2What is RDA?RDA = Resource Description and Access• new metadata standard replaces AACR2• set of practical instructions• built on the foundation of a theoretical framework/data modelobjectives:• to record better metadata to support better resource discovery• to record data that can be used in the web and linked data environment
3Plannot a training sessionaim: overview of RDA understand some of the background and the key concepts --- to make training sessions easier1. moving towards RDA implementation2. key concepts and their visible impact on RDA a) theoretical framework b) objectives and principles c) focus on the user d) content standard e) bibliographic information as data
41. Moving towards RDA
5AACR2 successful standard adopted by many countries in use for many yearsbutproblems with AACR2 for example: • written for card catalogues • inadequate rules to describe new types of resources • inconsistencies • library specific
6Roots of RDA1997 problems identified: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR, Toronto, Ontario1998-2004 revisions to AACR2; revise within the existing structure2004 AACR32005 decision to develop a new standard: Resource Description and Access2005-2009 development of content for the new standard2009 text of RDA completed
7Moving towards RDA2010 first release of the RDA Toolkit (RDA plus)2010 US testing (US RDA Test Coordinating Committee)2011 some of the libraries who tested RDA decide to continue producing RDA records2011-2012 preparations for implementation - work on recommendations arising from US Test - community involvement2012 announcement from the Library of Congress -- target date for implementation: March 31, 2013
8Moving towards RDA2012 other national libraries are also planning to target the 1st quarter of 2013 as their RDA implementation date: National Agricultural Library National Library of Medicine British Library Library and Archives Canada National Library of Australia Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (mid 2013)2011- translation projects: German, French, Spanish, Chinese interest in RDA from non-AACR2 countries
9Is there a day 1? Yes and No1) day 1 is important for a sharing data environment: PCC: declares day 1 for contributing to NACO authorities LC: declares day 1 for its own cataloguing operations2) some institutions never switched back after the test3) each institution decides on day 1 for bibliographic data
10March 31, 2013• all new authority records contributed to LC/NACO authority file = RDA• all records coded pcc = all RDA access points all records coded pcc whether: • RDA description or • AACR2 description • LC will have completed training all its cataloging staff and all LC records will be RDA records
11by March 31, 2013• rapid rise in number of RDA bibliographic records• changes in LC/NACO authority file implications for authority work implications for copy cataloging
12 implementation -- not a singleinstant instant
13TransitionDifferent institutions will make the transition at different speedsOK to be in a hybrid environment: 1) hybrid database or catalogue √ AACR and RDA records in one catalogue or database 2) hybrid record √ AACR2 description and RDA access points
14Phase 1 of implementation emphasis on continuity RDA data in MARC 21 in current catalogues creating bibliographic and authority records some new fields some changed instructions some new instructionsBUT>>> thinking about bibliographic information differently
15Phase 1 = starting down new track RDA • continuity and change • moves us to a new track • starts us on a promising track for the future use of our metadata • useful to understand some of the key RDA concepts and see the long view
162. Key concepts in RDA
17AACR2 RDA• continue to record the title• continue to record the statement of responsibility• continue to record the date of publicationBut …• new vocabulary• new way of thinking about how we do these steps
18Similar, but ...AACR21.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item.Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals asinstructed in appendix C.RDA126.96.36.199. Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on thesource of information. No instruction to abbreviate or to convert to arabic numerals.
