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Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments
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Chris Oliver: RDA: Designed for Current and Future Environments

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  • 1. RDA Designed for current and future environments Chris Oliver McGill University chris.oliver@mcgill.ca
  • 2. Plan for the webinar 1. What is RDA? 2. RDA data  questions, comments 3. Bibliographic and authority data in new environments 4. Point of transition  questions, comments
  • 3. One of the key features: from RDA 0.1 RDA is designed to take advantage of the efficiencies and flexibility in data capture, storage, retrieval, and display made possible with new database technologies, but to be compatible as well with the legacy technologies still used in many resource discovery applications.  resource discovery in traditional catalogues and in new technological environments
  • 4. Designed for now and the future Now  designed to work in the current environment  compatible with AACR2 records  co-exist with AACR2 records in the same database Future  positioned to take advantage of new database structures  function in the semantic web  visible in the web alongside other types of metadata
  • 5. What is RDA? • relationship to AACR2 • new underlying framework
  • 6.  new metadata standard that replaces AACR2  data to support resource discovery  set of practical instructions built on the foundation of a theoretical framework  flexible and extensible framework to describe all types of resources  designed for now and the future
  • 7. Broader scope RDA 0.0 Purpose and scope RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery. versus AACR2 0.1 These rules are designed for use in the construction of catalogues and other lists in general libraries of all sizes.
  • 8. Relationship to AACR2 RDA 0.2 “instructions derived from AACR have been reworked”  instructions that originate from AACR2  instructions are reworded and organized differently  within a new theoretical framework every word has changed many instructions show visible continuity with AACR2
  • 9. AACR2 to RDA AACR2 deconstructed new concepts new structure new vocabulary some new instructions some changed instructions
  • 10. IFLA conceptual models FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records 1998 FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data 2009 FRSAD Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data approved 2010  FRAD and FRSAD are extensions of the FRBR
  • 11. FRBR + FRAD  based on the analysis of bibliographic and authority records  entity-relationship models  IFLA task forces  world-wide consultation  international consensus
  • 12. Why are the models important? 1. The models shape RDA: RDA 0.3.1 The FRBR and FRAD models provide RDA with an underlying framework that has the scope needed to support comprehensive coverage of all types of content and media, the flexibility and extensibility needed to accommodate newly emerging resource characteristics, and the adaptability needed for the data produced to function within a wide range of technological environments.  alignment with FRBR/FRAD enables RDA to achieve the objectives of comprehensiveness, extensibility and adaptability
  • 13. Why are the models important? 2. internationally shared conceptual model • broad international support for the explanatory power of the models • common international language and conceptual understanding of the bibliographic universe 3. entity-relationship model widely used data modeling technique understood by other metadata and data modeling communities e.g. software engineers, information systems and database designers
  • 14. Why are the models important? as the foundation for a standard:  provides a logically consistent underlying framework  makes it easier for other metadata communities to understand the structure of our data  makes it easier to apply in an international context  makes it easier for our data to interoperate with data modeled similarly • other data that aligns with a FRBR/FRAD model • other data that conforms to a similar entity-
  • 15. Explicit RDA data model  aligned with FRBR/FRAD models  ERD = entity relationship diagram in RDA Toolkit or available at: http://www.rdatoolkit.org/background
  • 16. Entities - attributes - relationships  new vocabulary  entity = the object of a user’s interest  entities that are of interest to someone who uses bibliographic and authority data RDA focuses on: bibliographic entities entities specific to authority control
  • 17. Bibliographic entities (FRBR/FRAD) work expression manifestation item person family corporate body concept object event place FRBR Group 1 products of intellectual or artistic endeavor FRBR Group 2 responsible for group 1 entities FRBR Group 3 subjects (includes group 1 & 2)
  • 18. Authority entities (FRAD) bibliographic entities name identifier controlled access point rules agency entities on which authority data is focused entities for authority control entities that determine the content and form of access points
  • 19. Authority entities (FRAD) bibliographic entities name identifier controlled access point rules agency entities on which authority data is focused entities for authority control entities that determine the content and form of access points
  • 20. Attributes  characteristics of the entity  data to be recorded about the entity examples of attributes: work: form of the work (genre), medium of performance, coordinates (map) … expression: language of the expression, scale, type of score … manifestation: publisher, date of publication, extent of the carrier … item: inscriptions, ownership, condition …
  • 21. Attributes examples of attributes: person: dates, titles of rank, office, gender, … family: type, dates, history, … corporate body: place, dates, address, … concept object event term place
  • 22. Relationships  link between one entity and another  basis for navigation and support collocation primary relationships: between work, expression, manifestation and item 3 other major types of relationships: 1. between a person, family or corporate body and a resource 2. between one resource and another resource 3. between a person, family or corporate body and another person, family or corporate body
  • 23. Examples of relationships expression translation of work manifestation embodiment of expression work created by person expression performed by person manifestation produced by corporate body work based on work manifestation electronic reprod. manifestation person member of family
  • 24. Organization and Structure of RDA  2 main parts Recording attributes sections 1-4 Recording relationships sections 5-10  Divided into 10 sections sections are organized according to the bibliographic entities
  • 25. Organization and Structure of RDA Section 1-4 = Recording attributes Section 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and item Section 2. Recording attributes of work and expression Section 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Section 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place [placeholder]
  • 26. Organization and Structure of RDA Sections 5-10 = Recording Relationships Section 5. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Section 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource Section 7. Recording the subject of a work [placeholder] Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Section 9. Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places [placeholder]
  • 27. Entities - attributes - relationships  not just a new vocabulary  new way of thinking about bibliographic and authority information data that a human can read and interpret that is machine actionable
  • 28. RDA data • RDA as a content standard • RDA data elements
  • 29. RDA = content standard RDA not an encoding standard not a presentation standard RDA what data do I record? RDA 0.4.2 Objectives 0.4.2.3 Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.
