1

Introducing RDA
January 29th, 2014
Chris Oliver
McGill University
chris.oliver@mcgill.ca
2

Plan
not a training session
aim: understand some of the key differences between RDA
and AACR2 --- to make training sess...
3

1. Transition to RDA
4

AACR2
 successful standard
 adopted by many countries
 in use for many years

but
problems with AACR2
for example:
•...
5

RDA
 new metadata standard that replaces AACR2
 set of practical instructions

objectives:
• address problems and lim...
6

Timeline
1997

problems identified:
International Conference on the Principles &
Future Development of AACR, Toronto, O...
7

March 31st, 2013
official start of implementation

Library of Congress
LC’s official implementation date
Program for Co...
8

What happened on March 31, 2013?
• all new authority records contributed to LC/NACO authority file

= RDA
• all records...
9

March 31, 2013 onwards
• landscape began changing quickly
• rapid rise in number of RDA bibliographic records
• changes...
10

Transition in phases
Phase 1: emphasis on continuity
RDA data in MARC 21
RDA and AACR records in one catalogue
still u...
11

Phase 1 = starting down new track
RDA
• moves us to a new track
• starts us on a promising

track for the future use o...
12

2. Key concepts in RDA
13

AACR2

RDA

• continue to record the title
• continue to record the statement of responsibility
• continue to record t...
14

Similar, but ...
AACR2
1.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item.
Use abbreviations as instructed i...
15

Similar, but ...
• serious adherence to the principle of representation

“take what you see”

t.p.

data recorded

3rd...
16

AACR2

stones
plus
framework
17

AACR2 deconstructed

without the
framework
18

RDA

stones
plus

new
framework
19

RDA: similarities & differences
AACR2 deconstructed
new concepts and structure
some new instructions
some changed inst...
20

Familiarity with key RDA concepts
• many of the differences between RDA and AACR2 trace back to

the key concepts in R...
21

2. Key concepts in RDA
a) theoretical framework
22

RDA’s theoretical framework
• aligned with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models

FRBR

Functional Requirements for Bibl...
23

The two models
• widely used data modeling technique:

entity relationship model
• entities
• attributes
• relationshi...
24

FRBR/FRAD and RDA
• focus on user and how the data helps a user in the process of

resource discovery
• vocabulary

fo...
25

Bibliographic entities
work
expression
manifestation
item

FRBR Group 1
products of intellectual or artistic
endeavor
...
26

1 resource – 4 entities
• an item
• an exemplar of the Oxford

1998 manifestation
• an embodiment of the

original Eng...
27

Organization and Structure of RDA
RDA table of contents reflects alignment with FRBR
Section 1-4 = Recording attribute...
28

Organization and Structure of RDA
Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships

Section 5.

Recording primary relationships...
29

Attributes
• attributes = characteristics of the entity

for example, entity = person
attributes we record: name
date ...
30

Relationships: links between entities
work
item
manifestation

work
manifestation
person
family

created by
owned by
p...
31

Example of person to resource
relationships
resource

relationship

person

__________________________________________...
32

Example of work to work relationships
Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet.
subject
Modern Hamlets & their soliloqu...
33

Relationship designators
• specify roles (person, family, or corporate body – resource)

for example

cartographer
per...
34

Relationships in RDA
examples with MARC 21 coding:
245 10 $a British Atlantic, American frontier : $b spaces of power ...
35

Theoretical framework
• alignment with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models
• bibliographic and authority data

>>> in ...
Why are the models important?
broad international support for the explanatory
power of the models
common international lan...
37

2. Key concepts in RDA
b) objectives and principles
38

RDA Objectives & Principles
• important part of RDA
• shaped many of the instructions that are different from AACR2
• ...
39

RDA Objectives & Principles
Objectives

RDA 0.4.2

Principles

• responsiveness to user

• differentiation

needs
• co...
40

Principle of representation
for example RDA 0.4.3.4
principle = representation
The data describing a resource should r...
41

RDA = Take what you see
source =
AACR2 =
RDA =

Kemptville, Ontario
Kemptville, Ont.
Kemptville, Ontario
264 1 $a Kemp...
42

RDA = Take what you see
source =
Third revised edition
AACR2 =
3rd rev. ed.
RDA =
Third revised edition
______________...
43

Different instructions
AACR2
1.0F. Inaccuracies
In an area where transcription from the item is required,
transcribe a...
44

Inaccuracy in RDA
• make a note correcting the inaccuracy if considered important

for identification or access (see 2...
45

RDA = Take what you see
title page
(book)