19Similar, but ... • serious adherence to the principle of representation “take what you see” t.p. data recorded 3rd ed. 3rd ed.Second edition Second edition
20On the surface …similar instructions but different frameworknew vocabularybut also new concepts
212. Key concepts in RDA Theoretical framework
22 RDA’s theoretical framework• explicit conceptual framework• aligned with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records 1998 FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data 2009 FRAD is an extension of the FRBR model• both models developed under the auspices of IFLA• broad base of international consensus and support
23The two models• widely used data modeling technique: entity relationship model • entities • attributes • relationships• analyze bibliographic and authority data from the point of view of how that data is used
24RDA vocabulary from FRBR + FRAD• user tasks• meaning and scope of the 11 bibliographic entities work person concept expression family object manifestation corporate body event item place• entities – attributes – relationships
25Organization and Structure of RDARDA table of contents reflects alignment with FRBRSection 1-4 = Recording attributesSection 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and itemSection 2. Recording attributes of work and expressionSection 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate bodySection 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place [placeholder]
26Organization and Structure of RDASections 5-10 = Recording RelationshipsSection 5. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and itemSection 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resourceSection 7. Recording subject relationships [placeholder]Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and itemsSection 9. Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodiesSection 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places [placeholder]
28Attributes• how to record the attributes of entities (characteristics) for example, entity = a manifestation attributes we record: title proper statement of responsibility edition statement place of publication etc.
29Relationships: links between entitieswork created by personitem owned by familymanifestation produced by corporate bodywork based on workmanifestation electronic reproduction manifestationperson member of familyfamily founded corporate body
30Relationships in RDA1. record relationship2. specify exact nature of the relationshipfor exampleAACR2 name of a person ------- title of book• type of relationship may be embedded in text of description• bibliographic record contains name of person and titleRDA name of a person --- type of relationship --- work• make the relationship explicit and clear• relationship designators = controlled vocabulary
31Relationship designators• specify roles for example cartographer performer broadcaster former owner issuing body• specify the nature of the relationship for example adaptation of paraphrased as electronic reproduction of
32Relationships in RDAexamples with MARC 21 coding:245 10 $a British Atlantic, American frontier : $b spaces of power in early modern British America / $c Stephen J. Hornsby ; with cartography by Michael J. Hermann.700 1# $a Herman, Michael J., $e cartographer245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, Whats a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$c Hanna-Barbera Productions.700 1# $i parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alices adventures in Wonderland.authority record500 3# $w r $i Descendant family: $a Adams (Family)
33Theoretical framework• alignment with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models• bibliographic and authority data >>> in terms of entities, attributes + relationships• identify what is important --- how is data used• systematic and coherent framework >>> conceptual clarity >>> logical consistency >>> reference point for further development
34Underlying data model>>> practical set of cataloguing instructions ● built on a theoretical framework ● built on a robust data model• widely used data modeling technique• understood by other metadata and data modeling communities e.g. software engineers, information systems and database designers
352. Key concepts in RDA Objectives and principles
36RDA Objectives & Principles• important part of RDA• shaped many of the instructions that are different from AACR2• concur with the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)
37RDA Objectives & Principles Objectives RDA 0.4.2 Principles RDA 0.4.3• responsiveness to user • differentiation needs • sufficiency• cost efficiency • relationships• flexibility • representation• continuity • accuracy • attribution • common usage or practice • uniformity
38Principle of representationfor example RDA 0.4.3.4 principle = representation The data describing a resource should reflect the resource’s representation of itself. result = simplify transcription “Take what you see”
39RDA = Take what you seesource = Kemptville, OntarioAACR2 = Kemptville, Ont.RDA = Kemptville, Ontario 264 1 $a Kemptville, Ontario_____________________________________________________source = Band LXXXVIII (series numbering)AACR2 = Bd. 88RDA = Band LXXXVIII 490 $a ... ; $v Band LXXXVIII
40RDA = Take what you seesource = Third revised editionAACR2 = 3rd rev. ed.RDA = Third revised edition_____________________________________________source = 2nd enlarged ed., revisedAACR2 = 2nd enl. ed., rev.RDA = 2nd enlarged ed., revised
41Different instructionsAACR2 1.0F. Inaccuracies In an area where transcription from the item is required, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears in the item. Follow such an inaccuracy either by [sic] or by i.e. and the correction within square brackets. Supply a missing letter or letters in square brackets.RDA 1.7.9 Inaccuracies When instructed to transcribe an element as it appears on the source of information, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears on the source, except where instructed otherwise.