  • 30. RDA = content standard RDA data can be encoded using: • MARC 21 • encoding schema such as Dublin Core, MODS, and others • web friendly encoding schema based on XML RDA data can be presented using : • ISBD conventions • labelled display • newly developed display conventions • display conventions used in other metadata communities
  • 31. Examples in RDA examples show what the data should be: RDA 2.4.1.4 Recording Statements of Responsibility Transcribe a statement of responsibility in the form in which it appears on the source of information. Apply the general guidelines on transcription given under 1.7 . EXAMPLE by Walter de la Mare Fats Waller by Dr. Johnson by Sir Richard Acland by Alfred, Lord Tennyson by a Lady of Quality par Charles M. Schultz
  • 32. Examples in RDA RDA examples show what the data should be not how it should be displayed not how it should be encoded AACR2 2.1F1. Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to persons or bodies as instructed in 1.1F Shut up in Paris / by Nathan Sheppard Great Britain : handbook for travellers / by Karl Baedecker Vas-y, Charlie Brown / par Charles M. Schulz MARC 21 manual 245 $c statement of responsibility …
  • 33. Elements in RDA and AACR2 RDA element = A word, character, or group of words and/or characters representing a distinct unit of bibliographic information. AACR2 element = similar definition plus … and forming part of an area of the description.  AACR2 elements are organized and embedded into areas
  • 34. Elements in AACR2 AACR2: • data embedded in areas and long character strings • data in ambiguous elements  assumption is that a human will read and interpret information in record  cannot be used reliably to search or to limit a search  cannot be used for automated processing  cannot be used to generate a meaningful display
  • 35. RDA data elements  move away from: • paragraph style (ISBD areas) • data embedded in long character strings • data stored in ambiguous elements  move towards: • independent, separate units of data • precisely defined or “parsed” • each element contains data about a single attribute or a single relationship • increased use of controlled vocabulary
  • 36. RDA data elements  only one kind of data in an element AACR2: date of publication, distribution, etc. MARC 21: 260 $c RDA: 4 different elements: date of production date of publication date of distribution date of copyright day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment – data will still be ambiguous
  • 37. RDA data elements  remove ambiguity AACR2: 1.7B13. Dissertations • information embedded in a note • note about academic degree, granting institution or faculty and year degree granted RDA: 7.9.1 Recording Dissertation or Thesis Information • separate elements for: academic degree granting institution or faculty year degree granted • information that can be used by human or machine day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment – subfields for 502 already implemented
  • 38. RDA data elements  distinct and defined elements for each kind of data illustrative content encoding format different element production method for each type of sound content data applied material base material reduction ratio
  • 39. Elements in AACR2 AACR2: information embedded in “other physical details” (or a non-specific note) illustrative content encoding format other physical production method details sound content applied material MARC 300 $b base material reduction ratio
  • 40. RDA data elements  separated according to whether it is data about content or carrier illustrative content encoding format sound content production method applied material base material …  controlled vocabulary recommended for many elements aspect ratio: full screen, wide screen, mixed
  • 41. RDA data elements  distinct and defined elements for each kind of data = groundwork for the future illustrative content encoding format currently map to production method MARC 300 $b sound content applied material base material reduction ratio day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment – data will still be ambiguous
  • 42. Relationship designators  specify nature of relationships  specify roles e.g. cartographer performer broadcaster former owner  specify the nature of the relationship between resources e.g. adaptation of musical setting of paraphrased as