= Melallization of polymers

AACR2

= Melallization [sic] of polymers
or Me...
46

2. Key concepts in RDA
c) focus on the user
47

RDA Objectives & Principles
Objectives

RDA 0.4.2

Principles

• responsiveness to user

• differentiation

needs
• co...
48

Focus on the user
how do I respond to user needs?

record data that is important to the user
why is it important?
help...
49

Resource discovery = user tasks
Bibliographic data

Authority data

from FRBR

from FRAD

• find

• find

• identify

...
50

Basis for cataloger judgment
• instructions encourage cataloger judgment

--- based on user tasks
for example, from 3....
51

Easier for user to identify
AACR2

RDA

Description: [37] p. : col. ill. ;
28 cm.

Description: 37 unnumbered
pages : ...
52

Easier for user to understand
AACR2

RDA

Title: Architecture / by Susan
Brown … [et al.].

Title: Architecture / by S...
53

Easier for user to find, identify
RDA:

no more: rule of three

no more … [et al.] in description
if statement of resp...
54

Easier for user to find, identify
AACR2

RDA

Seeking the sacred / in
conversation with Thomas
Moore … [et al.].

Seek...
55

Easier for user to find
AACR2

Aesop’s fables. Polyglot.

RDA

Aesop’s fables. Greek
Aesop’s fables. Latin
Aesop’s fab...
56

2. Key concepts in RDA
d) content standard
e) bibliographic information
as data
57

Poll
Have you heard of:
• semantic web
• linked data or linked open data
• “BIBFRAME” or bibliographic framework initi...
58

2. Key concepts in RDA
d) content standard
59

RDA as a content standard
AACR2: MARC encoding + ISBD display

RDA = what data should the cataloger record?
• possible...
60

RDA as a content standard
RDA= instructions on recording data
not tied to one encoding practice
RDA= record person’s d...
61

RDA as a content standard
RDA= instructions on recording data
not tied to one display of data
for example, create disp...
62

Identifying the entity
either

eye-readable data:

name
date of birth and death
Shields, Carol, 1953-2003

and/or
mach...
63

Visible data
• users expect that

all metadata is on the web

library data needs to be visible on the
web
BUT
• online...
64

RDA as a content standard
• not locked into library encoding practices
• not locked into library display practices
• g...
65

2. Key concepts in RDA
e) bibliographic information
as data
66

RDA data = precise + usable data
RDA
• each element of data is distinct and precisely defined
• each element contains ...
67

AACR2
for example
AACR2: information embedded in non-specific places
notes
physical description
MARC 538
516
500
300

...
68

RDA
RDA: precise elements and element sub-types
digital file characteristics
file type
encoding format
file size
resol...
69

347 Digital file characteristics
new MARC field 347
subfield codes
$a - File type (R)
$b - Encoding format (R)
$c - Fi...
70

AACR2 information
AACR2:

assume human will decipher
ok to be ambiguous

AACR2:

date of publication, distribution, et...
71

RDA data elements
RDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an element

RDA:

5 different elements:
RDA 2.7-2.1...
72

Controlled vocabulary
• controlled vocabulary recommended for many elements

encoding format

DAISY, CD audio, MP3, Ac...
73

Many new elements
many new elements but do not have to use them all
core elements
• not a level of description

• core...
74

Phase 1: RDA using MARC
Bibliographic description:
• core elements (RDA core, LC-PCC core)
• new MARC fields
• simplif...
75

AACR2: simple book

(abbreviated)

020
$a 9780230242685 (hardback)
100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945245 10 $a John K...
76

RDA: simple book

(abbreviated)

020
$a 9780230242685 (hardback)
100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945- $e author.
245 1...
77

AACR2: sound disc

(abbreviated)

100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael.
245 10 $a End games $h[sound recording] / $c Michael Dibdi...
78

RDA: audio disc

(abbreviated)

100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael, $e author.
240 10 $a End games. $h Spoken word
245 10 $a End...
79

AACR2: compilation

(abbreviated)

100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.
240 10 $a Selections. $f 2009
245 10 $a Favorite play...
80

RDA: compilation

(abbreviated)

100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.
240 10 $a Works. $k Selections. $f 2009
245 10 $a Favor...
81

Key concepts
Key concepts shape RDA:
• theoretical framework
• objectives and principles
• focus on the user
• content...
82

