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ISM for D&T: Research methods 1 Surveys & Questionnaires Alison Hardy & Sarah Davies Monday 21st January 2013
Learning outcomes• Know about survey and questionnaires as a research tool/method• Be aware of some of the strengths and limitations of surveys/questionnaires in educational research (Sharp 2012. p.61)• Be aware of some tools available for using questionnaires/surveys in education
Remember this? How do you know something to be as you think it is?Does it matter how you arrive at that knowledge? 21 January 2013 3
Approaches and paradigmsNormative paradigm Interpretive paradigmSurvey research Case study research Documentary researchExperimental research Action researchSharp 2012. p.46This is just one interpretation of approaches to educational research. Cohen, Manionand Lawrence (2007a) discuss these paradigms and how they represent a researchersepistemology and ontology.Reflect:• Where are you on the paradigm spectrum?• What do you think this says about you as a researcher?
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS Ontology, epistemology, constraints,PREPARATORY purposes, foci, ethics, research ISSUES question, politics, literature review METHODOLOGY Approaches, reliability, validity SAMPLING & Reliability, validity, piloting INSTRUMENTATION TIMING & SEQUENCING
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS ORIENTING DECISIONS E.G. SURVEY, EXPERIMENT, RESEARCH DESIGN & NATURALISTIC, CASE STUDY, METHODOLOGY ACTION RESEARCH, TESTING DATA ANALYSISCohen, Manion and Morrison, PRESENTING AND2007b REPORTING RESULTS
Key features of surveys/ questionnairesSummary from Sharp (2012) and Manion (1993) in Cohen, Manion andMorrison (2007a)• Data can be collected in one place• Collects factual information from people (e.g. age and gender)• Can be used to explore beliefs, values and attitudes• Generates numerical data• Data from surveys can be manipulated to show frequency or preferences. Can indicate relationships/ trends/ correlations• Standardises the information collected (all participants respond to the same questions, cf interviews)• Can be ‘economical and efficient’• ‘Captures data from multiple choice, closed questions…’, open questions, rank or rating questions Quotes from Manion 1993 in Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2007a. (p.206)
Before you begin• What do I hope to learn from this questionnaire?• Who do I want to complete the questionnaire?• How will the information I obtain help me achieve my goals and objectives for my professional practice?
Questions first?‘Questions then survey or survey then questions?• The kind of questions you ask will in part determine the kind of survey you will produce.• In turn, the kind of survey you produce will in part determine the kind of questions you will ask.• Always think about how you are going to analyse your survey data (levels of measurement, dependent/ independent/ control variables. ‘ (Lake 2011. P.4)
‘….multiple choice, closed questions, …’, open questions, rank or rating questions• Facts: Closed questions or multiple choice• Behaviour: multiple choice or open questions or rank• Attitudes/ beliefs: rank, rating or semantic
Facts• Closed questions or multiple choice – Which class are you in? (select one from a list) – Are you male or female? (select one from a list) Task: Write 2/3 fact finding questions you could ask which relate to your project
Behaviour• Focussing on what pupils/teachers do• multiple choice or open questions or rank – How often do you…? – How many times have you …? – In my last D&T lesson I asked the teacher for help … (select from one of the following) Task: Write 2/3 behaviour questions you could ask which relate to your project
Attitudes/ beliefs• Open, rank, rating or semantic – Textiles is very boring for me (Likert scale followed by ‘Why?’ question) – My D&T teacher is willing to help me if I don’t understand a topic (Likert scale) – I find it easy to draw my design ideas in D&T (scale from very easy – easy – hard – very hard) Task: Write 2/3 attitudes/ belief questions you could ask which relate to your project
Advise on questions• Accessible - language should be appropriate for the participant• Concise – avoid overload & minimise ambiguity (e.g. How big is your class?)• Unbiased & impartial (e.g. Should your textiles project be more interesting?)• Clear - construct simple questionsFor more advice read Bell, 2010. (p. 60-61) andSharp (p.68)
Survey toolsSurvey monkeySmart surveyFluid survey• Free options available but with limitations: – No ‘Thank you’ page – Cannot password protect – No personalised URL (open to anyone who can find it)
Next steps• Revisit slide 9• Pilot questionsRead this article to see some of the challengesabout using questionnaires in educational settingsLAMBERT, M., 2008. Devil in the detail: using a pupilquestionnaire survey in an evaluation of out-of-school classes for gifted and talented children.Education 3–13, 36 (1), 69-78.
References• BELL, J., 2010. Doing your research project. Open University Press.• COHEN, L., MANION, L. and MORRISON, K.R.B., 2007a. Research methods in education [electronic resource]. London: Routledge.• COHEN, L., MANION, L. and MORRISON, K.R.B., 2007b. Research methods in education website. London: Routledge [http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/cohen7e/powerpoints.asp Accessed: 21/1/13]• LAKE, L., 2011. Numeracy & Quantitative Methods: Developing Survey Questions. University of Plymouth [http://resources.jorum.ac.uk/handle/123456789/14716 Accessed: 21/1/13]• LAMBERT, M., 2008. Devil in the detail: using a pupil questionnaire survey in an evaluation of out-of-school classes for gifted and talented children. Education 3–13, 36 (1), 69-78.• SHARP, J., 2012. Success with your education research project. Learning Matters.
This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England &Wales License.To view a copy of this license, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/. The resource, where specified below, contains other 3rdparty materials under their own licenses. The licensesand attributions are outlined below:• The slide 9 resource by Laura Lake is licensed under the terms of the Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- sa/2.0/uk/).