Serving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Part 2)Presentation Transcript
Dr. Lesley Farmer,
for Youth with ASD, Part 2:
Resources and instructional
strategies for youth with ASD
Identify print resources that work well with youth having
Identify digital resources that work well with youth having
Discuss effective reading strategies for youth with ASD.
Discuss effective instructional strategies for youth with
Discuss effective learning activities for youth with ASD.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
5 developmental disorders: Autistic Disorder, Rett’s
Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder,
Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Development
Symptoms can range from mild to extreme
Children manifest symptoms of this group of
disorders either at birth (early infantile autism) or by
the age of three (regressive autism)
More boys than girls are affected by autism,
although diagnosed girls tend to have more severe
behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 1994)
Sensory system for people with autism differs from
others; body language may also differ
accessible formats and methods, such
as ADA-compliant web pages.
Keep processes simple, clear, intuitive.
Provide choice and flexibility in seating,
resources, interaction, pacing.
Encourage positive communication and
Address full scope of deficits.
Remember developmental sequences of
physical, communication, social skills.
Keep child close to instructional area.
Use speech and gestures.
Be explicit and literal.
Avoid libraryese and library idioms.
Take advantage of teachable moments.
Reduce behavior incompatible with learning.
Jan prefers non-fiction because fiction forces his
thoughts to go beyond the literal.
Michael loves Harry Potter, and has read the series
Sean runs around the room when the librarian is telling
the story, but he understands it.
Karen has read all of the library’s biographies.
Miguel rocks gently while poetry is read aloud.
Tommy enjoys punching his favorite phrase on a story
available on the iPad, the VoiceOver app provide a
gesture-based screen reader.
Predictable books: chain, cumulative, Q/A,
pattern, repeated phrase
Formulaic stories and series
Non-fiction (might just look at pictures)
Rhymes and songs
Motor skills books
Visual discrimination and wordless books
NF graphic novels
Make Print Resources Accessible
Stabilize (laminate, clip, make lay flat).
Make more familiar and or concrete.
Add sensory experience.
Provide props and realia.
sounding out words
Limited experiences and vocabulary
Difficulty determining main idea
Not motivated to share reading
Note: hyperlexia (decode without meaning)
games: MadLibs, Pictionary, etc.
Softly beating time to poetry
Thematic word walls with image cues
Modeling think-aloud reading strategies
Retelling and dramatizing stories
Creating picture (and other) books
unique defined space (carpet squares)
Have fidget toys
Do opening and closing rituals
Have predictable rules for behavior
Repeat a story/song/poem from prior session
Incorporate visuals and props (multi-sensory)
Provide alternative ways to participate
Designate a story hour buddy
Don’t expect response
Advantages of Tech Aids
Provides a variety of input options and info
Can be used repeatedly
Can be highly structured with discrete stimuli
Can be very predictable and patient
Usually doesn’t require high social skills
Digital tablets (iPad, etc.)
Mobile apps (Squidalicious)
Low End Assistive Tech
Manila file folders
Highlight tape, etc.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Battery operated devices or
"simple" electronic devices
Big Mack recorder
Communication boards with
symbols (e.g., Boardmaker,
Voice output devices
Cameras (still and video)
Animated Speech Software
Narrative comprehension, story retelling
and language skills development
(Grades Pre-K to 3)
Curriculum-based vocabulary primer
(Grades grades K-4)
Timo’s Lesson Creator
Create your own vocabulary lessons
Timo Vocabulary Activities
See – Say – Read - Spell
(This lesson uses
Includes activities to
Introduce new words
images with words
words with a
recording feature for
Video and Animation Training
Matching Technology with Child
and Learning Objective
most stable, low-tech solution
Can child manipulate the technology
independently and comfortably?
Does the technology support content and
Is the technology manageable in inclusive
What is the time frame required?
Note: tech engagement ≠ learning
Employ universal design principles.
Scaffold learning using technology.
Photograph steps, people, concepts.
Use visual rather than auditory stimulation.
Use videotapes and CD/DVDs of a book that
replicates the original, and used with the print
Show video clips that demonstrate positive
behaviors in very concrete detail.
Use software/web tutorials to teach skills (e.g.,
Reader Rabbit, MathBlaster, Timo)
AAC: Augmentative and
Exchange Communication System
Voice-output communication systems
Library-specific vocabulary board
objective and concrete benefit
Do step-by-step processes
Use presentation tools
Incorporate a variety of senses
Provide visual cues
Give concrete examples
Give study guides
Model and reinforce correct responses
Discrete Trial Training
objective, antecedent, behavior, and
criterion for mastery: e.g., find correct book
Analyze skill and clarify sequence of steps
Record effort, behavior, interfering behavior
Build in discriminating training
tasks that require several people
Identify different roles and skills
Integrate independent work (e.g., research)
Teach group processing skills
Incorporate social stories and task cards
Keep group members and vary roles (or v.v.)
on prior knowledge and skills so may
be hard (leverage youth’s interests)
Connections between two concepts or
experiences may be personal
Hard to develop new patterns (can sort into
May arrive at unique conclusions (have
difficulty with cause and effect)
simple, well-labelled handouts.
Use calming light and muted colors.
Minimize visual distractions.
Face the group.
Write in large letters in high contrast.
Place a black surface under worksheets.
Use closed captioning.
Create vocabulary cards that include image.
Do visual detail activities.
humor, irony may be difficult
Paralinguistics (tone, stress) may be difficult
Ask binary questions: Did he eat a cake or a
Ask literal discrete questions.
Teach “wh” questions.
Provide structured sentence templates.
Use graphic organizers.
Echolalia and Perseveration
echo/repeat same word/phrase
Perseveration: repeat phrase after stimulus
“trigger”: interaction, selfregulation, drawing attention, resisting
Assure and teach support
play, learning, and reading
Ask youth to serve as subject/process expert
Use library processes to teach social skills:
circulation, book handling, circle time, lining
Games teach coordination, social interaction,
pattern recognition, memory, literacy
Focus on effort and mastery rather than
Balance repetition and variety
“If you’ve met one person with autism,
you’ve met one person with autism.”