Familiarity with key RDA concepts
• a useful way to grab hold of RDA
83

Flickr credits: creative commons attribution
Cross track – iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmit
http://www.flickr.com/photos...
84

Questions …

?
chris.oliver@mcgill.ca
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  • Fallingwater Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Objectives 0.4.2.1Responsiveness to User NeedsThe data should enable the user to:find resources that correspond to the user's stated search criteriafind all resources that embody a particular work or a particular expression of that workfind all resources associated with a particular person, family, or corporate bodyfind all resources on a given subjectfind works, expressions, manifestations, and items that are related to those retrieved in response to the user's searchfind persons, families, and corporate bodies that correspond to the user's stated search criteriafind persons, families, or corporate bodies that are related to the person, family, or corporate body represented by the data retrieved in response to the user’s searchidentify the resource described (i.e., confirm that the resource described corresponds to the resource sought, or distinguish between two or more resources with the same or similar characteristics)identify the person, family, or corporate body represented by the data (i.e., confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity sought, or distinguish between two or more entities with the same or similar names, etc.)select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s requirements with respect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and the formatting and encoding of information stored on the carrierselect a resource appropriate to the user's requirements with respect to form, intended audience, language, etc. obtain a resource (i.e., acquire a resource through purchase, loan, etc., or access a resource electronically through an online connection to a remote computer)understand  the relationship between two or more entitiesunderstand  the relationship between the entity described and a name by which that entity is known (e.g., a different language form of the name)understand why a particular name or title has been chosen as the preferred name or title for the entity.0.4.2.2Cost EfficiencyThe data should meet functional requirements for the support of user tasks in a cost-efficient manner.0.4.2.3Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.0.4.2.4Continuity The data should be amenable to integration into existing databases (particularly those developed using AACR and related standards).Differentiation The data describing a resource should differentiate that resource from other resources.The data describing an entity associated with a resource should differentiate that entity from other entities, and from other identities used by the same entity.0.4.3.2Sufficiency The data describing a resource should be sufficient to meet the needs of the user with respect to selection of an appropriate resource.0.4.3.3Relationships The data describing a resource should indicate significant relationships between the resource described and other resources.The data describing an entity associated with a resource should reflect all significant bibliographic relationships between that entity and other such entities.0.4.3.4Representation The data describing a resource should reflect the resource’s representation of itself.The name or form of name designated as the preferred name for a person, family, or corporate body should be the name or form of name most commonly found in resources associated with that person, family, or corporate body, or a well-accepted name or form of name in the language and script preferred by the agency creating the data. Other names and other forms of the name that are found in resources associated with the person, family, or corporate body or in reference sources, or that the user might be expected to use when conducting a search, should be recorded as variant names.The title designated as the preferred title for a work should be the title most frequently found in resources embodying the work in its original language, the title as found in reference sources, or the title most frequently found in resources embodying the work. Other titles found in resources embodying the work or in reference sources, or that the user might be expected to use when conducting a search, should be recorded as variant titles.0.4.3.5Accuracy The data describing a resource should provide supplementary information to correct or clarify ambiguous, unintelligible, or misleading representations made on sources of information forming part of the resource itself.0.4.3.6Attribution The data recording relationships between a resource and a person, family, or corporate body associated with that resource should reflect attributions of responsibility made either in the resource itself or in reference sources, irrespective of whether the attribution of responsibility is accurate.0.4.3.7Common Usage or PracticeData that is not transcribed from the resource itself should reflect common usage in the language and script preferred by the agency creating the data.The part of the name of a person or family used as the first element in recording the preferred name for that person or family should reflect conventions used in the country and language most closely associated with that person or family.0.4.3.8Uniformity The appendices on capitalization, abbreviations, order of elements, punctuation, etc., should serve to promote uniformity in the presentation of data describing a resource or an entity associated with a resource.