  • 43. Relationship designators  controlled vocabulary 4 appendices of relationship designators (3 in use, 1 is placeholder) Appendix I Relationship designators: relationships between a resource and persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with the resource Appendix J Relationship designators: relationships between works, expressions, manifestations and items Appendix K Relationship designators: relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies
  • 44. RDA data elements  still recording the same kind of information title edition date of publication  record in distinct data elements  record with more precision  data that a human can use  data that is machine actionable  each element has the potential to be used: - to search - to navigate - to retrieve - to build meaningful displays of data
  • 45. Identifiers from FRAD: entities are known by their names and/or are assigned identifiers RDA for example, to identify a person (core elements): title of the person date associated with the person other designation associated with the person identifier for the person (profession, occupation, field of activity can also be core when the name does not convey the idea of a person)
  • 46. Identifiers Identifier for the Person A character string uniquely associated with a person … that serves to differentiate that person from other persons.  name = more suitable for humans to read and interpret  identifier = more suitable for machines to make links  scope to use a URI as an identifier  URI = key component for linked data in the semantic web Tim Berners-Lee: principles for linked data
  • 47. Role of identifiers  recording attributes of entities RDA has element defined for recording the identifier of each bibliographic entity: item manifestation expression work person family corporate body
  • 48. Role of identifiers  use identifiers to reference relationships 1) to a related work, expression, manifestation or item e.g. 24.4 use one or more: an identifier an authorized access point a description (structured or unstructured) 2) to a related person, family or corporate body e.g. 25.4 use one or more: an identifier an authorized access point
  • 49. Questions, comments ? ? ?
  • 50. Bibliographic and authority data in new environments • RDA as “well-formed” metadata • RDA in new database structures • RDA data on the web
  • 51. Data elements  RDA elements in line with metadata conventions RDA Scope and Structure 5JSC/RDA/Scope/Rev/4 RDA Element Analysis 5JSC/RDA/Element analysis/Rev/3 in cover letter for RDA Scope and Structure: “The JSC is committed to ensuring that the metadata produced using RDA will be well-formed, i.e., instructions are provided on how to record the values of elements, controlled vocabularies are used where appropriate, and the overall structure is governed by a formal model.”
  • 52. RDA = “well-formed” metadata  instructions on how to record data for each element  controlled vocabulary is used as the value recorded in many elements  underlying model for the data = FRBR/FRAD model RDA uses the term “elements” Metadata models often use the term “properties” elements = properties
  • 53. RDA as metadata  elements can be defined in the way that the metadata community expects in RDA Element Analysis, analysis of the relationship between RDA elements and two metadata models: <indecs> Metadata Framework and DCMI Abstract Model e.g.classification of elements as: elements sub-elements element subtypes domains value surrogate
  • 54. RDA as metadata  explicit data model + elements that conform to metadata standards: • can be understood by other metadata and data modeling communities • can interoperate with data modeled similarly  lays the groundwork for use of RDA data in linked data systems of the future  work underway to define and declare RDA vocabularies for the semantic web (next session with Diane Hillman)
  • 55. Flexible and adaptable RDA as a content standard: RDA 0.4.2 Objectives 0.4.2.3 Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.
  • 56. Flexible and adaptable RDA not confined to one environment: RDA 0.4.2 Objectives 0.4.2.3 Flexibility The data should function independently of the format, medium, or system used to store or communicate the data. They should be amenable to use in a variety of environments.
  • 57. Flexible and adaptable RDA 0.3.1 Conceptual Models The FRBR and FRAD models provide RDA with an underlying framework that has the scope needed to support comprehensive coverage of all types of content and media, the flexibility and extensibility needed to accommodate newly emerging resource characteristics, and the adaptability needed for the data produced to function within a wide range of technological environments.
