These 2 slides are taken from the Cohen et alppts from the accompanying website. It just summarises the stages of a project and tries to give an overview of where they are – you might want to skip this apge and move ont the next quickly!
I’ve highlighted where we are at them moment
Observation and documentary analysis
ISM for D&T: Research methods 3Observation & documentary analysis Alison Hardy & Sarah Davies Monday 4th February 2013
Learning outcomes• Know about observation as a research tool/method• Be aware of some of the strengths and limitations of observations in educational research• Know about documentary research and using documents as a method for collecting data (Sharp 2012. p.83 & 94)
Remember this? How do you know something to be as you think it is?Does it matter how you arrive at that knowledge? 03 February 2013 3
Approaches and paradigmsNormative paradigm Interpretive paradigmSurvey research Case study research Documentary researchExperimental research Action researchSharp 2012. p.46This is just one interpretation of approaches to educational research. Cohen, Manionand Lawrence (2007a) discuss these paradigms and how they represent a researchersepistemology and ontology.Reflect:• Where are you on the paradigm spectrum?• What do you think this says about you as a researcher?
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS Ontology, epistemology, constraints, purPREPARATORY poses, foci, ethics, research ISSUES question, politics, literature review METHODOLOGY Approaches, reliability, validity SAMPLING & Reliability, validity, piloting INSTRUMENTATION TIMING & SEQUENCING
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS ORIENTING DECISIONS E.G. SURVEY, EXPERIMENT, RESEARCH DESIGN & NATURALISTIC, CASE STUDY, METHODOLOGY ACTION RESEARCH, TESTING DATA ANALYSISCohen, Manion and PRESENTING ANDMorrison, 2007b REPORTING RESULTS
Key features of observationsSummary from Sharp (2012) and Morrison (1993) inCohen, Manion and Morrison (2000)• Collect detailed information about what people are actually doing• Enable the researcher to gather data and explore: – Physical setting (room, layout) – Human setting (groups, people organisation) – Interactional setting (conversations, planned, unplanned) – Programme setting (resources, pedagogic styles) Quotes from Morrison (1993) in Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2000. (p.304)
Before you begin• What do I hope to learn from this observation?• Who do I want to complete the observation?• How will the information I obtain help me achieve my goals and objectives for my professional practice?
Types of observation• Structured: • hypothesis decided, confirming or refuting hypothesis• Unstructured: • hypothesis-generating• Semi-structured: • hypothesis-generating• Spectrum of the observer role:Complete participant Complete observer (Sharp 2012 and Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2000)
Designing the observation schedule ‘incidence, presence and frequency’• Event sampling: how often• Instantaneous sampling: when (chronology) & as it happens• Interval recording: after it happens• Rating scale: judgementHow to record:• Note taking, photos or audio-visual
Observing your lessons• Who would observe?• What would they observe?• How would the observation be recorded? Task: Answer the questions above in relation to your research question
Checklist for field notes• Your research is small scale and only some elements of the findings may be transferrable• You need to be clear about: Space People (actors) Activities Objects Acts Events Time Goals Feelings (Spradley 1980 in Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2000, p.212) Task: Which of these items would you need to consider for your topic?
Schedule 1Task: Look at the Classroom Observation forms in your PDR file and consider if any of the following ways of recoding data are used: – Event sampling Do you think the right – Instantaneous sampling technique is used for the topic? – Interval recording How could you improve the – Rating scale form and why?
Schedule 2Task: Look at the Classroom Observation forms in your PDR file and consider which of the following detail is recorded in the field notes:• Space• People (actors) Is the correct detail• Activities recorded ?• Objects How will this detail help• Acts inform your practice?• Events• Time• Goals• Feelings
Avoid….• …looking out of place• …being tempted to interfere• ….being intrusive• …making assumptions• …being judgemental (Sharp 2012, p.90)Read:BYARD, K., 2002. Is seeing really believing?Observation lessons from a teachers perspective.Education 3-13, 30 (2), 56-61.
Documentary ResearchOnly focusing on the use of documentaryresearch for this module; there are other typesof documents which may be used n otherresearch projects but in ISM you will primarilylook at: What type of documents?
Document types• Examination papers/ tests/ projects• Attendance registers• Pupil’s work: paper and artefacts• Pupil diaries• Lesson plans/ evaluationsTask: Write down 2/3 documents you might look at for your topic
Things to remember• Products of their time• Embedded in the current cultural and political context• Documents may be created only for your project• Analysis in interpretive: how are you looking at the documents (remember bias) (Sharp 2012, p.96)
TaskWhich documents would you need to investigatefor the following?• Impact of literacy strategies on design work• Engaging gifted and talented in D&T• Dyslexic pupils in D&T: appropriate teaching strategies• The nature and content of your own course and its assessment framework
References• BYARD, K., 2002. Is seeing really believing? Observation lessons from a teachers perspective. Education 3- 13, 30 (2), 56-61.• BELL, J., 2010. Doing your research project. Open University Press.• COHEN, L., MANION, L. and MORRISON, K.R.B., 2007a. Research methods in education [electronic resource]. London: Routledge.• COHEN, L., MANION, L. and MORRISON, K.R.B., 2000. Research methods in education. London: Routledge• SHARP, J., 2012. Success with your education research project. Learning Matters.
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