  • Objectives 0.4.2.1Responsiveness to User NeedsThe data should enable the user to:find resources that correspond to the user's stated search criteriafind all resources that embody a particular work or a particular expression of that workfind all resources associated with a particular person, family, or corporate bodyfind all resources on a given subjectfind works, expressions, manifestations, and items that are related to those retrieved in response to the user's searchfind persons, families, and corporate bodies that correspond to the user's stated search criteriafind persons, families, or corporate bodies that are related to the person, family, or corporate body represented by the data retrieved in response to the user’s searchidentify the resource described (i.e., confirm that the resource described corresponds to the resource sought, or distinguish between two or more resources with the same or similar characteristics)identify the person, family, or corporate body represented by the data (i.e., confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity sought, or distinguish between two or more entities with the same or similar names, etc.)select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s requirements with respect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and the formatting and encoding of information stored on the carrierselect a resource appropriate to the user's requirements with respect to form, intended audience, language, etc. obtain a resource (i.e., acquire a resource through purchase, loan, etc., or access a resource electronically through an online connection to a remote computer)understand  the relationship between two or more entitiesunderstand  the relationship between the entity described and a name by which that entity is known (e.g., a different language form of the name)understand why a particular name or title has been chosen as the preferred name or title for the entity.0.4.2.2Cost EfficiencyThe data should meet functional requirements for the support of user tasks in a cost-efficient manner.0.4.2.3Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.0.4.2.4Continuity The data should be amenable to integration into existing databases (particularly those developed using AACR and related standards).Differentiation The data describing a resource should differentiate that resource from other resources.The data describing an entity associated with a resource should differentiate that entity from other entities, and from other identities used by the same entity.0.4.3.2Sufficiency The data describing a resource should be sufficient to meet the needs of the user with respect to selection of an appropriate resource.0.4.3.3Relationships The data describing a resource should indicate significant relationships between the resource described and other resources.The data describing an entity associated with a resource should reflect all significant bibliographic relationships between that entity and other such entities.0.4.3.4Representation The data describing a resource should reflect the resource’s representation of itself.The name or form of name designated as the preferred name for a person, family, or corporate body should be the name or form of name most commonly found in resources associated with that person, family, or corporate body, or a well-accepted name or form of name in the language and script preferred by the agency creating the data. Other names and other forms of the name that are found in resources associated with the person, family, or corporate body or in reference sources, or that the user might be expected to use when conducting a search, should be recorded as variant names.The title designated as the preferred title for a work should be the title most frequently found in resources embodying the work in its original language, the title as found in reference sources, or the title most frequently found in resources embodying the work. Other titles found in resources embodying the work or in reference sources, or that the user might be expected to use when conducting a search, should be recorded as variant titles.0.4.3.5Accuracy The data describing a resource should provide supplementary information to correct or clarify ambiguous, unintelligible, or misleading representations made on sources of information forming part of the resource itself.0.4.3.6Attribution The data recording relationships between a resource and a person, family, or corporate body associated with that resource should reflect attributions of responsibility made either in the resource itself or in reference sources, irrespective of whether the attribution of responsibility is accurate.0.4.3.7Common Usage or PracticeData that is not transcribed from the resource itself should reflect common usage in the language and script preferred by the agency creating the data.The part of the name of a person or family used as the first element in recording the preferred name for that person or family should reflect conventions used in the country and language most closely associated with that person or family.0.4.3.8Uniformity The appendices on capitalization, abbreviations, order of elements, punctuation, etc., should serve to promote uniformity in the presentation of data describing a resource or an entity associated with a resource.
  • Oliver: Introducing RDA

