenachal and Manimala Rivers in Kerala.
63. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYPROPOSED PROJECTS National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project. National Disaster Communication Network. National Disaster Management Information System. Flood Risk Mitigation Programme. Landslide Risk Mitigation Programme.
64. LARGE SCALE SIMULATION EXERCISESCEMEX 2011DELHI MEGA SIMULATION 2012GEMEX 2012DEMEX 2012MULTI-STATE EARTHQUAKE EXERCISE 2013
65. ARMED FORCES Armed Forces called when the situation isbeyond the coping capacity of the CivilAdministration. Form Core of the Government’s ResponseCapacity in addition to the initiatives of NDRF &SDRF Assisting in fields of Capacity Development &Preparedness:- NBC Training Heliborne insertion High Altitude Rescue Diving / Rescue in water Participation in Mock Exercise