42Inaccuracy in RDA1.7.9 continuedMake a note correcting the inaccuracy if it is considered to beimportant for identification or access (see 2.20 ).If the inaccuracy appears in a title, record a corrected form of thetitle as a variant title (see 2.3.6 ) if it is considered to be importantfor identification or access.Exception:188.8.131.52 Inaccuracies. When transcribing the title proper of a serialor integrating resource, correct obvious typographic errors, andmake a note giving the title as it appears on the source ofinformation (see 184.108.40.206 ) ...
43RDA = Take what you seetitle page = Melallization of polymersAACR2 = Melallization [sic] of polymers or Melallization [i.e. Metallization] of polymersRDA = Melallization of polymers 245 14 $a Melallization of polymers 246 1 $i Corrected title: $a Metallization of polymers
442. Key concepts in RDA Focus on the user
45RDA Objectives & Principles Objectives RDA 0.4.2 Principles RDA 0.4.3• responsiveness to user • differentiation needs • sufficiency• cost efficiency • relationships• flexibility • representation• continuity • accuracy • attribution • common usage or practice • uniformity
46Focus on the user• record data that is important to the user why is it important? helps the user to find identify select obtain
47Resource discovery = user tasksBibliographic data Authority data• find • find• identify • identify• select • clarify• obtain • understandWhy record the data? To help user achieve these tasks.
48Consistent focus on the user• RDA divided into 10 sections• each section begins with general guidelines• functional objectives and principles specific to the section Functional objectives = relationship between data and user tasks the data (recorded or formulated according to the instructions in that section) the user tasks
49 Example from Section 1Section 1= Recording attributes of manifestations & items1.2 Functional Objectives and PrinciplesThe data describing a manifestation or item should enable the user to:a) find manifestations and items that correspond to the user’s statedsearch criteriab) identify the resource described …c) select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s requirements with respect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and the formatting and encoding of information stored on the carrierd) obtain a resource …
50Basis for Cataloguer Judgment• instructions encourage cataloguer judgment --- based on user tasksfor example, from 3.7 Applied material Record the applied material used in the resource if it is considered important for identification or selection …
51Easier for user to identify• avoid abbreviations 300 $a 398 pages :$b illustrations ; $c 25 cm AACR2: 300 $a 398 p. :$b ill. ; $c 25 cm.• avoid square brackets 300 $a 48 unnumbered pages, 256 pages AACR2: 300 $a , 256 p.• replace Latin abbreviations 300 $a 48, that is, 96 pages AACR2: 300 $a 48 [i.e. 96] p.• avoid cryptic information 300 $a xiv, 179 pages (incomplete) AACR2: 300 $a xiv, 179 + p.
52Easier for user to find, identifyRDA: no more: rule of three no more … [et al.] in description if statement of responsibility names more than one person >>> record all RDA 220.127.116.11 optional omission: record first named and summarize the omission [and six others] access points for first named or principal core or all or cataloger judgment or institutional policy
53Easier for user to find, identifyRDA: record all authors; access points for all authors; define relationships with designators100 1 $a Berry, John W., $e author.245 10 $a Cross-cultural psychology : $b research and applications / $c John W. Berry, Ype H. Poortinga, Seger M. Breugelmans, Athanasios Chasiotis, David L. Sam.250 $a Third edition.264 1 $a Cambridge : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011.300 $a xxii, 626 pages ; $c 25 cm700 1 $a Poortinga, Ype H., $d 1939- $e author.700 1 $a Breugelmans, Seger M., $e author.700 1 $a Chasiotis, Athanasios, $e author.700 1 $a Sam, David L., $e author.