    1. 1. 1 Introducing RDA January 29th, 2014 Chris Oliver McGill University chris.oliver@mcgill.ca
    2. 2. 2 Plan not a training session aim: understand some of the key differences between RDA and AACR2 --- to make training sessions easier 1. transition to RDA 2. key concepts and their visible impact on RDA a) theoretical framework b) objectives and principles c) focus on the user d) content standard e) bibliographic information as data
    3. 3. 3 1. Transition to RDA
    4. 4. 4 AACR2  successful standard  adopted by many countries  in use for many years but problems with AACR2 for example: • written for card catalogues • inadequate rules to describe new types of resources • inconsistencies • library specific
    5. 5. 5 RDA  new metadata standard that replaces AACR2  set of practical instructions objectives: • address problems and limitations in AACR2 • record better metadata to support better resource discovery • record data for the web and linked data environment • record data that allows us to connect beyond the library community
    6. 6. 6 Timeline 1997 problems identified: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR, Toronto, Ontario 1998-2004 revisions to AACR2 2004 AACR3 2005 new standard: Resource Description and Access 2009 RDA text completed 2010 RDA text + software – standard is a web tool 2010-2013 laying the groundwork for implementation
    7. 7. 7 March 31st, 2013 official start of implementation Library of Congress LC’s official implementation date Program for Cooperative Cataloging Day 1 for the NACO Authority File ... but some libraries had never stopped using RDA after the test period ended December 31, 2010
    8. 8. 8 What happened on March 31, 2013? • all new authority records contributed to LC/NACO authority file = RDA • all records coded pcc = all RDA access points all records coded pcc whether: • RDA description or • AACR2 description • LC completed training for all its cataloging staff and all LC records are only RDA records
    9. 9. 9 March 31, 2013 onwards • landscape began changing quickly • rapid rise in number of RDA bibliographic records • changes in NACO authority file implications if use NACO authority records implications for copy cataloging • but different institutions will make the transition at different speeds
    10. 10. 10 Transition in phases Phase 1: emphasis on continuity RDA data in MARC 21 RDA and AACR records in one catalogue still use bibliographic and authority records some new fields some changed instructions some new instructions BUT >>> thinking about bibliographic information differently
    11. 11. 11 Phase 1 = starting down new track RDA • moves us to a new track • starts us on a promising track for the future use of our metadata • what we see now is only the beginning
    12. 12. 12 2. Key concepts in RDA
    13. 13. 13 AACR2 RDA • continue to record the title • continue to record the statement of responsibility • continue to record the date of publication But … • new vocabulary • new way of thinking about how we do these steps • new underlying framework
    14. 14. 14 Similar, but ... AACR2 1.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item. Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals as instructed in appendix C. RDA 2.5.1.4. Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on the source of information. No instruction to abbreviate or to convert to arabic numerals.
    15. 15. 15 Similar, but ... • serious adherence to the principle of representation “take what you see” t.p. data recorded 3rd ed. 3rd ed. Second edition Second edition
    16. 16. 16 AACR2 stones plus framework
    17. 17. 17 AACR2 deconstructed without the framework
    18. 18. 18 RDA stones plus new framework
    19. 19. 19 RDA: similarities & differences AACR2 deconstructed new concepts and structure some new instructions some changed instructions
    20. 20. 20 Familiarity with key RDA concepts • many of the differences between RDA and AACR2 trace back to the key concepts in RDA • useful handholds to grasp RDA
    21. 21. 21 2. Key concepts in RDA a) theoretical framework
    22. 22. 22 RDA’s theoretical framework • aligned with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records 1998 FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data 2009 FRAD is an extension of the FRBR model • both models developed under the auspices of IFLA • broad base of international consensus and support
    23. 23. 23 The two models • widely used data modeling technique: entity relationship model • entities • attributes • relationships • analyze bibliographic and authority data from the point of view of how that data is used
    24. 24. 24 FRBR/FRAD and RDA • focus on user and how the data helps a user in the process of resource discovery • vocabulary for example entities – attributes – relationships the 11 bibliographic entities • clear and consistent underlying framework • reference point for future development
    25. 25. 25 Bibliographic entities work expression manifestation item FRBR Group 1 products of intellectual or artistic endeavor person family corporate body FRBR/FRAD Group 2 concept object event place FRBR Group 3 responsible for group 1 entities subjects (includes group 1 & 2)
    26. 26. 26 1 resource – 4 entities • an item • an exemplar of the Oxford 1998 manifestation • an embodiment of the original English expression • a realization of the work, Hamlet 4 aspects of the resource
    27. 27. 27 Organization and Structure of RDA RDA table of contents reflects alignment with FRBR Section 1-4 = Recording attributes Section 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and item Section 2. Recording attributes of work and expression Section 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Section 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place [placeholder]
