Some quotations• “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” (Nelson Mandela)• “Education is not the filling of a bucket, but the lighting of a fire.” (W.B. Yeats)• “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” (Gandhi)• “Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself.” (John Dewey)• “The task of the modern educator is not to cut down jungles, but to irrigate deserts.“ (C.S. Lewis) Page 2 Module: DTES14/10/11
What is education?Defining education 1„education implies that something worthwhile is being or has been intentionally transmitted in a morally acceptable manner‟ Peters (1966) in Matheson (2008) page 2. Page 3 Module: DTES14/10/11
Intentionally and the „something‟True or false?•Education = What is being learnt is intentionally learnt•Not education = What is learnt unintentionally does not count•Knowledge is: – Knowing how to do something (procedural knowledge) – Knowing that certain things are true or exist (prepositional knowledge) Page 4 Module: DTES14/10/11
Transmission• Passing from one to another: teacher to pupil?• Has the pupil received what has been transmitted?Do you agree with these statements? Where would you stand on a continuum?1. „I (your teacher) know something you don‟t. You will only find it out by me telling you.‟ (implied in Peters‟ definition)1. „I (your teacher) facilitate your learning and discovery, your personal growth is central to your education‟ Friere (1972) Page 5 Module: DTES14/10/11
Worthwhile or worthless knowledge?• Who decides?• Do I decide what I want or what I need to know?• Who is „I‟? The individual or society?„Our view, not only of the society we have now, but also of the society we want to have, is critical in determining educationally worthwhile knowledge and in determining what counts as knowledge at all.‟ Matheson (2008) p.5 Page 6 Module: DTES14/10/11
What is education for?Draw a timeline of your educational experiences.Include key points which have shaped your definition of formal education.Think about how your value of education has changed over your timeline:• Did you value education differently when you were aged 4, 14, ….?• What did you think education was for at different points on your timeline? Page 7 Module: DTES14/10/11
Defining education 2„It is unquestionably the function of education to enable people, individual human beings, to operate at their fullest potential, to equip them with the tools and the sense of opportunity to use their wits, skills and passions to the fullest.The counterpart to this is that the function of education is (also) to reproduce the culture that supports it – not only reproduce it, but further its economic, political and cultural ends.‟Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education. Harvard University Press Page 8 Module: DTES1 4/10/11
Two fundamental questions 1) What do you think are some of the main purposes (or aims) of education? (Consider this question in its broadest sense, not just in relation to schools or other „educational institutions‟) 2) More specifically, what are schools for? Why do we send children to school? (Concentrate on those things that are different to your answers to Q1) Page 9 Module: DTES14/10/11
A (former) government‟s viewTo help pupils to:• develop lively, enquiring minds, the ability to question and argue rationally and to apply themselves to tasks and physical skills;• acquire knowledge and skills relevant to adult life and employment in a fast changing world;• use language and number effectively;• have respect for religious and moral values, and tolerance of other races, religions and ways of life;• understand the world in which they live, and the interdependence of individuals, groups and nations;• appreciate human achievements and aspirations. 4/10/11 (DES/Welsh Office, 1977, 1980, 1981) Module: DTES1 Page 10
„The fundamental purposes of education‟?• To develop and maintain physical and mental health.• To develop competency in the fundamental tools of learning (the 3 Rs)• To think critically and act responsibly.• To develop and strengthen home and family life.• To respect, understand, and live well with others.• To develop moral and spiritual values.• To understand and to cope with the physical world.• To grow in appreciation of the arts and in desire and ability to express oneself creatively through various media.• To develop interest and skill in worthwhile leisure-time activities.• To develop understanding of and respect for the cultural heritage.• To develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and understanding essential for earning a living.• To develop consumer effectiveness.• To appreciate the duties, responsibilities, and privileges of citizenship. Page 11 Module: DTES1 4/10/11 (Cincinnati Board of Education)
‘Some say that education should……promote the growth of understanding for its own sake. Others that it should help each child to develop his potentialities to the full. Some see „individuality‟ or „personal autonomy‟ as of first importance. Some believe in all-round development, in a balance between the arts and the sciences; others put more emphasis on excellence within specialisms. Others again, speak of the needs of society, of ensuring a literate and numerate workforce, or an intelligent participatory democracy. Some stress art and culture, others moral character: the list of aims is endless.‟White, J. (1982). The Aims of Education Restated. London: Routledge Page 12 Module: DTES14/10/11
ReferencesBartlett, S. and Burton, D. (2010), Introduction to Education Studies (2nd edition). London: SageBruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education. Harvard University PressMatheson, D. (ed) (2008), An Introduction to the Study of Education. London: RoutledgeWhite, J. (1982). The Aims of Education Restated. London: Routledge Page 13 Module: DTES14/10/11
Self Directed StudyBefore:• Bartlett, S., 2007, Introduction to Education Studies (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications. Chapter 2: The nature of education.• Matheson, D., 2008, An introduction to the study of education (3rd ed.). London: David Fulton. Chapter 1: What is education? Chapter 2: Ideology in education in the United Kingdom.After:• Bartlett ch. 4: A modern history of schooling.• Matheson ch. 12: A brief history of state intervention in British schooling Page 14 Module: DTES14/10/11
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