54Easier for user to understandRDA optional omission (18.104.22.168): more than three, omit and summarize core relationship = access point for first-named omit relationship designator100 1 $a Berry, John W.245 10 $a Cross-cultural psychology : $b research and applications / $c John W. Berry [and four others].250 $a Third edition.264 1 $a Cambridge : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011.300 $a xxii, 626 pages ; $c 25 cm
55Easier for user to findAACR2 Aesop’s fables. Polyglot.RDA Aesop’s fables. Greek Aesop’s fables. Latin Aesop’s fables. English Aesop’s fables. GermanAACR2 Aesop’s fables. English & GermanRDA Aesop’s fables. English Aesop’s fables. German
562. Key concepts in RDA Content standard
57RDA as a content standardAACR2: MARC encoding + ISBD displayRDA = what data should the cataloguer record?• possible to encode using many encoding systems • can be encoded using MARC • does not have to be encoded using MARC encoding • can be used with web friendly XML based encoding schema, such as Dublin Core, MODS• possible to display the data in many ways
58RDA as a content standardfor example, encode the data as required in your data-sharing environmentRDA says: record person’s date of birth = 1982Encode? $d 1982- MARC 21 <subfield code="d">1982- </subfield> MARCXML <mods:namePart type="date">1982- </mods:namePart> <dob>1982</dob> <xs:element name="rdaDateOfBirth“>1982</xs:element>
59RDA as a content standardfor example, create displays that suit your user group:RDA says: record person’s date of death = 2003Display? died 2003 d. 2003 - 2003 date of death: 2003
60Identifying the entityeither eye-readable data: name date of birth and death Shields, Carol, 1953-2003and/or machine actionable data: identifier 0101A6635 http://viaf.org/viaf/4944537/#Shields,_Carol
61RDA as a content standard• not locked into library encoding practices• not locked into library display practices• get out of the library silo >>> data visible on the web >>> data interacting with the data of other metadata communities
622. Key concepts in RDA Bibliographic information as data
63Data Elementselement = A word, character, or group of words and/or characters representing a distinct unit of bibliographic information.appears similar to AACR2 definition minus “forming part of an area” effect is quite different from AACR2each element is ≈ discrete ≈ precisely defined ≈ single attribute / single relationship
64AACR2for exampleAACR2: information embedded in non-specific places notes digital file characteristics physical description file type MARC 538 encoding format 516 file size 500 resolution 300 regional encoding transmission speed
65RDARDA: precise elements and element sub-types digital file characteristics RDA 3.19 file type encoding format file size resolution regional encoding transmission speed
66347 Digital File Characteristicsnew MARC field 347 subfield codes $a - File type (R) $b - Encoding format (R) $c - File size (R) $d - Resolution (R) $e - Regional encoding (R) $f - Transmission speed (R)
67AACR2 InformationAACR2: assume human will decipher ok to be ambiguousAACR2: date of publication, distribution, etc. date of copyright date of manufactureMARC 21: 260 $c 260 $g
68 RDA Data ElementsRDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an element RDA: 5 different elements: RDA 2.7-2.11 date of production date of publication date of distribution date of manufacture date of copyright MARC 21: 264 $c 5 different indicators
69Controlled vocabulary• controlled vocabulary recommended for many elements encoding format DAISY, MP3, Access, XML, JPEG, TIFF, CAD, PDF, Blu-ray, VCD production method blueline, blueprint, engraving, etching, lithograph, photocopy, photoengraving, woodcut base material Bristol board, canvas, cardboard, ceramic, glass, leather, paper, parchment, vellum
70RDA data = precise + usable dataRDA• each element is distinct and precisely defined• each element contains only one kind of data• controlled vocabulary in many elements each element has the potential to be usable: to index to search to build meaningful displays of data data in any element can be used: by humans by computers
71Many new elements many new elements but do not have to use them all core elements• not a level of description• core elements are a minimum “a floor, not a ceiling”• must include any additional elements required to differentiate the resource or entity from a similar one• inclusion of other elements --- cataloguer judgment
72Phase 1: RDA using MARCBibliographic description: • core elements (RDA core, LC/PCC core) • new MARC fields • simplified instructions for transcription • some new instructions when recording dataAuthorized access points in bibliographic records: • LC/NACO authority file • some new instructions when identifying persons, families, corporate bodies, works and expressionsAuthority records: • NACO guidelines
73AACR2: simple book (abbreviated)020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback)100 1 $a Stanfield, James Ronald, $d 1945-245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfield and Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield.260 $a Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c 2011.300 $a xi, 251 p. ; $c 23 cm.490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947-
74RDA: simple book (abbreviated)020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback)100 1 $a Stanfield, James Ronald, $d 1945- $e author.245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfield and Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield.264 1 $a Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c 2011.300 $a xi, 251 pages ; $c 23 cm.336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947- $e author.