    28. 28. 28 Organization and Structure of RDA Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships Section 5. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Section 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource Section 7. Recording subject relationships Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Section 9. Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places [placeholder] [placeholder]
    29. 29. 29 Attributes • attributes = characteristics of the entity for example, entity = person attributes we record: name date of birth entity = a manifestation attributes we record: title proper statement of responsibility edition statement place of publication etc.
    30. 30. 30 Relationships: links between entities work item manifestation work manifestation person family created by owned by produced by person family corporate body based on work electronic reproduction manifestation member of founded family corporate body
    31. 31. 31 Example of person to resource relationships resource relationship person _______________________________________________________________________________________ Hamlet author William Shakespeare How the light gets in author Louise Penny E. B. White on dogs editor of compilation Martha White Alice in Wonderland illustrator John Tenniel
    32. 32. 32 Example of work to work relationships Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet. subject Modern Hamlets & their soliloquies Critical responses to Hamlet, 1600-1900 imitation (parody of) The Tragicall historie of Shamlet, Prince of Denmark adaptation (based on) Hamlet : the young reader's Shakespeare : a retelling / by Adam McKeown
    33. 33. 33 Relationship designators • specify roles (person, family, or corporate body – resource) for example cartographer performer broadcaster former owner issuing body • specify the relationship between resources for example adaptation of paraphrased as electronic reproduction of
    34. 34. 34 Relationships in RDA examples with MARC 21 coding: 245 10 $a British Atlantic, American frontier : $b spaces of power in early modern British America / $c Stephen J. Hornsby ; with cartography by Michael J. Hermann. 700 1# $a Herman, Michael J., $e cartographer 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$c Hanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $i Parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland. authority record 500 3# $w r $i Descendant family: $a Adams (Family)
    35. 35. 35 Theoretical framework • alignment with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models • bibliographic and authority data >>> in terms of entities, attributes + relationships • identify what is important --- how is data used • systematic and coherent framework >>> conceptual clarity >>> logical consistency >>> reference point for further development
    36. 36. Why are the models important? broad international support for the explanatory power of the models common international language and conceptual understanding of the bibliographic universe as the foundation for a standard: • easier for others to understand our data • easier to apply in international context • easier for our data to interoperate
    37. 37. 37 2. Key concepts in RDA b) objectives and principles
    38. 38. 38 RDA Objectives & Principles • important part of RDA • shaped many of the instructions that are different from AACR2 • in line with the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)
    39. 39. 39 RDA Objectives & Principles Objectives RDA 0.4.2 Principles • responsiveness to user • differentiation needs • cost efficiency • flexibility • continuity RDA 0.4.3 • sufficiency • relationships • representation • accuracy • attribution • common usage or practice • uniformity
    40. 40. 40 Principle of representation for example RDA 0.4.3.4 principle = representation The data describing a resource should reflect the resource’s representation of itself. result = simplify transcription “Take what you see”
    41. 41. 41 RDA = Take what you see source = AACR2 = RDA = Kemptville, Ontario Kemptville, Ont. Kemptville, Ontario 264 1 $a Kemptville, Ontario _____________________________________________________ source = AACR2 = RDA = Band LXXXVIII (series numbering) Bd. 88 Band LXXXVIII 490 $a ... ; $v Band LXXXVIII
    42. 42. 42 RDA = Take what you see source = Third revised edition AACR2 = 3rd rev. ed. RDA = Third revised edition _____________________________________________ source = AACR2 = RDA = 2nd enlarged ed., revised 2nd enl. ed., rev. 2nd enlarged ed., revised
    43. 43. 43 Different instructions AACR2 1.0F. Inaccuracies In an area where transcription from the item is required, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears in the item. Follow such an inaccuracy either by [sic] or by i.e. and the correction within square brackets. Supply a missing letter or letters in square brackets. RDA 1.7.9 Inaccuracies When instructed to transcribe an element as it appears on the source of information, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears on the source, except where instructed otherwise.
    44. 44. 44 Inaccuracy in RDA • make a note correcting the inaccuracy if considered important for identification or access (see 2.20 ) • if inaccuracy in the title proper, record a corrected form of the title as a variant title Exception for serials or integrating resources: correct obvious typographic errors, and make a note
    45. 45. 45 RDA = Take what you see title page (book) = Melallization of polymers AACR2 = Melallization [sic] of polymers or Melallization [i.e. Metallization] of polymers RDA = Melallization of polymers 245 14 $a Melallization of polymers 246 1 $i Corrected title: $a Metallization of polymers
    46. 46. 46 2. Key concepts in RDA c) focus on the user