  • 58. RDA = content standard not locked into MARC 21 encoding not locked into MARC 21 record structure can be used with web-friendly encoding schema, based on XML can be used in new types of database structures
  • 59. RDA in XML  not an abstract goal for the future  US test will include testing RDA for descriptions encoded using Dublin Core and MODS  RDA Toolkit includes a section on schemas • download RDA element sets as XML schema core enhanced specialized universal
  • 60. RDA in XML
  • 61. RDA in XML
  • 62. RDA Core elements in XML
  • 63. RDA data • in existing database structures bibliographic records = description + access points + authority records – linked to access points + holdings records – linked to bib records diagram by Tom Delsey from his presentation to the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt, Germany, June 2nd, 2009: http://www.rda- jsc.org/docs/td20090602.pdf Bibliograph ic Authority Authority Holdings
  • 64. RDA data • newly emerging database structures e.g. object oriented database database mirroring FRBR/FRAD model cluster of data pertaining to each entity manifestation record + item record + work record + expression record + record for person, family, corporate body + relationships = links between the above entities
  • 65. illustration: from Tom Delsey’s presentation to the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt, Germany, June 2nd, 2009: http://www.rda-jsc.org/docs/td20090602.pdf
  • 66. AACR2 + MARC 21 for example name of a person ------- title of book AACR2 + MARC 21  type of relationship embedded in text of bibliographic description  bibliographic record contains name of person and title  may have an authority record that also ties together name of person and title of work
  • 67. AACR2 + MARC 21 bibliographic record for the animated film 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland.  record may or may not include text in a note that explains the relationship
  • 68. RDA  identify attributes of the resource  identify relationships • relationship between the resource and persons, families, corporate bodies • relationships to related works, expressions … • use relationship designators  relationship designators are not currently core elements, but RDA provides a way to specify the nature of the relationship
  • 69. RDA + MARC 21 for example name of a person ------- title of book RDA + MARC 21  type of relationship embedded in text of bibliographic description  bibliographic record contains name of person and title  may have an authority record that also ties together name of person and title of work  relationship designators in bibliographic records ($e, 4, i)
  • 70. RDA + MARC 21 bibliographic record 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $i parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland. suggested display of data : (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic data) Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? / Hanna-Barbera Productions. Parody of Carroll, Lewis, 1832-1898. Alice's adventures in Wonderland.
  • 71. RDA + MARC 21 bibliographic record 100 1# $a Verdi, Giuseppe, $d1813-1901. 245 10 $a Otello :$b in full score / $c Giuseppe Verdi. 700 1# $i Libretto based on (work) $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616. $t Othello. 787 08 $i reproduction of (manifestation) $a Verdi, Giuseppe, $d 1813-1901. $t Otello. $d Milan: Ricordi, c1913 day 1 implementation in MARC 21 environment – can record data about the type of the relationship
  • 72. RDA + MARC 21 authority record for a work: 100 1# $a Stoppard, Tom. $t Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead 500 1# $w r $i based on (work) $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616. $t Hamlet authority record for a person: 100 1# $a Clemens, Samuel, $d 1835-1910 500 ## $w r $i alternate identity $a Twain, Mark, $d 1835- 1910
  • 73. RDA + post MARC 21 for example name of a person ------- title of book RDA + post MARC 21 record environment  data about entities: “record” for person, work, expression (as needed), manifestation, item …  explicitly defined relationships between entities  explicitly defined relationships means that MARC record structure is no longer required
  • 74. Making library data visible User does not expect information silos:  users expect that all metadata is on the web  library data needs to be visible on the web  users do not ask whether the data they need comes from a library or a digital repository or an archive  library data should interact and co-exist with metadata of other cultural memory communities e.g. museums, archives, digital repositories, …
  • 75. Hidden data  online catalog = closed database ◦ abundance of metadata ◦ invisible to web search engines “dark data”  MARC 21 = library specific record format ◦ used in closed databases ◦ web cannot access and use MARC data ◦ many ILS cannot fully use MARC data ◦ not used in other cultural heritage communities
  • 76. Making library data visible  release library data from MARC 21 record structure  make library data available on the web ◦ use XML schema ◦ support use in semantic web with declared name spaces and registered vocabularies  library data that can be discovered by web search engines
  • 77. Making library data visible  release from MARC 21 record format also helps build connections to other communities • connecting with other cultural heritage communities • data that can function alongside data from other metadata communities
  • 78. Point of transition
  • 79. Us and our legacy data
  • 80. Where is the future?  data that enables machine-actionable processing of data  data that enables resource discovery on the web  data that can be stored and used in new database structures  data that can connect us with other communities
  • 81. Changing direction  make the point of transition as smooth as possible  emphasize continuity  begin to travel along a new track
  • 82. RDA moves us forward RDA … takes us from where we are moves us to a new track opens up possibilities for the future
  • 83. Images from Flickr Creative Commons attribution license Dinner train by Slideshow Bruce http://www.flickr.com/photos/springfieldhomer/956146 22/ Cross track – iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmit http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjschmit/4623783487/ Tracks by eirikref http://www.flickr.com/photos/eirikref/432088535/
  • 84. Thank you Questions, comments ? ? ? contact info: chris.oliver@mcgill.ca

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