75RDA: simple book (abbreviated)020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback)100 1 $a Stanfield, James Ronald, $d 1945- $e author.245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfield and Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield.264 1 $a Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c 2011.300 $a xi, 251 pages ; $c 23 cm.336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947- $e author.
77RDA: audiocassette (from PCC examples)100 1 $a Card, Orson Scott, $d 1951- $e author.240 10 $a Ships of Earth. $s Spoken word245 14 $a The ships of Earth / ǂc Orson Scott Card.264 1 $a [Ashland, Oregon] : ǂb Blackstone Audiobooks, ǂc 264 4 $c ℗2008300 $a 9 audiocassettes (approximately 13 hr.) : $b analog, Dolby processed ; $c 10 x 7 cm, 4 mm tape.336 $a spoken word $2 rdacontent337 $a audio $2 rdamedia338 $a audiocassette $2 rdacarrier511 0 $a Read by Stefan Rudnicki. Directed by Emily Janice Card.700 1 $a Rudnicki, Stefan, $d 1945- $e narrator.700 1 $a Card, Emily Janice, $e director.
78RDA: audiocassette (from PCC examples)100 1 $a Card, Orson Scott, $d 1951- $e author.240 10 $a Ships of Earth. $s Spoken word245 14 $a The ships of Earth / ǂc Orson Scott Card.264 1 $a [Ashland, Oregon] : ǂb Blackstone Audiobooks, ǂc 264 4 $c ℗2008300 $a 9 audiocassettes (approximately 13 hr.) : $b analog, Dolby processed ; $c 10 x 7 cm, 4 mm tape.336 $a spoken word $2 rdacontent337 $a audio $2 rdamedia338 $a audiocassette $2 rdacarrier511 0 $a Read by Stefan Rudnicki. Directed by Emily Janice Card.700 1 $a Rudnicki, Stefan, $d 1945- $e narrator.700 1 $a Card, Emily Janice, $e director.
79AACR2: compilation (abbreviated+made-up)100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.240 10 $a Selections. $f 2009245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams.260 0 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009.300 $a 325 p. : $b ill. ; $c 28 cm505 0 $a The Glass Menagerie -- A Streetcar Named Desire -- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof -- The Night of the Iguana.
80RDA: compilation (abbreviated+made-up)100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.240 10 $a Works. $k Selections. $f 2009245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams.264 1 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009.300 $a 325 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier505 0 $a The Glass Menagerie -- A Streetcar Named Desire -- Cat on a Hot Tin Roof -- The Night of the Iguana.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Glass menagerie.
81RDA: compilation (abbreviated+made-up)100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.240 10 $a Works. $k Selections. $f 2009245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams.264 1 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009.300 $a 325 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Glass menagerie.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Streetcar named Desire.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Cat on a hot tin roof.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Night of the Iguana.
82Key conceptsKey concepts shape RDA: • theoretical framework • objectives and principles • focus on the user • content standard • bibliographic information as data>>> visible impact on RDA and the content of instructions>>> many changes in RDA trace back to concepts
83Familiarity with key RDA concepts• a useful way to grab hold of RDA• a useful way to approach RDA implementation
84Flickr credits: creative commons attributionMonarch life cycle – 14 of 20 by SidPix (Sid Mosdell)http://www.flickr.com/photos/sidm/4813665260/Monarch life cycle – 20 of 20 by SidPix (Sid Mosdell)http://www.flickr.com/photos/sidm/4813666686/Cross track – iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmithttp://www.flickr.com/photos/cjschmit/4623783487/The roof continues by Martin Pettitthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mdpettitt/2521374167/Oregon silo by TooFarNorthhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/toofarnorth/4597980984/Rock climbing is fun by mariachilyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mariachily/3382799213/