    47. 47. 47 RDA Objectives & Principles Objectives RDA 0.4.2 Principles • responsiveness to user • differentiation needs • cost efficiency • flexibility • continuity RDA 0.4.3 • sufficiency • relationships • representation • accuracy • attribution • common usage or practice • uniformity
    48. 48. 48 Focus on the user how do I respond to user needs? record data that is important to the user why is it important? helps the user to RDA 0.0 find identify select obtain “record data to support resource discovery”
    49. 49. 49 Resource discovery = user tasks Bibliographic data Authority data from FRBR from FRAD • find • find • identify • identify • select • clarify • obtain • understand Why record the data? To help user achieve these tasks.
    50. 50. 50 Basis for cataloger judgment • instructions encourage cataloger judgment --- based on user tasks for example, from 3.7 Applied material Record the applied material used in the resource if it is considered important for identification or selection …
    51. 51. 51 Easier for user to identify AACR2 RDA Description: [37] p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm. Description: 37 unnumbered pages : illustrations (color) ; 28 cm Description: 86, [21] p. : ill., port. : 24 cm. Description: 86 pages, 21 unnumbered pages : illustrations, portrait ; 24 cm • avoid abbreviations • avoid cryptic information
    52. 52. 52 Easier for user to understand AACR2 RDA Title: Architecture / by Susan Brown … [et al.]. Title: Architecture / by Susan Brown [and four others] Published: [S.l. : s.n.], 1852. Published: [Place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified], 1852.
    53. 53. 53 Easier for user to find, identify RDA: no more: rule of three no more … [et al.] in description if statement of responsibility names more than one person >>> record all RDA 2.4.1.5 optional omission: record first named and summarize the omission [and six others] access points for first named or principal or all or cataloger judgment or institutional policy core
    54. 54. 54 Easier for user to find, identify AACR2 RDA Seeking the sacred / in conversation with Thomas Moore … [et al.]. Seeking the sacred / in conversation with Thomas Moore, Marion Woodman, Roméo D’Allaire, Stephen Lewis, Martin Rutte. or Seeking the sacred / in conversation with Thomas Moore [and four others]. access point for first, or all access point for first
    55. 55. 55 Easier for user to find AACR2 Aesop’s fables. Polyglot. RDA Aesop’s fables. Greek Aesop’s fables. Latin Aesop’s fables. English Aesop’s fables. German AACR2 Aesop’s fables. English & German RDA Aesop’s fables. English Aesop’s fables. German
    56. 56. 56 2. Key concepts in RDA d) content standard e) bibliographic information as data
    57. 57. 57 Poll Have you heard of: • semantic web • linked data or linked open data • “BIBFRAME” or bibliographic framework initiative?
    58. 58. 58 2. Key concepts in RDA d) content standard
    59. 59. 59 RDA as a content standard AACR2: MARC encoding + ISBD display RDA = what data should the cataloger record? • possible to encode using many encoding systems • can be encoded using MARC • does not have to be encoded using MARC encoding • can be used with web friendly XML based encoding schema, such MODS • data for the linked open data environment • possible to encode and display the data in many ways
    60. 60. 60 RDA as a content standard RDA= instructions on recording data not tied to one encoding practice RDA= record person’s date of birth = 1982 Encode? $d 1982- MARC 21 <subfield code="d">1982- </subfield> MARCXML <mods:namePart type="date">1982- </mods:namePart> <dob>1982</dob> <xs:element name="rdaDateOfBirth“>1982</xs:element>
    61. 61. 61 RDA as a content standard RDA= instructions on recording data not tied to one display of data for example, create displays that suit your user group RDA says: record person’s date of birth = 1982 Display? born 1982 b. 1982 1982date of birth: 1982
    62. 62. 62 Identifying the entity either eye-readable data: name date of birth and death Shields, Carol, 1953-2003 and/or machine actionable data: identifier 0101A6635 http://viaf.org/viaf/4944537/#Shields,_Carol
    63. 63. 63 Visible data • users expect that all metadata is on the web library data needs to be visible on the web BUT • online catalog = closed database • invisible to web search engines “dark data” • MARC 21 = library specific record format • web cannot access and use MARC data • not used in other cultural heritage communities
    64. 64. 64 RDA as a content standard • not locked into library encoding practices • not locked into library display practices • get out of the library silo
    65. 65. 65 2. Key concepts in RDA e) bibliographic information as data
    66. 66. 66 RDA data = precise + usable data RDA • each element of data is distinct and precisely defined • each element contains only one kind of data • controlled vocabulary in many elements  each element has the potential to be usable: to index to search to build meaningful displays of data  data in any element can be used: by humans by computers
    67. 67. 67 AACR2 for example AACR2: information embedded in non-specific places notes physical description MARC 538 516 500 300 digital file characteristics file type encoding format file size resolution regional encoding transmission speed
    68. 68. 68 RDA RDA: precise elements and element sub-types digital file characteristics file type encoding format file size resolution regional encoding transmission speed RDA 3.19
    69. 69. 69 347 Digital file characteristics new MARC field 347 subfield codes $a - File type (R) $b - Encoding format (R) $c - File size (R) $d - Resolution (R) $e - Regional encoding (R) $f - Transmission speed (R)
    70. 70. 70 AACR2 information AACR2: assume human will decipher ok to be ambiguous AACR2: date of publication, distribution, etc. date of copyright date of manufacture MARC 21: 260 $c 260 $g
    71. 71. 71 RDA data elements RDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an element RDA: 5 different elements: RDA 2.7-2.11 date of production date of publication date of distribution date of manufacture date of copyright MARC 21: 264 $c 5 different indicators
    72. 72. 72 Controlled vocabulary • controlled vocabulary recommended for many elements encoding format DAISY, CD audio, MP3, Access, XML, JPEG, TIFF, CAD, PDF, Blu-ray, DVD video, VCD production method blueline, blueprint, engraving, etching, lithograph, photocopy, photoengraving, woodcut creator relationship artist, author, cartographer, choreographer, composer, enacting jurisdiction, interviewee, inventor
    73. 73. 73 Many new elements many new elements but do not have to use them all core elements • not a level of description • core elements are a minimum “a floor, not a ceiling” • must include any additional elements required to differentiate the resource or entity from a similar one • inclusion of other elements --- cataloger judgment
    74. 74. 74 Phase 1: RDA using MARC Bibliographic description: • core elements (RDA core, LC-PCC core) • new MARC fields • simplified instructions for transcription • some new instructions when recording data Authorized access points in bibliographic records: • LC/NACO authority file • some new instructions when identifying persons, families, corporate bodies, works and expressions Authority records: • NACO guidelines
    75. 75. 75 AACR2: simple book (abbreviated) 020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback) 100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfield and Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield. 260 $a New York : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c c2011. 300 $a xi, 251 p. ; $c 23 cm. 490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series 700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947-
    76. 76. 76 RDA: simple book (abbreviated) 020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback) 100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945- $e author. 245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfield and Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield. 264 1 $a New York : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c [2011] 264 4 $a ©2011 300 $a xi, 251 pages ; $c 23 cm. 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series 700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947- $e author.
    77. 77. 77 AACR2: sound disc (abbreviated) 100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael. 245 10 $a End games $h[sound recording] / $c Michael Dibdin. 260 $a Oxford, England : $b Isis Publishing Ltd., $c p2008. 300 $a 10 sound discs (11 hr., 15 min.) : $b digital ; $c 4 3/4 in. 500 $a Read by Michael Tudor Barnes. 500 $a Compact discs. 700 1 $a Barnes, Michael Tudor.
    78. 78. 78 RDA: audio disc (abbreviated) 100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael, $e author. 240 10 $a End games. $h Spoken word 245 10 $a End games / $c Michael Dibdin. 264 1 $a Oxford, England : $b Isis Publishing Limited, $c [2008] 264 4 $c ℗2008 300 $a 10 audio discs (11 hr., 15 min.) : $b CD audio, digital ; $c 4 3/4 in. 336 $a spoken word $2 rdacontent 337 $a audio $2 rdamedia 338 $a audio disc $2 rdacarrier 344 $a digital 347 $b CD audio 700 1 $a Barnes, Michael Tudor, $e narrator. 775 08 $i Adaptation of (expression): $a Dibdin, Michael. $t End games. ...
    79. 79. 79 AACR2: compilation (abbreviated) 100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee. 240 10 $a Selections. $f 2009 245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams. 260 0 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009. 300 $a 325 p. : $b ill. ; $c 28 cm 505 0 $a The Glass Menagerie -- A Streetcar Named Desire -- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof -- The Night of the Iguana.
    80. 80. 80 RDA: compilation (abbreviated) 100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee. 240 10 $a Works. $k Selections. $f 2009 245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams. 264 1 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009. 300 $a 325 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia 338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier 700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Glass menagerie. 700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Streetcar named Desire. 700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Cat on a hot tin roof. 700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Night of the Iguana. optional optional optional optional
    81. 81. 81 Key concepts Key concepts shape RDA: • theoretical framework • objectives and principles • focus on the user • content standard • bibliographic information as data >>> visible impact on RDA and the content of instructions >>> many changes in RDA trace back to concepts
    82. 82. 82 Familiarity with key RDA concepts • a useful way to grab hold of RDA
    83. 83. 83 Flickr credits: creative commons attribution Cross track – iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmit http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjschmit/4623783487/ Road-Side History by Owls Flight Photography http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevinhooa/2370449243/ Old stones of Bauda Byzantine ruins by Hovic http://www.flickr.com/photos/200000/2304353314/ Falling water by spike55151 http://www.flickr.com/photos/spike55151/14471574/ Rock climbing is fun by mariachily http://www.flickr.com/photos/mariachily/3382799213/ Oregon silo by TooFarNorth http://www.flickr.com/photos/toofarnorth/4597980984/
    84. 84. 84 Questions … ? chris.oliver@mcgill.ca

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